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US Justice Department unclassified AIPAC espionage file ...

"The probe of Pentagon desk officer Larry Franklin also recalls a nadir in Israel's relations with its closest ally, the case of naval analyst Jonathan Pollard, jailed since the 1980s for spying for Israel. Do charges of "dual loyalty" or divided allegiance endanger American Jews? What of the contentions that neo-conservatlve Jews and the pro-Israel lobby exercise undue influence over American policy maklng?"



"For all Intents and purposes, Israel has secured effective control over.U.S. ,foreign policy in the Middle East. through various sophisticated means, including AIPAC's lobbying. as well as placing at the top decision making echelons right..wing Zionists who view Israels Interests from a Likud perspective, of course - as far more relevant than American interests, when the two do not converge. The Franklin affair has the potential of announcing the beginng of the end of this unquestionable control Israel has enjoyed for many years now."




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  • U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington, D. C. 20535 September 9,2009 MR. GRANT F. SMITH IRMEP CALVERT STATION POST OFFICE BOX 32041 WASHINGTON, DC 20007 FOIPA Request No.: 1135944- 000 Subject: AMERICAN ISRAEL PUBLIC AFFAIRS COMMITIEE (1999 OR EARLIER) Dear Mr. Smith: ~ This acknowledges receipt of your Freedom of Information-Privacy Acts (FOIPA) request to the FBI. The FOIPA number listed above has been assigned to your request. o For an accurate search of our records, please provide the complete name, alias, date and place of birth for the subject of your request. Any other specific data you could provide such as prior addresses, or employment information would also be helpful. If your subject is deceased, please include date and proof of death. o To make sure information about you is not released to someone else, we require your notarized signature or, in place of a notarized signature, a declaration pursuant 28 U.S.C. § 1746. For your convenience, the reverse side of this letter contains a form which may be used for this purpose. o If you want the FBI's Criminal Justice Information System (C..IIS) to perform a search for your arrest record, please follow the enclosed instructions in Attorney General Order 556-73. You must submit fingerprint impressions so a comparison can be made with the records kept by CJIS. This is to make sure your information is not released to an unauthorized person. We are searching the indices to our Central Records System for the information you requested, and will inform you of the results as soon as possible. o Processing delays have been caused by the large number of requests received by the FBI. We will process your rcquest(s) as soon as possible. Your request has been assigned the number indicated above. Please use this number in all correspondence with us. Your patience is appreciated. Very truly yours, David M. Hardy Section Chief, Record/lnformation Dissemination Section Records Management Division u.s. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington, D.C. 20535 September 7,2010 MR. GRANT F. SMITH IRMEP CALVERT STATION POST OFFICE BOX 32041 WASHINGTON, DC 20007 Subject: FRANKLIN, LAWRENCE A. ET AL. FOIPA No. 1135944- 002 Dear Mr. Smith: The enclosed documents were reviewed under the Freedom of Information/Privacy Acts (FOIPA), Title 5, United States Code, Section 552/552a. Deletions have been made to protect information which is exempt from disclosure, with the appropriate exemptions noted on the page next to the excision. In addition, a deleted page information sheet was inserted in the file to indicate where pages were withheld entirely. The exemptions used to withhold information are marked below and explained on the enclosed Form OPCA-16a: Section 552 D(b)(1) O(b)(2) D(b)(3) _ O(b)(4) D(b)(5) ~(b)(6) O(b)(7)(A) O(b)(7)(B) :8l(b)(7)(C) D(b)(7)(D) ~(b)(7)(E) O(b)(7)(F) D(b)(8) O(b)(9) Section 552a O(d)(5) 0(j)(2) O(k)(1 ) D(k)(2) O(k)(3) D(k)(4) D(k)(5) o(k)(6) O(k)(7) 405 page(s) were reviewed and 405 page(s) are being released. D Document(s) were located which originated with, or contained information concerning other Government agency(ies) [OGA]. This information has been: o referred to the OGA for review and direct response to you. o referred to the OGA for consultation. The FBI will correspond with you regarding this information when the consultation is finished. I8l You have the right to appeal any denials in this release. Appeals should be directed in writing to the Director, Office of Information Policy, U.S. Department of Justice, 1425 New York Ave., NW, Suite 1'1050, Washington, D.C. 20530-0001. Your appeal must be received by OIP within sixty (60) days from the date of this letter in order to be considered timely. The envelope and the letter should be clearly marked "Freedom of Information Appeal." Please cite the FOIPA Number assigned to your request so that it may be easily identified. . o The enclosed material is from the main investigative file(s) in which the sUbject(s) of your request was the focus of the investigation. Our search located additional references, in files relating to other individuals, or matters, which mayor may not be about your subject(s). Our experience has shown, when ident, references usually contain information similar to the information processed in the main file(s). Because of our significant backlog, we have given priority to processing only the main investigative file(s). If you want the references, you must submit a separate request for them in writing, and they will be reviewed at a later date, as time and resources permit. I8l See additional information which follows. Sincerely yours, David M. Hardy Section Chief Record/I nformation Dissemination Section Records Management Division Enclosure(s) Pursuant to Title 28, Code of Federal Regulations, Sections 16.11 and/or 16.49, there is a fee of ten cents per page for duplication. No fees are assessed for the first 100 pages, upon receipt of these documents, please 'submit a check or money order payable to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the amount of $30.50 for released pages. To insure proper identification of your request, please return this letter or include the FOIPA number(s) with your payment. Failure to pay for this release within (30) days, will close any pending FBI FOIPA requests from you. Nonpayment will also cause an automatic denial of any future FOIPA requests. Please send payment to FBI, 170 Marcel Drive, Winchester, VA 22602-4843. EXPLANATION OF EXEMPTIONS SUBSECTIONS OF TITLE 5, UNITED STATES CODE, SECTION 552 prosecutions if such expected to endanger the life or (b)(l) foreign (b)(2) (b)(3) (b)(4) (b)(5) (b)(6) privacy; (b)(7) security (A) specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or policy and (B) are in fact properly classified to such Executive order; related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency; specifically exempted from disclosure by statute (other than section 552b of this title), provided that such statute(A) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as to leave no discretion onissue, or (B) establishes particular criteria for withholding or refers to particular types of matters to be withheld; trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential; inter-agency or intra-agency memorandums or letters which would not be available by law to a party other than an agency in litigation with the agency; personnel and medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information (A) could be reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings, ( B) would deprive a person of a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication, ( C ) could be reasonably expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, (D) could reasonably be expected to disclose the identity of confidential source, including a State, local, or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on a confidential basis, and, in the case of record or information compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful national intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source, ( E ) would disclose techniques and procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions, or would disclose guidelines for law enforcement investigations or disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law, or ( F ) could reasonably be physical safety of any individual; (b)(8) contained in or related to examination, operating, or condition reports prepared by, on behalf of, or for the use of an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions; or (b)(9) geological and geophysical information and data, including maps, concerning wells. SUBSECTIONS OF TITLE 5, UNITED STATES CODE, SECTION Iran nuclear deal, John Kerry, Obama administration bucks Israel's control of its foreign policy ... P5+1 negotiators, 552a (d)(5) information compiled in reasonable anticipation of a civil action proceeding; (j)(2) material reporting investigative efforts pertaining to the enforcement of criminal law including efforts to prevent, control, or reduce crime or apprehend criminals; (k)(l) information which is currently and properly classified pursuant to an Executive order in the interest of the national defense or foreign policy, for example, information involving intelligence sources or methods; (k)(2) investigatory material compiled for law enforcement purposes, other than criminal, which did not result in loss ofa right, benefit or privilege under Federal programs, or which would identify a source who furnished information pursuant to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence; (k)(3) material maintained in connection with providing protective services to the President of the United States or any other individual pursuant to the authority of Title 18, United States Code, Section 3056; (k)(4) required by statute to be maintained and used solely as statistical records; (k)(5) investigatory material compiled solely for the purpose of determining suitability, eligibility, or qualifications for Federal civilian employment or for access to classified information, the disclosure ofwhich would reveal the identity of the person who furnished information pursuant to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence; (k)(6) testing or examination material used to determine individual qualifications for appointment or promotion in Federal Government service the release of which would compromise the testing or examination process; (k)(7) material used to determine potential for promotion in the armed services, the disclosure of which would reveal the identity of the person who furnished the material pursuant to a promise that his/her identity would be held in confidence. FBI/DOJ ~. ~ ~aShingtOnpos(¢Om: Mee\lngJcf"::::::~:<;:::~::.fJei'CofuinnE) HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED , DATE 07-2~'-2010 BY 60324 uc baT..:r/sab/lsg Meetings With Iran-Contra Arms Dealer Confirmed By Bradley Graham and Peter Slevin Washington Post StaffWriters Saturday, August 9, 2003; Page AOI Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld acknowledged yesterday that Pentagon officials met secretly with a discredited expatriate Iranian arms merchant who figured prominently in the Iran-contra scandal ofthe mid-1980s, characterizing the contact as an unexceptional effort to gain possibly useful information. While R~sfeld said that the contact occurred more than a year ago and that nothing came ofit, his aides scrambled during the day to piece together more details ~mid other reports that Rumsfeld's account may have been incomplete. Last night, a senior defense official disclosed that another meeting with,the Iranian arms dealer, Manucher Gh9rbanifar, occurred in June in Paris. The official said that, while the first contact, in late 2001, had been fonnally sanctioned by the U.S. government in response to an Iranian government offer to provide information relevant to the war on terrorism, the second one resulted from "an unplanned, unscheduled encounter." A senior administration official said, however, that Pentagon staffmembers held one or two other meetings with Ghorbanifar last year in Italy. The sessions so troubled Secretary ofState Colin L. Powell, the official said, ~at he complained to Rumsfeld and Condoleezza Rice, President Bush's national security adviser. Powell maintained that the Pentagon activities were unauthorized and undermined U.S. policy toward Iran by taking place outside the terms defmed by Bush and his top advisers. The White House instructed the Pentagon to halt meetings that do not conform to policy decisions, said the official, who requested anonymity. The Defense Department personnel who met with Ghorbanifar came from the policy directorat,e. Sources identified them as Harold Rhode, a specialist on Iran and Iraq who recently served in Baghdad as the Pentagon liaison to Iraqi National Congress leader Ahmed Chalabi, and Larry Franklin, a Defense Intelligence Agency analyst. State Department officials were surprised by news ofthe latest meeting with Ghorbanifar. Tension runs d~ep in the Bush administration between State and the Pentagon, which under Rumsfeld has aspired to a powerful role in foreign policy. The two agencies have sparred repeatedly over strategy toward Iran and Iraq. \ The United Stat~s does not have fonnal relations with Iran, although a small number ofsanctioned . meetings between U.S. and Iranian officials have taken place, most notably to address U.S. war plans in :~ ~c Afghanista~ and Iraq. . r&:. . The Bush administration has struggled to develop a coherent and consistent approach to Iran. In his t1 State ofthe Union address last year, Bush characterized Iran as being part ofan axis ofevil, along with --' AirIraq and North Korea, and administration officials have repeatedly accused Iran ofsupporting terrorist. II ~ _ ~1/S-/U~ . - - . _. . .' " <\0--" L ~. http://www.washingtonpost.comlac2lwp-dynlA36669-2003Aug8?language=printer l{'2-1/C'~ 8/12/2003 ·.Page.2 of3 groups and of seeking to acquire nuclear weapons. While broad agreement exists within the administration favoring changes in Iran's Islamic government, officials differ on how to accomplish tnem. More than two years after the administration began drafting a national security presidential directive on Iran, the policy document remains unfinished. While the State Department favors increased dialogue and engagement with potential reformers inside Iran, prominent Pentagon civilians believe the policy should be more aggressive, including measures to destabilize the existing government in Tehran. The Iran-contra scandal erupted over, a decision by the Reagan administration to s,ell weapons to Iran in an effort to win the release ofU.S. hostages in Lebanon. The proceeds ofthe arms sales were illegally funneled to contra fighters opposing Nicaragua's leftisrSandinista government. Ghorbanifar was enlisted in the effort, helping to arrange the delivery by-Israel of 508 TOW antitank missiles to Iran. The White House had drafted him as an intermediary despite warnings from the CIA that he was a cheat and had failed lie-detector tests. The intelligence agency had instructed its operatives not to do business with him. News ofthe Pentagon's contact with Ghorbanifar was first reported yesterday by Newsday, and Rumsfeld was asked about the story when he emerged with Bush from a meeting at the president's ranch in Crawford, Tex. Saying he had just been told ofthe Newsdayarticle by a senior aide. and by Rice, Rumsfeld acknowledged that "one or two" Pentagon officials "were approached by some people who had information about Iranians that wanted to provide information to the United States government." He said that a meeting took place "more than a year ago" and that the information received was circulated to various federal departments and agencies but did not lead to anything. "That is to say, as I ~nderstand it, there wasn't anything there that was ofsubstance or ofvalue that needed to be pursued further," he said. Asked if the Pentagon contact was intended to circumvent official U.S. exchanges with Iran, Rumsfeld replied: "Oh, absolutely not. I mean, everyone in the interagency process, I'm told, was apprised of it, and it went nowhere. It was just _. this happens, ofcourse, frequently, that in -- people come in, offering suggestions or information or possible contacts, and sometimes they're pursued. Obviously, if it looks as though something might be interesting, it's pursued. If it isn't, it isn't." ' Standing by Rumsfeld's side, Bush was asked ifthe meeting was a good idea and ifhis administration wants a change in government. "We support the aspirations ofthose who desire freedom in Iran," the president said, then took a question on a different subject. According to the account given later by the senior Pentagon official, the contact in 2001 occurred after Iranian'officials passed word to the'administration that they had information that might be useful in the global war on terrorism. Two Pentagon officials met with the Iranians in several sessions over a threeday period in Italy. Ghorbanifar attended these meetings, "but he was not the individual who,had apprQached the United States or the on~ with the information,It the official said. What h~s role W3:S, however, the official did not know. 8/12/2003 :Page :3 013 . The official said the June meeting involved one ofthe two Pentagon representatives who had been present at the 2001 meeting, buthe declined to say which one. Staffwriter Dana Priest contributed to this report. © 2003 The Washington Post Company 8/12/2003 Page l'ofl Iraq War Planner Downplays Role Conservative Strategist Denies Running Stealth Intelligence Operation By Thomas E. Ricks Washi~gton Post Staff Writer Wednesday, October 22,2003; Page A27 In normal times, the chiefofthe Pentagon's office for Middle Eastern policy toils in obscurity, a third-level functionary hardly noticed inside the building, let alone outside it. Not so Deputy Undersecretary William 1. uti. The manager ofthe Defense Department's Irag policy, he has the highest profile ofanyone to eve old his post. Arecent Google search uncovered 1,340 Internet hits mentioning him; many ofthem depicting him as a stealthy Svengali ofIraq policy, operating at the center ofa network connecting Vice President Cheney, former House speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) and Undersecretary ofDefense for Policy Douglas J. Feith -- all people for whom Luti has worked in the past seven years. Some Web sites associated with fringe political player Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr. attack him in lurid terms as an lIignoble liar" and "Satan." The critics are especially suspicious ofhis Office ofSpecial Plans, which was created last year. The purposely ambiguous title -- it was an office to work on policy for invading Iraq -- gave rise to speculation that Luti was running a shadowy intelligence operation intended to second-guess the CIA and provide the Pentagon with findings that supported its policies. The office has since been closed. IIrhe conspiracies out ofthis are quite stunning," Luti said in a recent interview in his crowded office in an unfashionable inner corridor ofthe Pentagon. "We are a consumer ~f intelligence rather than a provider." He insists that he is not as influential as some of his critics suspect. liTo paraphrase Mark Twain, the rumors ofmy power are greatly exaggerated," he said. He has been attacked, he said, because "we work tough issues, we work controversial issues.." But he insisted he does not preside over a secret miniature version ofthe CIA. "For the umpteenth tiine," he said, showing a bit of exasperation, "we do policy work.II What that means, he said, is developing defense policy options and monitoring their implementation -- not collecting intelligence, planning wars or implementing policy. But he also seems to have attracted attention because ofhis zealous manner. "I know he's a lightning rod,".said Richard Shultz, Luti's doctoral thesis adviser at Tufts University. "That's partly because he is so passionate, and partly because he is so devoted to policies that have been divisive." Defense intelligence experts say Bruce Hardcastle, a senior Def~nse Intelligence Agency official for Middle Eastern ~ffairs, began avoiding meeting with Luti after sharply disagreeing with him over the past 12 months about the imminence ofthe threat posed by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. "It'syery ?ifficult to inf0:m people who already know it all," said op.e Pentagon official familiar with the strained ,;I relationship between Lutl and Hardcastle. r 1u "Basically, he [Luti] didn't like other.people's information ifit didn't agree with his opinion," a former DIA an~ls.t ~ ~ . 00~ Hardcastle declined to copunent for thisarticle.' .<a ~1,/~~;. \~ ,16> irIP ~\vtl b6 b7C \ ' washitlgtonposlcom: IraqWar PlannOownPl~YS Role .... . 0 Over~I:Luti said ofhis critics, they are· 'either confuse4, malicious, or both.'" - Page 2 of.3·, He added, "Policy people and intelligence analysts perform different functions, but what's important is that they work !ogether, not that they agree on everything." Those critical views are hardly universal. John Trigilio, a fomler DIA official who works with Luti on defense policy issues, described him as "a straight shooter, professional, honorable," and called the notion that he manipulated intelligence "ridiculous." Adm. William 1. Fallon, who commanded Luti when Luti was skipper ofthe USS Guam, remembers him as an extremely competent leader who did not skew data. "I've heard the allegation, and I've kind ofchuckled at it," said Fallon, who recently became commander ofthe Atlantic Fleet. "I never saw anything along those. lines." Luti's 26-year Navy career was an unusual mix ofsea duty and high-level Washington policy positions. After serving as a weapons officer for EA-6B Prowlers -- aircraft thatjam enemy electronics -- he studied strategy and diplomacy at Tufts University. He went there for a master's degree, "but he was such a damned good student that we admitted him to the doctoral program," recalled Shultz, an authority on international politics and military operations. In the early 1990s, while deputy director ofthe chiefofnaval operations' executive panel, a civilian advisory group, Luti became interested in the views ofone member, strategy guru Albert Wohlstetter. A mentor to Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz, Defense Policy Board member Richard N. Perle and several other prominent conservative defense thinkers, Wohlstetter became Luti's entree into their world. From there, while still in the Navy, Luti became.a congressional fellow in the office ofthen-Speaker Gingrich. His time there, in part spent working on legislation related to arming and training Bosnian Muslims, again brought him into contact with interventionist conservatives. "We were talking with people like Perle and Wolfowitz about doing the right thing in Bosnia," recalled Randy Schuenemann, who then was a foreign policy aide on the Hill, and later, as a lobbyist for an organization that advocated toppling Hussein, worked with Luti on Iraq issues. Gingrich, who has stayed in touch with Luti through meetings of the Defense Policy Board, described his former employee as "very smart, very aggressive, slightly impatient, and ... with a very deep feeling that the world is more dangerous than many ofhis colleagues in the Pentagon, in the services, understand." Luti's last major Navy assignment was as captain ofthe USS Guam, an aging helicopter carrier with a crew of 700. "Guam was one of!he oldest ships in the. fleet," recalled Fallon, but Luti kept it in "marvelous condition.1I When the Bush administration came into office, Luti was asked to work for Cheney on Middle East-policy. Afew months later, he retired from the Navy to take his current position. He was in Cairo on Sept. 11, 2001, and, with commercial traffic stopped, got back to the United States aboard an Air Force KC-135 refueling jet. On the way home, he recalled, the plane flew over New York City, escorted by F-16 fighters, and the pilot lowered a wing so those aboard could get a full view ofthe smoke plume rising from the rubble ofthe World Trade Center. When the jet finally landed, he recalled, "we had this war on our hands.,11 Since then, he has had a total of 12 days off. C 2003 The Washington Post Company washillgtOP.l;.ost.conl~ In Profile· . ,v ~ washingtonpost.c.~m In'Profile Wednesday, October 22,2003; Page A27 William J. Lut; Title: Deputy undersecretary ofdefense for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs. Age: 49. Education: Bachelor's degree in history, the Citadel; master's degree in national security and strategic studies, U.S. Naval War College; master's and doctorate in international relations, Tufts University. Career highlights: Served abm~rd the USS John F. Kennedy during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; congressiont;ll fellow, office ofHouse Speaker Newt Gil1grich (R"Ga.), 1996-97; commander, USS Guam, 1997-98; special adviser to Vice Pre~ident Cheney for national security affairs (Middle East), 2001. Pastime: Golf. ' © 2003 The Washington Post Company ADVERTISER LINKS Shipmates Old Comrades. Ships. Friends Family & Good memories Essex Carrier Models Recreate the·ship you served on. Build an American aircraft carrier. http;/Iwww.modelshiDbuil~ing.Com.- . . wa')~i~l&to~P'ostco~n: Iraq War Planp~owllPlayS Role . AI.L HJP"OnH1..TI m'1 CONrAINED HEREIN IS TJIYICLAS"-tED ..' . DATE 07-29-.2010~oi24 u~ baw/seb/ l~g Page·! of3 Iraq War Planner Downplays Role Conservative Strategist Denies Running Stealth Intelligence Operation By Thomas B. Ricks Washington Post StaffWriter Wednesday, October 22, 2003; Page A27 In normal times, the chiefofthe Pentagon's office for Middle I;astern policy toils in obscurity, a third-level functionary hardly noticed inside the building, let alone outside it. Not so Deputy Undersecretary William J. LutL The day-to-day manager ofthe Defense Department's Iraq policy, he has the highest profile ofanyone to ever hold his post. Arecent Google search uncovered 1,340 Internet hits mentioning him, many ofthem depicting him as a stealthy Svengali ofIraq policy, operating at the center of a network connecting Vice President Cheney, former House speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) and Undersecretary ofDefense for Policy Douglas J.Feith-- all people for whom Luti has worked in the past seven years. Some Web sites associated with fringe political player Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr. attack him in lurid terms as an "ignoble liar" and "Satan.1I The critics are especially suspicious ofhis Office ofSpecial Plans, which was created last year. The purposely ambiguous title -- it was an office to work on policy for invading Iraq -- gave rise to speculation that Luti was running a shadowy intelligence operation intended to second-guess the CIA and provide the Pentagon with findings that supported its policies. The office has since been closed. liThe conspiracies out ofthis are quite stunning,II Lutisaid in a recent interview in his crowded office in an unfashionable inner corridor ofthe Pentagon. IIWe are a consumer ofintelligence rather than a provider." He insists that he is not as influential as some of his critics suspect. liTo paraphrase Mark Twain, the rumors ofmy power are greatly exaggerated,II he said. He has been attacked, he said, because "we work tough issues, we work controversial issues.II But he insisted he does not pres.ide over a secret miniature version ofthe CIA. "For the umpteenth time," he said, showing a bit of exasperation,'''we do policy work.II What that means, he said, is developing defense policy options and monitoring ~heir implementation -- nof collecting intelligence, planning wars or implementing policy. Buthe also seems to have attracted attention because of his zealous manner. "I know he's a liglitning rod," said Richard Shultz, Luti's doctoral thesis adviser at Tufts University.. "That's partly because·he is so passionate, and partly because " he is so devoted to policies that have been divisive." Defense intelligence experts say Bruce Hardcastle, a senior Defense Intelligence Agency official for Middle Eastern affairs, began avoiding meeting with Luti after sharply disagreeing with him over the past 12 months about the imminence ofthe threat posed by Saddam Hussein's Iraq. "It's very difficult to inform people who already know it all," said one Pentagon official familiar with the strained relations4ip between Luti and Hardcastle. uw~ \. 4'S~~. • ~~"'S-'t-.\C.....b6 <{1~\C1;)1 I."'-=z&==«"./ b 7C Hardcastle declined to comment for this article. "Basically, he [Luti] didn't like other people's information if it didn't agree with his opinion,1I a former DIA analyst agreed. wasliiDgtonpostcom: Iraq War Plann~ownplllYS Role, ' . 0 ovttian, Luti said ofhis critics, they ~either conftlSedll tnalicious, or both." Page2.of3 ' He added, "Policy people and intelligence analysts perform different iUnctions, but what's important is that they work together, not that they agree on everything." Those critical views are hardly universal. John Trigilio, a former DIA official who works with Luti on defense policy issues, described him as "a straight shooter, professional, honorable," and called the notion that he manipulated intelligence "ridiculous." Adm. William J. Fallon, who commanded Luti when Luti was skipper ofthe USSGuam, remembers him as an extremely competent leader who did not skew data. "I've heard the allegation, and I've kind ofchuckled at it," said Fallon, who recently became commander ofthe Atlantic Fleet. "I never saw anything along those lines." Luti's 26-year Navy career was an unusual mix ofsea duty and high-level Washington policy positions. After serving as a weapons officer for EA-6B Prowlers -- aircraft that jam enern,.y electronics -- he studied strategy and diplomacy at Tufts University. He went there for a master's degree, "but he was such a damned good'student that we admitted him to the doctoral program," recalled Shultz, an authority on international politics and military operations. In the early 1990s, while deputy director ofthe chiefofnaval operations' executive panel, a civilian advisory group, Luti became interested in the views ofone member, strategy guru Albert Wohlstetter. A mentor to Deputy Defense Secretiuy Paul D. Wolfowitz, Defense Policy Board member Richard N. Perle and several other prominent conservative defense thinkers, Woh~stetter became Luti's entree into, their world. From there, while still in the Navy, Luti became a congressional fellow in the office ofthen-Speaker Gingrich. His time there, in part spent working on legislation related to arming and training Bosnian Muslims, again brought him into contact with interventionist conservatives. "We were talking with people like Perle and.Wolfowitz about doing the right thing in Bosnia," recalled Randy Schuenemann, who then was a foreign policy aide on the Hill, and later, as a lobbyist for an organization t4at advocated toppling Hussein, worked with Luti on Iraq issues. Gingrich, who has stayed in touch with Luti through meetings ofthe Defense Policy Board, described his former employee as "very smart, very aggressive, slightly impatient, and ... with a very deep feeling that the world is more dangerous than many ofhis colleagues in the Pentagon, in the services, understand." I Luti's last major Navy assignment was as captain ofth~ USS Guam, an aging helicopter car.rier with a crew of 700. "Guam was one ofth~ oldest ships in the fleet," recalled Fallon, but Luti kept it in "marvelous condition." When the Bush administration came into office, Luti was asked to work for Cheney on Middle East policy. A few months later, he retired from the Navy to take his curre!1t position. He was in Cairo on Sept. 11,2001, and, with commercial traffic stopped, got back to the United States aboard an Air Force KC-135 refueling jet. On the way home, he recalled, the plane flew overNew York City, escorted by F-16 fighters, and the pilot lowered a wing so those aboard could get a full view ofthe smoke plume rising from the rubble ofthe World Trade Center. When the jet finally landed, he recalled, "we had this war on our hands." Since then, he has had a total of 12 gays off. © 2003 The Washington Post Company In Profile· w8ahingtonpost.conl In Profile Wednesday, October 22,2003; Page A27 William J. Lut; . ALl, INFmU'ihT'J,Cl:i C01:.l'I'AUIED , ~IN IS Ul\iT;LAS 51FIED ' '" 'CIn 07-<:::9-2010 BY 60324 UC, baTff!Seb/'f.ii! . , Page 1of1 Title: Deputy undersecretary ofdefense for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs. Age: 49. Education: Bachelor's degree in history, the Citadel; master's degr~e in national security and strategic studies, U.S. Naval War College; master's and doctorate in international relations, Tufts.University. C~reer highlights: Served aboard the USS John F. Kennedy during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; congressional fellow, office ofHouse Speaker Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.), 1996·97; co~ander, USS Guam; 1997-98; special adviser to Vice President Cheney for national security' affairs (Middle East), 2001. Pastime: Golf. © 2003 The Washington Post Company ADVERTISER LINKS Shipmates . Old Comrades. Ships. Friends Family & Good memories OldOppos.~s Wtafsthis? Essex Carrier Models Recreate the ship you selVed on. Build an American aircraft carrier. ~ttp:/1www ,modelshipbuild!ng.comZ r.1 '_'_"~-~-_'.~,,,,...,,.,.,.,",. . _. __..._-_.... ,.,~., _..._.._......_.-:.;;::::.)i;,).."":_'_.. _.~ .._.... ,,.,..-.,.._._- Q~. ·~~~f' :--' ,,--;,'" "..t!.~ ...... b6 b7C B~ <£1!dtf G5~,w F- ~3l) -IV C- 1~~_·'~_<3I\\-..IC~ Mother Jones Magazine January/February 2004 The Lie Factory Only weeks after 9/11, the Bush administration set up a secret Pentagon unit to create the case for invading Iraq. Here is the inside story for how they pushed dlslnformation and bogus intelligence and led the nation to war. By Robert Dreyfuss and Jason Vest It's a crisp fall day in western Virginia, a hundred miles from Washington, D.C., and a breeze is rustling the red and gold leaves of the Shenandoah hills. On the weather-beaten wood porch of a ramshackle 90-year-old farmhouse, at the end of a winding dirt-and-gravel road, Lt. Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski is perched on a plastic chair, wearing shorts, a purple sweatshirt, and muddy sneakers. Two scrawny dogs and a lone cat are'on the prowl, and tne air is filled with swarms So far, she says, no investigators have come knocking. Not from the Central Intelligence Agency, which conducted an internal inquiry into intelligence on Iraq, not from the congressional inteiligence committees, not from the president's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. All of those bodies.are ostensibly looking into the Bush administration's prewar Iraq intelligence, amid charges that the White House and the Pentagon exaggerated, distorted, or j~st plain lied about Iraq's links to AI Qaeda terrorists and its possession of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In her hands, Kwiatkowski holds several pieces of the puzzle. Yet she, along with a score of other career officers recenUy retired or shuffled off to other jobs, has not been approached by anyone. Kwiatkowski, 43, a now-retired Air Force officer who served in the Pentagon's Near East and ·South Asia (NESA) unit in the year before the invasion of Iraq, observed how the Pentagon's Iraq war-planning unit manufactured scare stories about Iraq's weapons and ties to' terrorists., "It wasn't intelligence-it was propaganda," she says. "They'd take a little bit of intelligence, cherrypick it" make it sound much more exciting, usually by taking it out of context, often by juxtaposition of two pieces of information that don't belong together." It was by turning such bogus intelligence into talking points for U.S. officials-including lSminous lines in speeches by President Bush and Vice President Cheney, along with Secretary of State Colin Powell'.s testimony at t~e U.N. Security Council last February-that the administration pushed Ainerican public opinion into supporting an unnecessary war. Until now, the story of how the Bush administration produced its wildly exaggerated estimates of the threat posed by Iraq has never been revealeCf in full. But, for the first time, a detailed investigation by Mother Jones, based on dozens of interviews-some on the record. some with officials who insisted on anonymity-exposes the workings of a secret Pentagon intelligence unit and of the Defense Department's war-planning task force, the"Office of Special Plans. It's the story of a close-knit team of ideologues who spent a decade or more hammering out plans for an attack on Iraq and who used the events of September 11, 2001" to set it into motion. SIX MONTHS AFTER THE END of major combat in Iraq, the United States had spent $300 million trying to find banned weapons in Iraq, and President Bush was.seekiflg $600 million more to extend the search., Not found were Iraq's Scuds and other long-range missiles, thousands of barrels and tons of anthrax and botulism stock, sarin and VX nerve agents, mustard gas, biological and chemical munitions, mobile labs for producing biological weapons, and any and all evidence of a reconstituted nuclear-arms program, all of which had been repeatedly cited as justification for the war. Also missing was evidence of Iraqi collaboration with AI Qaeda. The reports, virtually all false, of Iraqi weapons and terrorism ties emanated from an apparatus that began to gestate almost as soon as the Bush administration took power. In.the very first meeting of the Bush national-security team, one day after President Bush took the oath of office in January 2001 , the issue of invading Iraq was raised. according to one of the participants in the meeting-and officials all the way down the line started to get the message, long before 9/11. Indeed, the Bush team at the Pentagon hadn't even been formally installed before Paul '. - · , ,CQ Wolfowitz, the deputy secretary of Defense, and Douglas J. Feith, undersecretary of Defense for policy, began putting together what would become the vanguard for regime change in Iraq. Both Wolfowitz and Feith have deep roots in the neoconservative.movement. One of the most influential Washington neoconservatives in the foreign-policy establishment during the . Republicans' wilderness years Qf the 1990s, Wolfowitz has long held that not taking Baghdad in 1991 was a grievous mistake. He and others now prominent in the administration said so repeatedly over the past decade in a slew of letters and policy papers from neoconservative groups like the Project for the New American Century and the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq. Feith, a former aide to Richard Perle at the Pentagon in the 1980s and an activist in far-right Zionist circles, held the view that there was no difference between U.S. and Israeli security policy and that the best way to secure both countries' future was to solve the Israeli-Palestinian problem not by serving as a broker, but with the United States as a force for "regime change" in the region. Called in to help organize the Iraq war-planning team was a longtime Pentagon official, Harold Rhode, a specialist on Islam who speaks Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, and Farsi.>Though Feith would not be officially confirmed until July 2001, career military and civilian officials in NESA began to watch his office with concern after Rhode set up shop in Feith's office in early January. Rhode, seen by many veteran staffers as an ideological gadfly, was officially assigned to the Pentagon's Office of Net Assessment. an in-house Pentagon think tank headed by fellow neocon Andrew Marshall. Rhode helped Feith lay down the law about the department's new anti-Iraq, and broadly anti-Arab, orientation. In one telling incident. Rhode accosted and harangued a visiting senior Arab diplomat, telling him that there would be no "bartering in the bazaar anymore.... You're going to have to sit up and pay atlention when we say so." Rhode refused to be interviewed for this story, saying cryptically, "Those who speak, pay." According to insiders, Rhode worked with Feith to purge career Defense'officials who weren't sufficiently enthusiastic about the muscular anti-Iraq crusade that Wolfowitz and Feith wanted. Rhode appeared to be "pulling people out of nooks and crannies of the Defense Intelligence Agency and other places to replace us with," says a former analyst. "They wanted nothing to do with the professional staff. And they wanted us the fuck out of there." The unofficial, off-si~e recruitment office for Feith and Rhode was the American Enterprise Institute,'a right-wing think tank whose 12th-floor conference room in Washington is named for the dean of neoconservative defense strategists, the late Albert Wohlstetter, an influential RAND' analyst and University of Chicago mathematician. Headquartered at AEI is Richard Perle, Wohlstetter's prize protege, the godfather of the AEI-Defense Department nexus of neoconservatives who was chairman of the Pentagon's influential Defense Policy Board. Rhode, along with Michael RUbin, a former AEI staffer who is also now at the Pentagon, was a ubiquitous presence at AEI conferences on Iraq over the past two years, and the two Pentagon officials seemed almost to be serving as stage managers for the AEI events, often sitting in the front row and speaking in stage Whispers to panelists and AEI officials. Just after September 11, 2001, Feith and Rhode recruited David Wurmser, the director of Middle East studies for AEI, to serve as a Pentagon consultant. Wurmser would be the founding participant of the unnamed, secret intelligence unit at the Pentagon, set up if1 Feith's office, which would be the nucleus of the Defense Department's Iraq disinformation campaign that was established within weeks of the attacks in New York and Washington. While the CIA and other intelligence agencies concentrated on Osama bin Laden's AI Qaeda as the culprit in the 9/11 att.acks, Wolfowitz and Feith obsessively focused on Iraq. It was a theory that was discredited, even ridiculed, among intelligence professionals. Daniel Benjamin, co-author of The Age of Sacred Terror, was director of counterterrorism at the National Security Council in the late 1990s. "In 1998, we went through every piece of intelligence we could find to see if there was a link between AI Oaeda and Iraq," he says. 'We came to the conclusion that our intelligence agencies had it right: -There was no noteworthy relationship between AI Qaeda and Iraq. I know that fora fact." Indeed, that was the consensus amqng virtually all antiterrorism specialists. o In short, Wurmser, backed by Feith and Rhode, set out to prove(what didn't exist. IN AN ADMINISTRATION devoted to the notion of "Feith-based intelligence," Wurmser was ideal. For years, he'd been a shrill ideologue" part of the minority crusade during the 1990s that was beating the drums for war againstlraq. Along with, Perle and Feith, in 1996 Wurmser and his wife, Meyrav" wrote a provocative strategy paper for Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu called "A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm." It called on Israel to work with Jordan and Turkey to "contain, destabilize and·roll back" various states in the region, overthrow Saddam Hussein in Iraq, press Jordan to res'tore a scion of the Hashemite dynasty to the Iraqi throne, and, above all, launch military assaults against Lebanon and Syria as a "prelude to a redrawing of the map of the Middle East which would threaten Syria's territorial integrity." In 1997, Wurmserwrote a column in the Wall Street Journal called "Iraq Needs a Revolution" and the next year co-signed a letter with Perle calling for all-out U.S. support of the Iraqi National Congress (INC), an exile group led by Ahmad Chalabi, in promoting an insurgency in Iraq. At AEI, Wurmser wrote Tyranny's Ally: America's Failure to Defeat Saddam Hussein, essentially a booklength version of "A Clean Break" that proposed an alliance between Jordan and the INC to redraw the map of the Middle East. Among the mentors cited by Wurmser in the book: Chalabi, Perle, and Feith. The purpose of the unnamed intelligence unit, often described as a Pentagon "cell," was to scour reports from the CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and other agencies to find nuggets of information linking Iraq, AI Oaeda, terrorism, and the existence of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction (WMD). In a controversial press briefing in October 2002, a year after Wurmser's unit was established, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld acknowledged that a primary purpose of the unit was to cull factoids, which were then used to disparage, undermine, and contradict the CIA's reporting, which was far more cautious and nuanced than Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz, and Feith wanted. Rumsfeld particularly enjoyed harassing the CIA staffer who briefed him every morning, using the type of data produced by the intelligence unit. 'What I could do is say, 'Gee, what about this?'" Rumsfeld noted. "'Or what about that? Has somebody thought of this?'" Last June, when Feith was questioned on the same topic at a briefing, he acknowledged that the secret unit in fact looked at the connection between Iraq and terrorism, saying, "You can't rely on deterrence to deal with the problem of weapons of mass destruction in the hands of state sponsors of terrorism because [of] the possibility that those state sponsors might employ chemical weapons'or biological weapons by means of a terrorist organization proxy...." Though Feith, in that briefing, described Wurmser's unit as an innocent project, "a global exercise" that was not meant to put pressure on other intelligence agencies or create skewed intelligence to fit preconceived policy notions, many other sources assert that it did exactly that. That the White House and the'Pentagon put enormous pressure on the CIA to go along with its version of events has been widely reported, highlighted by visits to CIA headquarters by Vice President Cheney and Lewis Libby, his chief of staff. Led by Perle, the neocons seethed with contempt for the CIA. The CIA'S analysis, said Perle, "isn't worth the paper it's printed on." Standing in a crowded hallway during an AEI event, Perle added, "The CIA is status quo oriented. They don't want to take risks." That became the mantra of the shadow agency within an agency., Putting Wurmser in charge of the unit meant that it was being run by a pro-Iraq-war ideologue who'd spent years calling for a pre-emptive invasion of Baghdad and who was clearly predisposed to find what he wanted to see. Adding another layer of dubious quality to the endeavor was the man partnered with Wurmser, F. Michael Maloof•. Maloof, a former aide to Perle in the 1980s Pentagon, was twice stripped of his high-level security clearances-once in late 2001 and again last spring, for various infractions. Maloof was also reportedly involved in a bizarre scheme to broker contacts between Iraqi officials and the Pentagon, channeled through Perle. in what one report called a "rogue [intelligence) operation" outside official CIA and Defense Intelligence Agency channels. o As the momentum for war began to build in early 2002, Wolfowitz and Feith beefed up the intelligence unit and created an Iraq war-planning unit in the Pentagon's Near East and South Asia Affairs section, run by Deputy Undersecretary of Defense William Luti, under the rubric "Office of Special Plans,,"or OSP; the new unit's director was Abram N. Shulsky. By then, Wurmser had moved on to a post as senior adviser to Undersecretary of State John Bolton, yet another neocon, who was in charge of the State Department's disarmament, proliferation, and WMD office and was promoting the Iraq war strategy there. Shulsky's OSP, which incorporated the secret intelligence unit, took control, banishing veteran experts-including Joseph McMillan, James Russell, Larry Hanauer, and Marybeth McDevitt-who, despite years of service to NESA, either were shuffled off to other positions or retired. For the next year, Luti and Shulsky not only would oversee war plans but would act aggressively to shape the intelligence product received by the White House. Both Luti and Shulsky were neoconservatives who were ideological soulmates of Wolfowitz and Feith. But Luti was more than that. He'd come to the Pentagon direct,y from the office of Vice President Cheney. That gave Luti, a recently retired, decorated Navy captain whose career ran from combat aviation to command of a helicopter assault ship, extra clout. Along with his colleague Colonel William Bruner, Luti had done a stint as an aide to Newt Gingrich in 1996 and, like Perle and Wolfowitz, was an acolyte of Wohlstetter's. "He makes Ollie North look like a moderate," says a NESA veteran. Shulsky had been on the Washington scene since the mid-1970s. As a Senate intelligence committee staffer for Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, he began to work with early neoconservatives like Perle, who was then an aide to Senator Henry Jackson. Later, in the Reagan years, Shulsky followed Perle to the Pentagon as Perle's arms-control adviser. In the '90s, Shulsky co-authored a book on intelligence called Silent Warfare, with Gary Schmitt. Shulsky had served with Schmitt on Moynihan's staff and they had remained friends. Asked about the Pentagon's Iraq intelligence "cell," Schmitt-who is currently the executive director of the Project for the New American Century-says that he can't say much about it "because one of my best friends is running it.," According to U. Colonel KWiatkowski, Luti and Shulsky ran NESA and the Office of Special Plans with brutal efficiency, purging people they disagreed with and enforcing the party line. "It was organized like a machine," she says. "The people working on the neocon agenda had a narrow, well-defined political agenda. They had a sense of mission." At NESA, Shulsky, she says, began "hot-desking," or taking an office wherever he could find one, working with Feith and Luti, before formally taking the reins of the newly created OSP. Together, she says, Luti and Shulsky turned cherry-picked pieces of uncorroborated, anti-Iraq intelligence into talking points, on issues like Iraq's WMD and its links to AI Oaeda. Shulsky constantly updated these papers, drawing on the intelligence unit, and circulated them to Pentagon officials, including Rumsfeld, and to Vice President Cheney. "Of course, we never thought they'd go directly to the White House," she adds. Kwiatkowski recalls one meeting in which Luti, pressed to finish a report, told the staff, "I've got to get this over to 'Scooter' right away." She later found out that "Scooter" was none other than Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Vice President Cheney's chief of staff. According to KWiatkowski, Cheney had direct ties through.Luti into NESA/OSP, a connection that was highly unorthodox. "Never, ever, ever would a deputy undersecretary of Defense work directly on a project for the vice president," she says. "It was a little clue that we had an informal network into Vice President Cheney's office." Although Feith insists that the OSP did not seek to gather its own intelligence, Kwiatkowski and others sharply disagree. Staff working for Luti and Shulsky in NESA/OSP churned out propaganda-style intelligence, she says. As an example, she cited the work of a U.S. intelligence officer and Arabic specialist, Navy Lt. Commander Youssef Aboul-Enein, who was a special assistant to Luti. "His job was to peruse the Arabic-language media to find articles that would incriminate Saddam Hussein about terrorism, and he translated these.II Such raw intelligence is usually subject to a thorough vetting process, tracked, verified, and checked by intelligence e o professionals. But not at OSP-the material that it produced found its way directly into speeches by Bush, Cheney, and other officials. According to Melvin Goodman, a former CIA official and an intelligence specialist at the National War College, the OSP officials routinely pushed lower-ranking staff around on intelligence matters. "People were being pUlled aside [and being told], We saw your last piece and it's not what we're looking for,'" he says. "It was pretty blatant." Two State Department intelligence officials, Greg Thielmann and Christian Westermann, have both charged that pressure was being put on them to shape intelligence to fit policy, in particular from Bolton's office. ''The AI Oaeda connection and nuclear weapons issue were the only two ways that you could link Iraq to an imminent security threat to the U.S.," Thielmann told the·New York Times. "And the administration was grossly distorting the intelligence on both things." BESIDES CHENEY, key members of the Pentagon's D~fense Policy Board, including Perle and ex-House Speaker Newt Gingrich, all Iraq hawks, had direct input into NESAlOSP. The offices of NESA were located on the Pentagon's fourth floor, seventh corridor of 0 Ring, and the Policy Board's offices were directly below, on the ttaird floor. During .the run-up to the Iraq-war, Gingrich often came up for closed-door meetings with luti, who in 1996 had served as a congressional fellow in Speaker of the House Gingrich's office. As OSP got rolling, Luti brought in Colonel Bruner, a former military aide to Gingrich, and, together, luti and Bruner opened the door to a vast flow of bogus intelligence fed to the Pentagon by Iraqi defectors associated with Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress group of exiles. Chalabi founded the'lraqi National Congress in 1992, with the help of a shadowy CIA-connected publicrelations firm called the Rendon Group, one of whose former employees, Francis Brooke, has been a top aide to Chalabi ever since. A scion of an aristocratic Iraqi family, Chalabi fled Baghdad at the age of 13, in 1958, when the corrupt Iraqi Hashemite monarchy was overthrown by a coalition of communists and the Iraqi military. In the late 1960s, Chalabi studied mathematics at the University of Chicago with Wohlstelter, who introduced him to Richard Perle more than a decade later. Long associated with the heart of the neoconservative movement, Chalabi founded Petra Bank in Jordan, Which grew to be Jordan's third-largest bank by the 1980s. But Chalabi was accused of bank fraud, embezzlement, and currency manipulation, and he barely escaped before Jordanian authorities could arrest him; in 1992, he was convicted and sentenced in absentia to more than 20 years of hard labor. After founding the INC, Chalabi's bungling" unreliability, and penchant for mismanaging funds caused the CIA to s0l.!r on him, but he never lost the support of Perle, Feith, Gingrich, and their allies; once, soon after 9/11, Perle invited Chalabi to address the Defense Policy Board. According to multiple sources, Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress sent a steady stream of misleading and often faked intelligence reports into U.S. inteUigence channels., That information would flow sometimes into NESA/OSP directly, sometimes through Defense Intelligence Agency debriefings of Iraqi defectors via the Defense Human Intelligence Service, and sometimes through the INC's own U.S.-funded Intelligence Collection Program, which was overseen by the Pentagon. The INC's intelligence "isn't reliable at all," according to Vincent Cannistraro, a former CIA chief of counterterrorism. "Much of it is propaganda. Much of it is telling the Defense Department what they want to hear, using alleged inform~nts and defectors who say what Chalabi wants them to say, [creating] cooked inform~tion that goes right into presidential and vice presidential speeches." Bruner, the aide to Luti and Gingrich's former staffer, ''was Chalabi'shandler," says Kwiatkowski. "He would arrange meetings with Chalabi and Chalabi's folks." she says, adding that the INC leader often brought people into the NESA/OSP offices for debriefings. Chalabi claims to have introduced only three actual defectors to the Pentagon, a figure Thielmann considers "awfully low." However, according to an investigation by the los Angeles Times. the three defectors provided by Chalabi turned up exactly zero useful intelligence. The first. an Iraqi engineer, claimed to have specific information about biological weapons, but his information didn't pan out; the second claimed to know about mobile labs, but that information, too, was worthless; and the third, who claimed to have data about Iraq's nuclear program, proved to be a fraud. Chalabi also .. • • t G - claimed to have given the Pentagon information about Iraqi support for AI Oaeda. 'We gave the names of people who were doing the links," he told an interviewer from PBS'S Frontline. Those links, of course, have not been discovered. Thielmann told the same Frontline interviewer that the Office of Special Plans didn't apply strict intelligence~verification standards to "some of the information coming out of Chalabi and the INC that OSP and the Pentagon ran with~" In the war's aftermath, the Defense Intelligence Agency-which is not beholden to the neoconservative civilians at the Pentagon-leaked a report it prepared, concluding that few, if any, of the INC's informants provided worthwhile intelligence. SO FAR, DESPITE ALL of the investigations underway" there is little sign thatany of them are going to delve into the operations of the Luti-Shulsky Office of Special Plans and its secret intelligence unit. Because it operates in the Pentagon's policy shop, it is not officially part of the intelligence community, and so it is seemingly immune to congressional oversight. With each passing day, it is becoming excruciatingly clearer just how wrong U.S. ~ntelligence was in regard to Iraqi weapons and support for terrorism. The American teams of inspectors in the Iraq Survey Group, which has employed up to 1,400 people to scour the country and analyze the findings, have not been able to find a shred of evidence of anything other than dusty old plans and records of weapons apparently destroyed more than a decade ago. Countless examples of fruitless searches have been reported in the media. To cite one example: U.S. soldiers followed an intelligence report claiming that a complex built for Uday Hussein, Saddam's son, hid a weapons warehouse with poison-gas storage tanks. "Well," U.S. Army Major Ronald Hann Jr. t~ld the Los Angeles Times, "the warehouse was a carport. It still had two cars inside. And the tanks had propane for the kitchen." Countless other errors and exaggerations have become evident. The thousands of aluminum tubes supposedly imported by Iraq for uranium enrichment were fairly conclusively found to be designed to build noncontroversial rockets. The long-range unmanned aerial vehicles, allegedly built to deliver bioweapons, were small, rickety, experimental planes with wood frames. The mobile bioweapon labs turned out to have had other, ,civilian purposes. And the granddaddy of all falsehoods, the charge. that Iraq sought uranium in the West African country of Niger, was based on forged documents-documents that the CIA, the State Department, and other agencies knew were fake nearly a year before President Bush highlighted the issue in his State of the Union address in January 2003. "Either the system broke down," former Ambassador Joseph Wilson, who was sent by the CIA to visit Niger and whose findings helped show that the documents were forged, told Mother Jones, "or there was selective use of bits of information to justify a decision to go to war that had already been taken." Edward Luttwak, ~ neoconservative scholar and ~uthor, says flatly that the Bush administration lied about the intelligence it had because it was afraid to go to the American people and say that the war was simply about getting rid of Saddam Hussein. Instead, says Luttwak, the White House was groping for a rationale to satisfy the United Nations' criteria for war. "Cheney was forced into this fake posture of worrying about weapons of mass destruction," he says. "The ties to AI Qaeda? That's complete nonsense." In the Senate, Senator Jay Rockefeller (D-W.Va.) is pressing for the Intelligence Committee to extend its investigation to look into the specific role of the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans, but there is strong Republican resistance to the idea. In the House, Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Calif.) has introduced legislation calling for a commission to investigate the intelligence mess and has collected more than a hundred Democrats-but no RepUblicans-in support of it. "I think they need to be"looked at pretty carefully,II Waxman told Mother Jones when asked about the Office of Special Plans. "lid like to know whether the political people pushed the intelligence people to slant their conclusions." Congressman Waxman, meet Lt. Colonel Kwiatkowski. -T' AI.L nJFOPH.~TION CONTAn-rED 0 HEP.EHI IS TJ1JCI,P..Z5IFIED DAn 07-'29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg' Document 8 of 8 Page 1of2: I" -. t1 • Copyright 2003 The Washington Post The Washington Post June 15, 2003 Sunday Final Edition SECTION: A SECTION; Pg. A20 LENGTH: 1448 words HEADLINE: Pressure Builds for President to Declare Strategy on Iran BYLINE: Michael Dobbs, Washington Post Staff Writer BODY: Soon after George W. Bush took office In January 2001, his advisers began drafting a strategy fo'r dealing with Iran, a radical Islamic state long suspected by Washington of supporting International terrorism and pursuing weapons of mass· destruction. More than two years later, the national security presidential directive on Iran has gone through several competing drafts and has yet to be approved by Bush's senior advisers, according to well-placed sources. In the meantime, experts In and outside the government are focusing on Iran as the United States' next big foreign policy crisis, with some predicting that the country could acquire a nuclear weapon as early as 2006. Critics on the left and the right point to the unfinished directive as evidence the administration lacks a coherent strategy toward a country Bush described as a key member of the "axis of eVil," along with North Korea and Saddam Hussein's Ir~q. "Our policy toward Iran Is neither fish nor fowl, neither engagement nor regime change," said Flynt L. Leverett, a Bush adviser on the Middle East who left the National Security Council staff In March and Is now with the Brookings Institution. The Bush·admlnlstratlon has yet to formulate a true Iran policy, agreed Michael A. Ledeen, a Middle East expert with the American Enterprise Institute. With other neoconservative Intellectuals, Ledeen has founded the Coalition for Democracy In Iran, which Is looking for ways to foment a democratic revolution to sweep away the ~ullahs who came to power In 1979. Senior administration officials refused to talk about the status of the Bush polley directive on Iran, on the grounds that It Is classified, but they say they have had some success In mobilizing International opinion against Iran's nuclear weapons program. As eVidence, they cite recent threats by Russia to cut off nuclear assistance to Tehran and moves by the International Atomic Energy Agency to censure Iran for failing to report the processing of nuclear· materials. While the officials have stopped short of embracing a policy of "regime change" In Iran, U.S. officials from Bush down have talked about prOViding moral support to the "reform movement" In Iran In Its struggle against an uneleeted government. As defined by Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, the U.s. goal Is to speak directly to the Iranian·people "over the heads of their leaders to let them know that we agree with them.n The Internal and external debate about what to do about Iran.has been brought to a head by recent revelations suggesting the Iranian nuclear weapons program Is much further along than many suspected. Tomorrow, the IAEA Board of Governors In Vienna Is to discuss findings shOWing that Iran has a wide range of options for producing fissile material for a nuclear bomb, from using heavy water reactors to produce plutonium to experiments In uranium enrichment. U.S. officials have also accused Iran of harboring members of the al Qaeda terrorist network who escaped from Afghanistan after the fall of the Tallban In December 2001. Th~y say some al Qaeda supporters hiding In Iran appear to have known In advance about recent terrorist attacks In Saudi Arabia, although there Is no direct evidence of operational ties between the Iranian government and al Qaeda. The escalating Iranian nuclear threat and suspicions of Iranian ties to terrorists have sharpened long-standing divisions In the administration over how to deal with Tehran. In the past, the State Department has put the emphasis on opening a dialogue with r~forF!.llst elements In the .~ranla~ leadership while the Pentagon has been more Interested In looking for ways to destabilize the authoritarian Islamic government. '---- Page2of2 ----:0-------_ 1';' ...~-:" .;:.;. Pr~nt ~ . ,.0. I .'\;,7.. I BU,reaucratlc tensions have reached the level where eac~ s!de has begun accusing the other of leaking unfavorable stories to the •mpdla to block policy Initiatives. "The knives are out,1I said a Pentagon official, who criticized national security adviser Condoleezza Rice for failing to end the dispute by Issuing clear policy guidelines. Powell, meanwhile, Insisted to Journalists that there has been no change In policy on Iran, despite what he depicted as frenzied media speculation "about what this person In that department might think or that person In another department might thlnk." The Iran debate goes back to a failed attempt by the Clinton administration to open an "unconditional dialogue" with Tehran. Even though the Iranians rejected the U.s. offer of unconditional talks, some Bush administration officials led by the State Department's director for policy planning, Richard N•. Haass, favored making renewed overtures. The proposals for a dialogue with Iran were partly Inspired by the 1994 framework agree~ent With North Korea under which the North Korean government agreed to accept International controls over Its nuclear program In return for economlc,asslstance, Including the construction of a civilian nuclear reactor. But the State Department approach ran Into strong opposition from the Pentagon and Vice President Cheney', and was shot down In Interagency meetings at the end of 2001. While there would be no "grand bargain" with th!! Iranian leadership, the Bush administration agre,ed to a more limited diplomatic dialogue, focusing on specific areas such as the war In Afghanistan or cooperation over Iraq. Several rounds of such talks took place In Geneva and Paris, with the Involvement of a special presidential envoy, Zalmay Khalllzad, but were suspended after the bombings In Saudi Arabia on May 12. The administration debate has been echoed by a much more public debate among Middle East analysts, nuclear proliferation experts, and leaders of the Iranian dlaspora. Congress has also weighed In with legislation sponsored by Sen. Sam Brownback (RKan.) that would funnel more than $ 50 million to Iranian pro-democracy Initiatives, Including prlyate California-based satellite television and radio stations set up by Iranian exiles. "We are not calling for a military attack on Iran," said Brownback, whose proposed IraI') Democracy Act has drawn bipartisan support but Is opposed by the leadership of the Foreign Relations Committee. The goal,he said, Is to support Iranian democracy activists, Including students Who took to the streets of Tehran again last week to protest the closure of opposition ne~spaper and the jailing of dissidents. Just how far the United States should go In supporting the protests Is the subject of heated argument Inside and outside the government, even among conservatives. Some argue Iran Is ripe for revolution. Others contend there Is little guarantee of radical change In Tehran In the three-year period some Independent proliferation experts estimate it will take before Iran could acquire nuclear weapons, and the United States should be thinking about other options, including preemptive action against suspected nuclear sites. "The Internal democratic forces In Iran are real and growing,. but they're not going to save us from having to think about what we • are going to do about theJranlan nuclear program and support for terrorlsm," said Reuel Marc Gerecht, a CIA case officer for Iran now with the American Enterprise Institute. Some analysts say that U.S. financial and propaganda support for the Iranian democracy movement could be counterproductive. lilt allows the hardliners to argue that there Is an external threat, and they must crack down In the name of national unlty," said Kaveh Ehsanl, an editor of the pro-reform journal Dialogue In Iran, now visiting the United States. ''There Is a kind of an unholy alliance between the Bush administration and the Iranian hardllners." • "We have tried appeasement, we have tried containment, and we h'ave tried engagement," countered S. Rob Sobhanl, a co-founder of the Coalition for Democracy In Iran and adjunct professor of government at Georgetown University. "All these policies have failed. What have we got to lose by empowerment?" The White House has avoided taking a position on the Brownback legislation and has restricted Its encouragement of democracy In Iran to verbal broadsides against the mullahs. In comments Thursday, Rice described Iran's pursuit of weapons of mass destruction as "not acceptable" and said that the United States "cannot tolerate circumstances In which at Qaeda operatives come In and out of ' Iran." She also accused Iran of stirring up trouble among ShIIte communities In southern Iraq. "We have to stand with the aspirations of the Iranian people which have been clearly expressed," she told a meeting in los Angeles, as thousands of Iranians took to the streets of Tehran In anti-government protests. LOAD-DATE: June 15, 2003

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""p"J,EUf~.Ul~P!+ :a;I,I~I.ItI,."Jb"..',:,4l!J~\lliJJ~f,~Ui~,I~~&t[.;'fIlt!d~l~f'IJriUHiRUfii~~i,l1t.Uli.Jlht-dl..~imlilJf':1;~!•l•ltIi.nbtl.!1~tI ~1',·- .-'"~nn:i:~' 'iIL~.if~jI1iPPlfliilint:(Plii[mIJfn~'I~I~iiltf'llfI~lnUif~fll!.!f'I~'." , , , AII! ;'(1)' 'jJl!lf 'If r1!ld~:I..I~ If ~ i fIt ltl ~~ i( ,ll;~lt" qtl-- Nw1j; till - ...:'if~tf~~, 'Id!: t~,I;iiftl!)Hu~m dlri~:(U',IHW::j~iJUi !.!:f!UUiif~·nlll·': . -"l~:II~~' '!~6r~lilniJI!k1~if!~imiifJI':mll!lilii!Plt:R(lfilllnn~I'1iil!!tIH'i . : Il!~ -'S.' i!i,Hr.~!d.llldfJ~mn!lli (1,'.Ill ~I~ill :i~f ,IH!;if<l~!1 f tW':~I~I'li .• : S.• 0 Ii. ." I 'I~ 11 ~ 51B: f lR. , & il'Jfaq .. J.;.. I I I I;J ,i$!~ .'... ~~.1 f" ~ .:'.l!~.~: ..-.~.. ~J.d~.IJ~btf~,~~i~~~~lflf~ttd i·~~etdlOi.illlIdJ .}~~~!ifJ~1 • 'i. .... 'H .,. ,I ..., •.•--. • • _. 1 ,f), " .1. . --- -.-.-.------- "R=e'~Ole Change In Iran'? OneMan's SecretPlan. ~, .., ~. 0 /1\ UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO 'Newsweek December 22, 2003 Periscope h~tp; ·0 ALL FBI INFO~~TION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Regime Change In Iran? One Man's Secret Plan. Iran's Cllalabi? Manucller Gizorbanij'ar says he talked secretly witll Pentagon officials ahoutplansfor regime cllallge in Iran By Mark Hosenball What was international man ofmystery Manucher Ghorbanifar up to when he met with top Pentagon experts on Iran? In aNEWSWEEK interview in Paris last month, Ghorbanifar, a former Iranian spy who helped launch the Iran-contra affair, says one ofthe things he discussed with Defense officials Harold Rhode and Larry Franklin at meetings in Rome in December 2001 (and in Paris last June with only Rh9de) was regime change in Iran. Ghorbanifar says there are Iranians capable oforganizing a peaceful revolution against the ruling theocracy. He says his contacts know where Saddam Hussein,hid $340 million in cash. With American help, he says, this money could be retrieved and half used to overthrow the ayatollahs. (The other halfwould be turned overto the United States.) Ghorbanifar says he told his U.S. interlocutors that ousting the mullahs would be a breakthrough in the war on terror because top Qaeda, including Osama bin Laden, are in Iran. (ltyou wonlt be surprised ifyou find that Saddam Hussein is on one ofthe Iranian islands.It) Among other intel Ghorbanifar says he arid associates gave the Pentagon: a warning that terrorists in Iraq would a~ck hotels. He also says he had advance info about Iranian nukes and a terrorist plot in Canada. Financial gain was never his objective, he says: "We wanted to give them the money, not to take the money." The Pentagon cut offcontact with Ghorbanifar, whom the CIA years ago labeled as a fabricator, after _ news about the talks broke last summer. But controversy about the Iranian still reverberates in Washington. Administration sources say that when White House officials OK'd what they believed was a Pentagon effort to gather info about Iranian terrorist activity in Afghanistan, they didn't know Ghorbanifar was involved. When senior officials learned in 2002 about Ghorbanifar--and that regime change was on his agenda-they decided further contacts were "not worth pursuing." But Ghorbanifar says he continued to communicate with Rhode, and sometimes Franklin, by phone and fax five or six times a week until shortly after the Paris meeting last summer. (The Pentagon says any such contacts were sporadic and not authorized by top officials.) In Congress, investigations into the Ghorbanifar story have sparked partisan tensions. Democrats'want to know if the Ghorbanifar contacts are evidence of "rogue" espionage by a secretive Pentagon unit that allegedly dealt with controversial Iraqi exile Ahmad Chalabi; Republicans want to know whether the CIA refused to meet with potential informants merely because the middleman-Ghorbanifar--was someone the agency distrusted. A. Defense official says any discussion that Ghorbanifar had w~th Pentagon experts about regime change was a "one-way conversation." lofl 3130120041:31 PM ~~~l~ 6St~-d9b315-tJ c- kf>:>"~ P. UNCLAsSIFIED o WASHINGTON JOURNAL C-SPAN 7:45 AM JANU~RY 1,2004 U.S. Intelligence in Iraq ALL INFOP.NATION C01JTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-2~-2010 BY .60324 uc baw/sab/lsg CONNIE BROD: Robert Dreyfuss is a contributing editor for Mother Jones and the January-February edition ofMother Jones has the hit cover story by him called, liThe Lie Factory.1I What is the lie factory? ROBERT DREYFUSS [Contributing Editor, Mother Jones]: Well, I called the lie factory. It's kind ofbroader than"that. There was lies, but also distortions and exaggerations. I'm referring to the unit inside the Pentagon that prepared intelligence reports and talking papers for senior U.S. officials in the period going up to the war with Iraq. Now, that the war is over and we know that we found exactly zero evidence ofties between Iraq anp. al Qaeda and zero evidence of tie~ between Iraq and weapons ofmass destruction, it's way past time that we went back and looked at how did they get this so wrong? The administration is already trying to change the subject, as you know, they're saying, well, it wasn't about weapons ofmass destruction, Saddam was a bad guy and the world is safer now. I guess I'm amazed that he's been able to get away with that so far, the President. BROD: You went all the way b~ck to the day after the President took office to begin this story about this office. What happened that day? DREYFUSS: Well, one day after the President was sworn in they had a meeting oftheir national security team. And one ofthe top items on the agenda ofthat meeting -- this was nine months before 9/11 was regime change in Iraq. And ofcourse there's a reason for that, many ofthe senior officials who took up places in the Bush administration have long been on record, some ofthem for as long as a decade going back to the first GulfWar that the United States had a responsibility to go in militarily and get rid ofSaddam Hussein. So there had been a drumbeat from afairly small but well organized group offormer U.S. officials, many ofthem intelligence people, and, ofcourse, the Iraqi exile groups that they were associated with to bring about regime change. And that meeting that you referred to UNCLASSIFIEDo UNCIJASSIFIED o really was the first ofmany efforts to start to focus this administration on Iraq. And they started to putting into place the people in various parts ofthe Pentagon~ especially who would undertake tnat. And ofcourse it wasn't until after 9/11 that the political will suddenly materialized and they realized thatthey could sell this policy, first of all to the President and then second of all to the America~ people. BROD: Some ofthe figures who you talk about in here are very well known -- Newt Gingrich,.Paul Wolfowitz, Richard Perle, but you also concentrate a lot on a gentleman who may not be as well known, Douglas Feith. Who is he? And what was his role in this office -. secret office set up? DREYFUSS: Well, Doug Feith works directly under Paul Wolfowitz as the person at the Pentagon in charge ofpolicy. He's a senior official at the Pentagon, a civilian, not a military person. And he and Wolfowitz both have long roots in the neo-conservative movement. Doug Feith's law firm, Feith and ZeU, which had been around for the years before the administration took power, has a big Israeli office . and a lot ofties to the right wing Israeli government, the settler movement in Israel, and so forth. And Feith was a leading advocate in the 1990s for going to war in Iraq long before the Bush administration took office. So he was kind of an ideblogue and it was his job to put.together the team that would undertake the actual war planning inside the Pentagon and not just war planning in a technical sense, but also the policy and propaganda aspects ofhow to justify that war. BROD: Now,_ you talk -- this office, was it physically an office? Could people go the~e? DREYFUSS: Well, it was physically an office. What happened was under Doug Feith there is a second office which is sort ofthe . regional planning components ofthe Pentagon, there's one for each part of the world, and the Near East and.South Asian affairs office, which is called NESA, was headed up by a man named Bill Lootey, who is a former N~wt Gingrich aide who is also a longtime neoconservative and a U.S. Navycap~ain, former captain. And:.Bill Lootey headed up the office called NESA. And that was because Iraq is located in Near East, or Middle East. That was the office that Feith used to build up and create as the Office ofSpecial Plans. They gave that name to it in 2002 because they didri't want to tip their hand that they were definitely planning a war, so they gave it a meaningless name, special plans. But it was really the office for Iraq plans. BROD: And how did the office work? 2 UNCLASSIFIED \ UNCLASSIFIED o DREYFUSS: Well~ it started out actually as an intelligence group ofjust two or three people and it expanded to four or five people, but it started out right after 9/11 in 2001 when Doug Feith and a man named Harold Rhode, who'is another Pentagon official and a neo~onservative Middle East expert who speaks many languages from the region. And some others started putting ,together a team to try to link Iraq to what happened on 9/11. As we all knoW now, there was no connection between Iraq and 9/11. But they brought in a man named David Wormser who was at the time the head ofMiddle East Policy at the American Enterprise Institute. Now, AEI, American Enterprise Institute is where people like-Newt Gingrich and Richard Perle and many other neoconservatives and other conservatives sort ofhang out and use as their exile foreign policy shop. Wormser was brought in along with a guy named Mike Maloofand they were the first two p~ople who set up this little intelligence unit in the Pentagon that eventually grew and expanded and started churning out all ofthe misleading and distorted apd exaggerated efforts -- pieces ofinformation that were then handed to the various U.S. officials to run the propaganda to justify the war. They wanted to go into Iraq for grand strategic reasons, but they couldn't just say that and get the public behind them and certainly not Congress behind them. So they had to create the idea that Iraq was an imminent threat and the only way to do that was to say that Iraq was tied to terrorists who were planning to strike us and that Iraq had weapons ofmass destruction that could strike us. So Wormser and Maloofand then some ofthe other people who were brought into this job under Bill Lootey, under a guy named Abe Shulsky"who was later brought run the Office ofSpecial Pl~ns, not only started picking and choosing among all the intelligence that's available, you know, there are tens ofthousands ofbits ofintelligence that go into a con~lusion. Well, they discarded the ones they didn't like and they seized on the ones that justified the cause that they were trying to pursue. And they would write up talking points in papers and so forth, which were not real intelligence, in fact, none ofthese people were intelligence professionals; they were ideologues, they were people who had a mission. And there's no disputing this, in other words, you can disput~ whether the war was a good thing or a bad thing and you can dispute whether Bush is kind ofa dunce or a genius. But you can't dispute the fact that this office was made of people who were first of all not intelligence professionals and who purged -- fired, transferred a number ofpeople who were intelligence professionals because they disagreed with the conclusions that these ideologues were coming to. 3 UNCLASSIFIED \ o UNCLASSIFIED They brought into this office as it expanded into probably a couple ofdozen people with maybe 50 or 100 people who would pass in · and out ofit as contractors and helpers and supporters, they brought into people who were committed ideologically to the cause and who would come up with the conclusion they wanted. So all ofthe information that we later heard from people like Vice President Cheney and even the President about the aluminum tubes, about the uranium from Niger, about tlie unmanned aerial vehicles that could strike the United States, about thousands oftons ofterrible gasses and chemicals that were stored in Iraq, about its reconstituted nuclear program, about biological mobile labs, none ofthis existed. It was all a complete mythology. BROD: This is a complicated story and you have laid out the kind ofthe flow chart for this office in your piece and ifour camera could just go down you'll see some ofthe names ofthe people that youhave talked about. Our phone lines are also open. You can start dialing now if you're interested in talking with Mr. Dreyfuss. My question to you is: Who are your sources for this? DREYFUSS: Well, many ofthe people we talked to, we talked to on the record and they are quoted in there. I think the most courageous person of all is Lieutenant Colonel Karen Ketkowsky who is now retired, but she served in the Office ofNESA, the Near East and South Asian affairs office for about a year and saw this up close. And she described to me in detail sitting on a wood porch in her farm now, she lives out in western Virginia. She described to me in detail how people she knew were purged and forced into - retirement in this office and how people were encouraged to come up with the kind of conclusions that the President and the Vice President seemed to want. She talked about how Vice President Cheney had his staff working directly with this Pentagon office, which is highly unusu~l. In otl!er words, this office was four levels down in the Pentagon. Normally its work would go to Bill Lootey, and then to Doug Feith, and then to Paul Wolfowitz, and then to Secretary ofDe(ense Rumsfeld. But, in fact, you had people like Newt Gingrich coming in constantly, people like Richard Perle and people like Vice President Cheney and his office, who were tasking this unit, saying what about this and what about that? And getting reports from, them. I mean it's highly unusual for the Vice President's office, which is not part ofthe Pentagon, as we know to have a direct working relationship with an office in the bowels ofthe Pentagon's civilian bureaucracy. 4 UNCLASSIFIED 'I I rt '\ \ UNCLASSIFIED o BROD: Let's get-to some phone calls for you, first off, Westwood, New Jersey, Republican. Good morning. CALLER: Connie, happy New Year to you and Robert. DREYFUSS: Thank you. CALLER: I'm very, very interested in your flow chart and I'm a veteran of World War II. My parents taught me never to lie. And so lies are very important to. me. The big lie at the present time, I think, is that judges have the right to make laws and I think you should be more interested in that because that has more far-reaching effects on everything, including what you're talking about. The big lie is that, for example, in Roe v. Wade. BROD: Caller, I'm sorry, but this is really way offthe subject ofwhat we're talking about this morning. We're going to let you go and try to stay on topic this morning. Burlington, Massachusetts, Democrat. , CALLER: Hi, good morping, Robert Dreyfuss. DREYFUSS: Good morning. CALLER: Fantastic subject this morning. Very similar to really an awesome chapter in the AI Franken book about lies and how that was -- when that administration came in it seemed like they were really trying to warn them about terrorist activities and they were trying to ignore it and ignore it and put their own thing into place and I'm sorry I don't have the book in front ofme, but it's a fantastic chapter right next to which you're talking about and I think everybody should read it. BROD: Have you read it, Mr. Dreyfuss? DREYFUSS: I haven't read AI's book yet, but it's on my list ofNew Year's reading. BROD: Greenville, South Carolina. Republican. CALLER: Good morning, how are you? BROD: Great. CALLER: I think that his whole premise is ajoke. And I think that you're just trying to grasp with straws to put down President Bush who is doing a.greatjob by the way I might add. BROD: Grasping at straws, Mr. Dreyfuss? 5 UNCLASSIFIED (/ \ o UNCLASSIFIED o DREYFUSS: That's a silly comment. The President may be doing a great job or not doing a great job. This is a story about whether' ... there were weapons ofmass destruction in Iraq, which was the main rationale for mobilizing our entire nation to go to war. And the things weren't there and I thi~ we're going to ask why and what happened and why was ,. the President so wrong? I mean Senator Bill Nelson from Florida said the other day that he was told in a closed briefing that Iraq had unmanned aerial vehicles that can carry chemical weapons and biological weapons to the East Coast ofthe United States. Things like this are simply not true. When we finally got there we found these rickety old Wright brothers looking planes that couldn't have gotten out ofBaghdad airport, which were not ' really military by the way at all. So the kinds ofexaggerations and distortions that got into the President's speeches, he said that in Cincinnati in a modified way about these vehicles that could attack the United States are ludicrous. And I'm just stunned at the fact that even supporters ofthe President and Republicans in Congress just dismissed this and say, well, Iraq is better off, so why are we bothering even to talk about these weapons when that was hammered and hammered and hammered for months that Iraq was an urgent threat to the·United States. BROD: Besides writing for Mother Jones as a contributing editor, Mr. Dreyfuss is also a contributing editor for The Nation magazine and a contributing writer for The American Prospect and a frequent contributor to Rolling Stone. 6 UNCLASSIFIED rt --' ' _._-----..,-_._--- --- ( TheJ.,ie FactofY e,YBIPJ)!040106ls2(\0401062ti65Z0.html o UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Mother Jones Magazine January/February 2004 Pg.34 , "•" ~:.,;' :J,~':( ~ :-~;~..~.~~~t·~~~:t:~V!1{af:~D~~ariill~iif~ftle~~1f~r~' - ·w .. ~ .... ...f"tt"",~_\:;'.1~~~J.,~,..-l""~=:=;) ... ,."............."~"'Z~~ .. \,,,II. ~ PIA HomeIWhat's New IProduetsJ)y T)3)el Products by Re8ionI~ I&1R. ALL FBI INFORMATION CbNTAINED HEREIN IS TlNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg The Lie Factory Only weeks after 9/11, tile Busl, administration set up a secret Pelltagon unit to create ti,e case for invading Iraq. Here is ti,e inside story for I,OW tlley puslied disinformation and bogus intelligellce and led ti,e nation to war. By Robert Dreyfuss and Jason Vest It's a crisp fall day in western Virginia, a hundred miles from Washington, D.C., and a breeze is rustling the red',and gold leaves ofthe Shenandoah hills. On the weather-beaten wood porch ofa ramshackle 90-year-old farmhouse, at the end ofa winding dirt-and-gravel road, Lt. Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski is perched on a plastic chair, wearing shorts, a purple sweatshirt, and muddy sneakers. Two scrawny dogs and a lone cat are on the prowl, and tne air is filled with swarms So far, she says, no investigators have come knocking. Not from the Central Intelligence Agency, which conducted an internal inquiry into intelligence on Iraq, not from the congressional intelligence committees, not from the president's Foreign·Intelligence Advisory Board. All ofthose bodies are ostensibly looking into the Bush administration's prewar Iraq intelligence, amid charges that ~he White . House and the Pentagon exaggerated, distorted, or just plain lied about Iraq's links to Al Qaeda terrorists and its possession of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons., In her hands, Kwiatkowski holds several pieces ofthe puzzle. Yet she, along with a score ofother career officers recently retired or shuffled offto other jobs, has not been approached by anyone. . Kwiatkowski, 43, a pow-retired Air Force officer who served in the Pentagon's Near East and South Asia (NESA) unit in the year before the invasion ofIraq, observed how the Pentagon's Iraq war-planning unit manufactured scare stories about Iraq's weapons and ties to terrorists. "It wasn't intelligence-it was propaganda," she says. "They'd take a little bit ofinteIligence, cherry-pick it, make it sound much more exciting, usually by taking it out ofcontext, often by juxtaposition oftwo pieces ofinfonnation that don't belong together." It was by turning such bogus intelligence into talking points for U.S. officials-including ominous lines in speeches 1?Y President Bush and Vice President Cheney, along with Secretary ofState Colin Powell's testimony at the U:N. Security Council last February-that the administration pushed American public opinion into supporting an unnecessary war. - Until now, the story ofhow the Bush administration produced its wildly exaggerated estimates ofthe threat posed by Iraq has never been revealed in full. But, for the first time,a detailed investigation by Mother Jones, based on dozens ofinterviews-some on the record, some with officials who insisted on anonymity-exposes the workings ofa secret Pentagon intelligence unit and ofthe Defense Department's war-planning task force, the Office ofSpecial Plans. It's the story ofa close-knit team of ideologues who spent a decade or more hammering out plans for an attack on Iraq and who used the events of September 11, 2001, to set it into motion. _SIX MQNTHS AFTER THE END ofmajor combat in Iraq, the United States had spent $300 million 10f7 313012004 1:31 PM - I ~ ---------_.._-_._-_._--_._-----_._---_..._---_.__._- _._._.__._--_.•_----_.._--_..._------ r 111e:Lie FactoI)',yBIRD/040106l.~OO40J06246S20.html .r ·0 0 " trying to find banned weapons in Iraq, and President Bush was seeking $600 million more to extend the search. Not found were Iraq's Scuds and other long-range missiles, thousands ofbarrels and tons of anthrax and botulism stock, sarin and VX nerve agents, mustard gas, biological and chemical munitions, mobile labs for producing biological weapons, and any and all ~vidence ofa reconstituted nuclear-arms program, all ofwhich had been repeatedly cited as justification for the war. Also missing was evidence ,ofIraqi collaboration with Al Qaeda. The reports, virtually all false, ofIraqi weapons and terrorism ties emanated from an apparatus that began to gestate almost as soon as the Bush administration took power. In the very first meeting ofthe Bush national-security team, one day after President Bush took the oath ofoffice in January 2001, the issue of invading Iraq was raised, according to one ofthe participants in the meeting-and officials all the way down the line started to get the message, long before 9/11. Indeed, the Bush team at the Pentagon hadn't even been formally installed before Paul Wolfowitz, the deputy secretary ofDefense, and Douglas J. Feith, undersecretary ofDefense for policy; began putting together what would become the vanguard for regime change in Ira~. Both WolfoWitz and Feith have deep roots in the neoconservative movement. One ofthe most influential Washington neoconservatives in the foreign-policy establishment during the Republicans' wilderness years ofthe 1990s, Wolfowitz has long held that not taking Baghdad in 1991 was a grievous mistake. He and others now prominent in the administration said so repeatedly over the past decade in a slew of letters and policy papers from neoconservative groups like the Project for the New American Century . and the Committee for the Liberation ofIraq. Feith, a former aide to Richard Perle at the Pentagon in the 1980s and an activist in far-right Zionist circles, held the view that there was no difference between U.S. and Israeli security policy and that the best way to secure both countries' future was to solve the Israeli-Palestinian problem not by serving as a broker, but with the United States as a force for "regime change" in the region. Called in to help organize the Iraq war-planning team was a longtime Pentagon official, Harold Rhode, a specialist on Islam who speaks Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish, and Farsi. Though Feith would not be officially confirmed until July 2001, career military and civilian officials in NESA began to watch his office with concern after Rhode set up shop in Feith's office in early January. Rhode, seen by many veteran staffers as an ideological gadfly, was officially assigned to the Pentagon's Office ofNet Assessment, an in-house Pentagon think tank headed by fellow neocon Andrew Marshall. Rhode helped Feith lay down the law about the department's new anti-Iraq, and broadly anti-Arab, orientation. In one telling incident, Rhode accosted and harangued a visiting senior Arab diplomat, telling him that there would be no "bartering in the bazaar anymore.... You're going to have to sit up and pay attention when we say so." Rhode refused to be interviewed for this story, saying cryptically, "Tho~e who speak, pay." ~ According to insiders, Rhode worked with Feith to purge career Defense officials who weren't sufficiently enthusiastic. about the muscular anti-Iraq crusade that Wolfowitz and Feith wanted. Rhode appeared to be "pulling people out ofnooks and crannies ofthe Defense Intelligence Agency and other places to replace us with," says a fonner analyst. "They wanted nothing to do with the professional staff. And they wanted us the fuck out ofthere." The unofficial, off-site recruitment office for Feith and Rhode was the American Enterprise Institute, a right-wing think tank whose 12th-floor conference room in Washington is named for the dean of neoconservative defense strategists, the late Albert Wohlstetter, an influential RA~·analyst and University ofChicago mathematician. Headquartered at AEI is Richard Perle, Wohlstetter's prize protege, the godf~ther ofthe AEI-Defense Department nexus ofneoconservatives who was chairman of 2of7 .313012004 1:31 PM o o the Pentagon's influential Defense Policy Board. Rhode, along with Michael Rubin, a former AEI staffer who is also now at the Pentagon, was a ubiquitous presence at AEI conferences on Iraq over the past two years, and the two Pentagon officials se~med almost to be serving as stage managers for the A.EI events, often sitting in the front row and speaking in stage whispers to panelists and AEI officials. Just after September 11,2001, Feith and Rhode recruited David Wurmser, the director ofMiddle East studies for AEI, to serve as a Pentagon consultant. ~: The J.,ie Factory Wurmser would be the founding participant ofthe unnamed, secret intelligence unit at the Pentagon, set up in Feith's office, which would be the nucleus ofthe Defense Department's Iraq disinfonnation campaign that was established within weeks ofthe attacks in New York and Washington. While the CIA and other intelligence agencies concentrated on Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda as the culprit in the 9/11 attacks, Wolfowitz and Feith obsessively focused on Iraq. It was a theorY that was discredited, even ridiculed, among intelligence professionals. Daniel Benjamin, co-author ofThe Age ofSacred Terror, was director ofcounterterrorism at the National Security Council in the late 1990s. "In 1998, we went through every piece ofintelligence we could find to see if there was alink between Al Qaeda and Iraq," he says. "We came to the conclusion that our intelligence agencies had it right: There was no noteworthy relationship between Al Qaeda and Iraq. I know that for a fact!' Indeed, that was the consensus among virtually all anti-terrorism specialists. In sh~rt, Wurmser, backed by Feith and Rhode, set out to prove what didn't exist. IN AN ADMINISTRATION devoted to the notion of '·Feith-based intelligence," Wurmser was ideal. For years, he'd been a shrill ideologue, part ofthe minoritY crusade during the 1990s that was beating the drums for war against Iraq. Along with Perle and Feith, in 1996 Wurmser and his wife, Meyrav, wrote a provocative strategy paper for Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu called"A Clean Break: ANew Strategy for Securing the Realm." It called on Israel to work with Jordan and'Turkey to "contain, destabilize and roll back" various states in the region, overthrow Saddam Hussein in Iraq, press Jordan to restore a scion ofthe Hashemite dynasty to the Iraqi throne, and, above all, launch military assaults against Lebanon and Syria as a "prelude to a redrawing ofthe map ofthe Middle East which would threaten Syria's territorial integrity." In 1997, Wormser wrote a column in the Wall Street Journal called "Iraq Needs a Revolution" and the next year co-signed a letter with Perle calling for all-out U.S. support ofthe Iraqi National Congress (INC), an exile group led 'byAhmad Chalabi, in promoting an insUrgency in Iraq. At AEI, Wurmser wrote Tyranny's Ally: America's Failure to Defeat Saddam Hussein, essentially a book-length version of "A Clean Break" that proposed "an alliance between Jordan and the INC to redraw the map ofthe Middle East. Among the mentors cited by Wurmser in the book: Chalabi, Perle, and Feith. The purpose ofthe unnamed intelligence unit, often described as a Pentagon "cell," was to scour reports from the CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and other agencies to find nuggets ofinformation linking Iraq, Al Qaeda, terrorism, and the existence ofIraqi we~pons ofmass destruction (WMD). In a controversial press briefing in 0ctober 2002, a year after Wurmser's unit was established, Secretary ofDefense Donald Rumsfeld acknowledged that a primary purpose ofthe unit was to cull factoids, which were then used to disparage, undermine, and contradict the CIA's reporting, which was far more cautious and nuanced than Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz, and Feith wanted. Rumsfeld pa~icularly enjoyed harassing the CIA staffer who briefed him every morning, using the type of~ata produced by the intelligence unit. "What I could do is say, 'Gee, what about this?'" Rumsfeld noted. "'Or what about that? Has somebody thought ofthis?'" Last June, when Feith was questioned on the same topic at a briefing, he acknowledged that the secret unit in fact looked at the connection between Iraq and terrorism, saying, "You can't rely on deterrence to deal with the problem ofweapons ofmass destruction in the hands of 30f7 313012004 1:31 PM o o 4of? s~te sponsors ofterrorism because [of] the possibility that those state sponsors might employ chemical weapons or biologicatweapons by means ofa terrorist organization proxy...." Though Feith, in that briefing, described Wunnser's unit as an innocent project, "a global exercise" that was not meant to put pressure-on other intelligence agencies orcreate skewed intelligence to fit preconceived policy notions, many other sources assert that it did exactly that. That the White House and the Pentagon put enonnous pressure on the CIA'to go along with its version ofevents has been widely reported, highlighted by visits to CIA headquarters by Vice President Cheney and Lewis Libby, his chief ofstaff. Led by Perle, the neocons seethed with contempt for the CIA. The CIA'S analysis, said Perle, "isn't worth the paper it's printed on." Standing in a crowde~ hallway during an AEI event, Perle added, liThe CIA is status quo oriented. They don't want to take risks.," That became the mantra ofthe shadow agency within an agency.. Putting Wurmser in charge ofthe unit meant that it was being run by a pro-Iraq-war ideologue who'd spent years calling for a pre-emptive invasion ofBaghdad and who was clearly predisposed to find what he wanted to see. Adding another layer ofdubious quality to the endeavor was the man partnered with Wurmser, F. Michael Maloof. Maloo~ a former aide to Perle in the 1980s Pentagon, was twice stripped ofhis high-level security clearances-once in late 2001 and again last spring, for various infractions. Maloofwas also reportedly involved in a bizarre schemeto broker contacts betweenJraqi officials and the Pentagon, channeled through Perle, in what one report called a "rogue [intelligence] operation" 'outside officiai CIA and Defense Intelligence Agency channel~. As the momentum for war began to build in early 2002, Wolfowitz and Feith beefed up the intelligence unit and created an Iraq war-planning upit inthe Pentagon's Near East and South Asia Affairs section, run by Deputy Undersecretary ofDefense William Luti, under the rubric "Office ofSpecial Plans," or OSP; the new unit's director was Abram N. Shulsky. By then, Wunnser had moved on to a post as senior adviser to Undersecretary of State John Bolton, yet another neocon, who was in charge ofthe State Department's disarmament, proliferation, and WMD office and was promoting the Iraq war strategy there. Shulsky's OSP, which incorporated the secret intelligence unit, took control, banishing veteran experts-including Joseph McMillan, James Russell, Larry Hanauer, and Marybeth McDevitt-who, despite years ofservice t9 NESA, either were shuffled offto other positions or retired. For the next year, Luti and Shulsky not only would oversee war plans but would act aggressively to shape the intelligence product rece~ved by the White House. Both Luti and Shulsky were neoconservatives who were ideological soulmates ofWolfowitz and Feith. But Luti was more than that. He'd come to the Pentagon directly from the office ofVice President Cheney. That gave Luti, a recently retired, decorated Navy captain whose career ran from combat aviation to command ofa helicopter assault ship, extra clout. Along with his colleague Colonel William Bruner, Luti had done a stint as an aide to Newt Gingrich in 1996 and, like Perle and Wolfowitz, was an acolyte ofWohlstetter's. "He makes Ollie North look like a moderate," says a NESA veteran. Shulsky had been on the Washington scene since the mid-1970s. As a Senate intelligence committee staffer for Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, he began to work with ~arly neoconservatives like Perle, who was then an aide to· Senator Henry Jackson. Later, in the Reagan years, Shulsky followed Perle to the Pentagon as Perle's arms-control adviser. In the '90s, Shulsky co-authored a book .on intelligence called Silent Warfare, with Gary Schmitt. Shulsky had served with Schmitt on Moynihan's staffand they had remained friends. Asked about the Pentagon's Iraq intelligence "cell," Schmitt-who is currently the executive director ofthe Project for the New American Century-says that he can't say much about it "because one ofmy best friends is running it." .3130120041:31 PM (1 The Tie,Factory L. f"" http://delphi.dia.ic.gev/admfnlEARLYBIRD/040106/s200~0106246S20.html o 50f7 According to Lt. Colonel Kwiatkowski, Luti and Shulsky ran NESA and the Offi~e of Special Plans with brutal efficiency, purging people they disagreed with and enforcing t~e party li~e. "It was organized like a machine," she says. "The people working on the neocon agen~a had a narrow, well-defined political agenda. They had a sense of mission." At NESA, Shulsky, she says, began "hot-desking," or taking an office wherever he could find one, working with Feith and Luti, before formally taking the reips ofthe newly created asp. Together, she says, Luti and Shulsky turned cherry-picked pieces ofuncorroborated, . anti-Iraq intelligence into talking points, on issues like Iraq's WMD and its links to Al Qaeda. Shulsky constantly updated these papers, drawing on the intelligence unit, and circulated them to Pentagon officials, including Rumsfeld, and to Vice President Cheney. "Ofcourse, we never thought they'd go directly to the White House," she adds. Kwiatkowski recalls one meeting in which Luti, pressed to finish a report, told the staff, "I've got to get. this over to 'Scooter' right away." She later found out that "Scooter" was none other than Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Vice President Cheney's chief ofstaff. According to Kwiatkowski, Cheney had direct ties through Luti into NESAlOSP, a connection that was highly unorthodox. "Never, ever, ever would a deputy undersecretary ofDefense work directly on a project for the vice pre.sident," she says. Illt was a little clue that we had an informal network into Vice President Cheney's office." Although Feith insists that the OSP did not seek to gather its own intelligence, Kwiatkowski and others sharply disagree. Staffworking for Luti and Shulsky in NESAlOSP churned out propaganda-style intelligence, she says. As an example, she cited the work ofa U.S. intel1~gence officer and Arabic specialist, Navy Lt. Commander Youssef Aboul-Enein, who W8;S a special assistant to Luti. "His job was to peruse the Arabic-language media to find articles that would incriminate Saddam Hussein about terrorism, and he translated these.II Such raw intelligence is usually subject to a thorough vetting process, tracked, verified, and checked by intelligence professionals. But not at aSP-the material that it produced found its way directly into speeches by Bush, Cheney, and other officials. According to Melvin Goodman, a former CIA official and an intelligence specialistat the National War College, the OSP officials routinely pushed lower-ranking staffaround on intelligence matters. "People were being pulled aside [and being told], 'We saw your last piece and it's not what we're looking for,t1t he says. "It was pretty blatant.II Two State Department intelligence officials, Greg Thielmann and Christian Westermann, have bot~ charged that pressure was being put on them to shape intelligence to fit policy, in particular from Bolton's office. tithe Al Qaeda connection and nuclear ~eapons issue were the only two ' ways that you could link Iraq to an imminent security threat to the U.S.," Thielmann told the New York Times. IIAnd th~ administration was grossly distorting the intelligence on both things.It BESIDES CHENEY, key members ofthe Pentagonls Defense Policy Board, i!1cluding Perle and ex-House SpeakerNewt Gingrich, all Iraq hawks, had 4ir~ct input into NESAlOSP. The offices ofNESA were located on the Pentagonls fourth floor, seventh corridor of0 Ring, and the Policy Board's offices were directly below, on the third floor. During the run-up to the ;Jraq war, Gingrich often came up for closed-door meetings with Luti, who in 1996 had served as a congressional fellow in Speaker ofthe House Gingrich's office., As OSP got rolling, Luti brought in Colonel Bruner, a former military aide to Gingrich, and, together, Luti an4 Bruner opened the door to a vast flow ofbogus intelligence fed to the Pentagon by Iraqi defectors associated with Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress group ofexiles. Chalabi founded the Iraqi National Congress in 1992, with the help ofa shadowy CIA-connected public-relations firm called the 313012004 I:31 PM rr The,Lie Factory G 60f7 Rendon Group, one ofwhose former employees, Francis Brooke, has been a top aide to Chalabi ever since. Ascion ofan aristocratic Iraqi family, Chalabi fled Baghdad at the age of 13, in 1958, when the corrupt Iraqi Hashemite monarchy was overthrown by a coalition ofcommunists and the Iraqi military. In the late 1960s, Chalabi studied mathematics at the University ofChicago with Wohlstetter, who introduced him to Richard Perle more than a decade later. Long associated with the heart ofthe neoconservative movement, Chalabi founded Petra Bank in Jordan, which grew to be Jordan's third-largest bank by the 1980s. But Chalabi was accused ofbank fraud, embezzlement, and currency manipulation, and he barely escaped before Jordanian authorities could arrest him; in 1992, he was convicted and sentenced in absentia to more than 20 years ofhard labor. After founding the INC, Chalabi's bungling, unreliability, and penchant for mismanaging funds caused the CIA to sour on him, but he never lost the support ofPerle, Feith, Gingrich, and their allies; once, soon after 9/11, Perle invited Chalabi to address the Defense Policy Board. According to m!1ltiple sources, Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress sent a steady stream ofmisleading and often faked intelligence reports into U.S. intelligence channels. That information would flow sometimes into NESA/OSP directly, sometimes through Defense Intelligence Agency debriefings ofIraqi defectors via the Defense Human Intelligence Service, and sometimes through the INC's own U.S.-funded Intelligence Collection Program, which was overseen by the Pentagon. The INC's intelligence "isn't reliable at all," according to Vjncent Cannistraro, a former CIA chiefofcounterterrorism. "Much ofit is propaganda. Much of it is telling the Defense Department what they want to hear, using alleged informants and defectors who say what Chalabi wants them to say, [creating] cooked information that goes right into presidential and vice presidential speeches." Bruner, the aide to Luti and Gingrich's former staffer, "was Chalabi's pandler," says Kwiatkowski. "He would arrange meetings with Chalabi and Chalabi's folks," she says, adding that the INC leader often prought people into the NESA/OSP offices for debriefings. Chalabi claims to have introduced only three actual defectors to the Pentagon, a figure Thielmann considers "awfully low." However, according to an investigation by the Los Angeles Times, the three defectors provided by Chalabi turned up exactly zero useful intelligence. The first, an Iraqi engineer, claimed to have specific informatio~ about biological weapons, but his information didn't pan out; the second claimed to know about mobile labs, but that information, too, was worthless; and the third, who claimed to have data about Iraq's nuclear program, proved to be a fraud. Chalabi also claimed to have given the Pen~gon information about Iraqi SliPport for AI Qaeda. "We ga~e the names ofpeople who were doing the links," he told an interview~r from PBS'S Frontline. Those links, ofcourse, have not been discovered. Thielmann told the same Frontline interviewer that the Office ofSpecial Plans didn't apply strict intelligence-verification standards to "some ofthe information coming out ofChalabi and the INC that OSP and the Pentagon ran with... In the war's aftermath, the Defense Intelligence Agency-which is not beholden to the neoconservative civilians at the Pentagon-leaked a report it prepared, concluding that few, if any, ofthe INC's informants provided worthwhile intelligence. SO FAR, DESPITE ALL ofthe investigations underway, there is little sign that any ofthem are going to delve into the operatidns ofthe Luti-Shulsky Office ofSpecial Plans and its secret intelligence unit. Because it operates in the Pentagon's policy shop, it is not officially part ofthe intelligence community, and so it is seemingly immune to congressional oversight. With each passing day, it is becoming excruciatingly clearer just how wrong U.S.. intelligence was in regard to Iraqi weapons and support for terrorism. The American teams ofinspectors in the Iraq Survey Group, which ha_s employed ~p to 1,400 p~op~e to scour the country and analyze the findings, have not _313012004 1:31 PM been able to find a shred of evidence ofanything other than dusty old plans and records ofweapons apparently destroyed more than a decade ago., Countless examples offruitless searches have been reported in the media. To cite one example: U.S. soldiers intelligence report claiming that a complex built for Uday Hussein, Saddam's son, hid a weapons warehouse with poison-gas storage tanks. "Well," U.S. Army Major Ronald Hann Jr. told the Los Angeles T~mes, "the warehouse was a carport. It still had two cars inside. And the tanks had propane for the kitchen." tr..i.t.. The } Faetoty " - o 7of7 Countless other errors and exaggerations have become evident. The thousands ofaluminum tubes supposedly imported by Iraq for uranium enrichment were fairly conclusively found to be designed to build noncontroversial rockets. The long-range unmanned aerial vehicles, allegedly built to deliver bioweapons, were smal~, rickety, experimental planes with wood frames. The mobile bioweapon labs turned out to have had other, civilian purposes. And the granddaddy ofall falsehoods, the charge that Iraq sought uranium in the West African-country ofNiger, was based on forged documents-documents that the CIA, the State Department, and other agencies knew were fake nearly a year before President Bush highlighted the issue inhis State ofthe Union address in January 2003. "Either the system broke down," former Ambassador Joseph Wilson, who was sent by the CIA to visit , Niger and whose findings helped show that the documents were forged, told Mother Jones, "or there was selective use ofJJits ofinformation to justify a decision to go to war that had already been taken." Edward Luttwak, a neoconservative scholar and author, says flatly that the Bush administration lied about the intelligence it had because it was afraid to go to the American people and say that the war was simply about getting rid ofSaddam Hussein. Instead, says Luttwak, the White House was groping for a rationale to satisfy the United Nations' criteria for war. :'Cheney was forced into this fake posture of worrying about weapons ofmass destruction," he says. liThe ties to Al Qaeda? That's complete no.nsense." In the Senate, Senator Jay Rockefeller (D-W.Va.) is pressing for the Intelligence Committee to extend its investigation to look into the specific role ofthe Pentagon's Office of Special Plans, but there is strong Republican resistance to the idea. In the House, Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Cali£) has introduced legislation calling for a commission to investigate the intelligence mess and has collected more than a hundred Democrats-but no Republicans-in support ofit. "I think they need to b~ looked at pretty carefully," Waxman told Mother Jones when asked-about the Office ofSpecial Plans. "I'd like to know whether the political people pushed the intelligence people to slant their conclusions." - Congressman Waxman, meet Lt. Cololl:el Kwiatkowski. 3130120041:31 PM i_, ~ -I; ~1I .~ ~-- ALL INFOR}~TION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS VNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg The United States and Shi'ite Religious Factions in Post-Ba'thist Iraq Juan Cole In post-Saddam Husayn Iraq, Shi'ite militias rapidly established their authority in East Baghdadand other urban neighborhoods ofthe south. Amongthe various groups which emerged, the Sadr Movement stands out as militant and cohesive. The sectarian, anti-American Sadrists wish to impose a puritanical, Khomeinist vision on Iraq. Their political influence is potentially much greater than their numbers. Incorporating them into a democratic Iraq while ensuring that they do not come to dominate itposes a severe challenge to the US Administration. In planning the war on Iraq, the American Defense Department and intelligence organizations appear to have been unaware that millions of Iraqi Shi'ites had joined a militant and puritanical movement dedicated to the establishment of an Iran-style Islamic Republic in Iraq, even though these developments had been detailed in many Arabic-language books-and articles.. On February 18, 2003, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz gave an interview on National Public Radio in which he maintained that "The Iraqis are . '0 • by and large quite secular.. They are overwhelmingly Shi'a which is different from the Wahabis of the peninsula, and they don't bring the sensitivity of having the holy cities of Islam being on their tenitory.~'1 Even more disturbingly, this quote shows that Wolfowitz did not realize that religious Iraqi Shi'ites are extremely sensitive about foreigners in their shrine cities such as Najafand Karbala, or that these cities are religious power centers of great symbolic potency. YS Defense Department leaders such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and his deputies, Wolfowitz and Douglas F~ith, mistakenly thought that the middle and lower strata of the Ba'th bureaucracy, police, and army would survive the war, and that they could simply hand it over to secular expatriate figure Ahmad Chalabi and his Iraqi National Congress. Although from a Shi'ite background, Chalabi was largely unknown in Iraq and was wanted in Jordan on embezzlement charges. The CIA and the State Department broke with Chalabi late·in 2002 when he proved unable -Juan Cole is Professor ofModern Middle Eastern and South Asian History at the University of ~ichigan. He is editor of the International Journal of Middle Bast Studies, and author of numerous books and articles. His recent works include Modernity and the Millennium (NewYork: Columbia University Press. 1998) and Sacred Space and Holy \Var.· The Politics, Culture and History ofShrite Islam (London: I.B. Tauris. 2002). . 1. "Deputy SecretaryWolfowitz Interview with National Public Radio:' February 19,2003 at http:/ Iwww.washingtonfile.netl2003IFeblFeb21IEURS09.HTM. MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL*VOWMES7. NO.4,AUI"UMN2003 IL II CoIeFlnaLp65 101&'2003. 4:00PM -"'~~ IL 544*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL to account for about $2 million of the $4 million they had given his Iraqi National Congress. The major religious Shi'ite groups with which the Americans were negotiating were part ofChalabi's group and included-the Tehran-based Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, the London branch of the al-Da'wa Party, and the J{hoei Foundation, of which only al-Da'wa had much popularity on the ground in Iraq. The US was ignorant of the Sadr Movement, the main indigenous Shi'ite force.. This ignorance was to cost the US great political capital in the first mont~s of the occupation. When the Ba'th fell on April 9, 2003, Shi'ite militias seemed suddenly to emerge and take control of many urban areas in the south of the country, as well as in the desperately poor slums of East Baghdad. The moral authority of Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani and his more quietist colleagues in Najaf had been known to the US, but it transpired that other ayatollahs and leaders had more political clout. The rank and file of Iraqi Shi'ites in the urban areas was far more radicalized by the last decade of Ba'th rule than anyone on the outside had realized. These developments alarmed Washington, given that some 60% to 65% of Iraqis are.Shi'ites, and this group would therefore predominate in a democratic Iraq. The religious groups constitute only one section of the Shi'ite population, perhaps a third or more, but they are well organized and armed. - My thesis here is that the Sadr Movement is at the moment the most important tendency among religious Shi'ites in post-Ba'thist Iraq, and that it is best seen as a sectarian phenomenon in the "sociology of religions" sense. It is· primarily a youth movement and its rank and file tend to be poor•. It is highly puritanical and xenophobic, and it is characterized by an exclusivism unusual in Iraqi Shi'ism. To any extent that it emerges as a leading social force in Iraq, it will prove polarizing and destabilizing. In spring and summer of 2003 its leadership had decided not to challenge actively the coalition military. In contemporary theories of the sociology of religion, a "sect" is characteri~ed by a high degree of tension with mainstream society, employing a rhetoric of difference,antagonism, and separation.2 The "~igh-tension" model of the sect predicts that it will attempt strongly to demarcate itself off from the mainstream of society. It will also cast out those members who are perceived to be too accommodating of non-sectarian norms., it demands high levels of loyalty and obedience in the pursuit of exclusivism. IRAQI SHI'ISM IN HISTORY Under the Ottomans, a Sunni political elite flourished in what is now Iraq, with political ties to Istanbul. Shi'ism remained vigorous, however. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many tribespeople of the south converted to-the Shi'ite branch of Islam, under the influence of missionaries sent out from the shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala, where Shi'ite holy figures Imam 'Ali and Imam Husayn were int~rred. -2. Rodney Stark an~ William Sims Bainbridge, The Future ofReligion (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University ofCalifornia Press, 1985), pp. 19·34, 135. -+ 1~4:00PM • ",!, ~ ..J f 1~-:crQru IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*545 'Ali was the son-in-law and cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, and Husayn was the prophet's grandson. This tribal conversion movem~nt appears to have been a protest of the weak, a way of using religion to resist the power of the Sunni Ottoman bureaucracy•. Over time, it created a Shi'ite majority in what was to become Iraq. This region also witnessed the victory among Shi'ites in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries of the Usuli ,school ofjurisprudence, which held that all lay believers must follow or "emulate" a learned ShiCite jurisprudent with seminary training. They are to implement the rulings of this "object of emulation" (marja t al-taqlid) with regard to disputed points of Islamic law. They can only follow a living jurisprudent or mujtahid, however, with regard to any new issues that arise after the old one's death. The Usuli school gave to Shi'ite clerics a leadership position much more powerful and central than typically was bestowed by Sunni Muslims on their clerics.3 The British conquered Mesopotamia during World'War' I, and created out of Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra provinces (Arabic wi/ayat) a colonial state they called Iraq, which became formally independent in 1932..They cobbled together a big Kur4ish community in the north, $ome Thrkmen tribespeople, Sunni townspeople of the cen' ter, and the Shi'ite tribes and settled urban and rural groups of the south, into a new state. The Shi'ite majority probably grew larger in the course of the 20th century, but Sunnis remained in control politically and economically, under the monarchy, then the officers-ruled republic of 1958-.968, and then the Ba'th (Arab nationalist) regime of 1968-2003. The.Ba'th massively persecuted the religious Shi'ites of the south. It especially feared the aI-Da'wa al-Islamiyya Party, founded around 1958, which aimed at establishing a 'Shi'ite-dominated Islamic state. 4 The rise of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1978-79 frightened the Ba'th , which launched a war against the Khomeinist state there, and simultaneously, cracked down hard on the radical Shi'ite clerics in Iraq such as Muhammad Baqiral-Sadr (d. 1980), who theorized an Islamic state.. Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, "Sadr I," was executed alorig with many -3. For the historical background ofmodem Iraqi Shi'ism, see Pierre-Jean Luizard, Lafonnation de l'Irak contemporain [The Fonnation ofContemporary Iraq] (Paris: Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1991); Yitzhak Nakash, The Shi'is 'of Iraq (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994); MeirLitvak, Shi'ite ScholarsofNineteenth Century Iraq (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Juan Cole,SacredSpace andHoly War: The Politics, Culture, andHistoryofShi'ite Islam (London: I. B.. Tauris, 2002), and Faleh Abdul-labar, ed., Ayatollahs, Sufis and Ideologues (London: Saqi Books, 2(02). • 4. Sal~ al-Khursan, Hiw al-Da'waal-Islamiyya: Haqa'iq wa watha'iq [The Islamic Da 'wa Party: Facts and !Jocwnents] (Damascus: al-Mu'assassa al-'Arabiyya li'I-Dirasat wa'I-Buhuth aJIstratijiyya, 1999); RUhaimi; '7he Da'wa Islamic Party:' in Abdul-Jabar, Ayatollahs, pp. 149-161; Keiko Sakai, "Modernityand tradition in the Islamic movements inIraq:'AmbStudies Quarterly, Vol. 23, No.1 (Winter2001), pp. 37-52; MahanAbedin, "Dossier: HezbaJ-Daawaal-Islamiyya: Islamic Call Party:' Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 5, No.6 (June 2003) at: http://www.meib.orglaniclesl 0306Jraqd.htm; HannaBatatu,"Shi'iteOrganizations in Iraq: AI-Da'wah al-Islamiyah and al-Mujahidin:' In Juan R. I. Cole and Nikki R. Keddie,.eds., Shi'ism andSocial Protest(New Haven: Yale University PreSs, 1986), pp. 179-200; Joyce N. Wiley, The Islamic Movement ofIraqi Shi'ites (Boulder, Co.: LynneRienner, 1992). -+-. --+- 1~4mPM ).' \0 ,; " .~ IL. .-<;r 546*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL other activists.5 The al-Da'wa Party g~ve birth to splinter groups like the Suprem~ Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq (founded by expatriates in Tehran in 1982) and the Sadr Movement, while remaining a separate party in its own right. In contrast, the mainstream Najaf clerical tradition in Iraq, exemplified by Abu al-Qasim alKhu'i (d. 1992), tended to be quietist and to reject Khomeini's theory that the clergy should rule (vilayat-e faqih).6 But unbeknownst to the outside world, many Iraq! Shi'ites, inspired by al-Sadr and his suc~essors, were being radicalized by the eP ample of Iran and by the brutality of the Ba'th persecution. THE POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY OF IRAQI SHrISM The Iraqi Shi'ites come from a number of distinct social niches. Over two million dwell in the poor neighborhoods of aast Baghdad, constituting some 8% of the total Iraqi population (est. at 24 million in 2003) and 13% ofthe Shi'ites. This quarter was called alThawra( URevolution") Township when it was founded by military dictator 'Abd alKarim al-Qasim in the early 19608, and was renamed Saddam City by the Baeth. It was settled by Shi'ite villagers who emigrated from the hardscrabble farms of the South, often retaining their tribal identities, customs, rituals and ties in their new environment. Some young people there even go back to their villages to consult with their tribal chieftains from time to time.? The new generation quickly became in important senses urban in outlook. As soon as the Ba'th fell in spring of 2003, its inhabitants renamed it Sadr City, areference to Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr ("Sadr II"), who had been assassinated by Saddam's agents in 1999.. The residents of East Baghdad live under appalling social and economic conditions, with little access to basic necessities such as sewerage, clean water, and decent housing. Unemployment is high. The quarter suffered dreadfully from Ba'th party repression, with many killed in uprisings in 1977, 1991 and 1999. East13aghdad is thus a fertile ground for Shi'ite radicalism and populism, and its residents seem largely to· favor the Sadr nMovement. Shi'ites predominate in Basra, Iraq's second largest city, which ha~ a population of about 1..3 million.. Basra is often said to be more cosmopolitan and secular than other Shi'ite areas, and its mayor under the British administration in the post-Ba'th period, Wa'il 'Abd ai-Latif, is a secular court judge. Still, religious factions are organizing there, and eyewitness accounts suggest that by.summer of 2003 even Christian women felt forced to veil when they went out of the house because of pressure from hard line ·Shi'ites.8 Basra has been a center of a breakaway faction of the al-Da'wa Party, Tanzimal-Da'wa, which rejected Khomeini's theory of clerical rule. It also has .5. TaIib Aziz, '7he PoliticalTheory ofMuhammad Baqir Sadr:' in Abdul-labar, pp. 231·244; Chibli Mallat, The Renewal of Islamic Law: Muhammad Baqer al-Sadr, Naja/. and the Shi'i International (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). 6. YusifAl-Kho'i,"GrandAyatollahAbu aI-Qassim aI·Kho'i:' inAbdul·labar, pp. 224-230; Jawdat aIQazwini, ''The School ofNajaf:' in Abdul-labar, pp. 243·264. 7. Hazim aI-Amin, "'Baghdad allati lam talal hi 'asha'iriha rna talaluhu al-mudun hi'!- 'asha'ir" ["Baghdad which Has Not Dealt with its nibes as Other Cities Don], A/.Ba)'at, July 10, 2003. 8. "Christians Under More Pressure in Postwar Iraq: Intemew with Marie Angel Siebrecht ofAid to the Chun:hinNeed:' ZenitNewsAgency,July4,2003at!englishlvisua!izza.phtml?sid=38309. -<;r- ~I • CoItFN1p65 _ -<;r- 10r'B.'2003. 4:00PM -I r.- •• IL THE US AND SHI'lTE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*541 substantial numbers of followers of the Sadr Movement, and of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, about which more below. A little over a fifth of Iraqi Shi'ites therefore live in the big cities. Another important stratum lives in important towns in the south. These towns average populations between 100,000 and about 600,000 persons. They include al-Zubayr (l74,000), Samawah (128,000), Nasiriyya (560,000), 'Amara (351,000), Kut (400,000), Diwaniyia (443,000), Hillah (548,000), Kufa (119,000), Najaf (585,000), Karbala (572,000), and Baquba (295,000). Samarra' (207,000), a northern town with a Shi'ite quarter, can also be listed here.9 These substantial towns accounted for nearly 4.5 million residents in 2003, largely Shi'ites, and therefore for about a third of the Iraqi Shi'ite population. Many Shi'ites Jiving in them are merchants and shopkeepers, insofar as government employment Was often denied to them or seep as undesirable by them under the Ba'th.lo The towns differ among themselves in character. Najaf, KarbaIa and Samarra stand out in being shrine cities, where Imams are buried that Shi'ites consider rightful heirs and successors to the prophet Muhammad. They also have seminary establishments, training clerics. The clerics of Najaf in particular enjoy great prestige in Iraq and throughout the Shi'ite world, and in the twentieth century outside Iran the co.nvention has been tharthe most senior grand ayatollah in Najaf is the chief legal and religious authority for lay Shi'ites. Each town has a different religious and political orientation. The al-Da'wa Party ,seems particularly strong in Nasiriyya. Baquba and Kut, in the east near Iran, are under the influence of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI).u This group had its origins in the al-Da'wa Party but became a separate organization in 1982. In 1984, Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim came to head it" and he remained at the helm thereafter, until his assassination in the car bombing outside the Shrine of 'Ali in Najaf on August 29, 2003.12 SeIRI was based .in Tehran for two decades.. Kufa, like. East Baghdad, is a stronghold of the Sadr Movement. Some other substantial towns are more tied to the tribes and the rural areas, and have seen recent large influxes of marsh Arabs and other political refugees from the countryside. These relatively newly settled townspeople are used to being armed, and so for them, the Anglo-American troops' a~tempts to confiscate their rifles have produced a great deal of tension. Another large proportion of Shi'ites lives in small towns and villages in the countryside. The rural Shi'ites are now a minority. They tend to be organized by tribe though few are any longer pastoral nomads, and to practice a folk Shi'ism at variance .-9. Population statisticsare from Stefan Helder, "WorldGazetteer:'athnp:l!! frlfr_iq.htm; an imponant recent overviewofShi'ite currents in Samma' is Hazim aI-Amin, IiSamarra' wa Ikhwatuha," ["Samarra' and its Sisters"] AI-Hayat, IS July 2003. 10. Ma'd Fayyad, ~~Shahid 'ala Rihlatal-Khu'i ilaal- ~lraq." [Witness to the Journey ofaI-Khu'i to lraq"],AI-Sharq al-Awsat, April 28, 2003. - 11. Juan Cole, "Mariage mal assoni entre les radicaux chiites irakiens et les Etats-Unis:' ["Mis~ matched Marriage Between Radical Shi'ites and the US"], Le Monde Diplomatique (July 2(03). 12. Mukhtar aI-Asadi, AI-Taqsir al-Kabir bayna ai-Salah wa al-Islah [Mere Passive Goodness Falls FarShort ojActiveRejorm](Beirut: DaraI-Furat, 2001). -" CoIeFN1.p65 _ 547 1MWOO3" 4:00 PM Ii -I '-..J I 1-----·:cQm ·i IL 548*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL with the more scholastic and bookish Shi'ism of the seminary cities. They invest their tribal shaykhs with great authority, and often with some religious· charisma, as well (the shaykhs often claim to be Sayyids or Sharifs, i.e., descendants of the prophet.) On July 8,. a convention was held by Iraqi tribal leaders, representing the rural Shi'ite tribes of the center and south of Iraq called ''The' Bloc of Democratic Iraqi tribes." They 'aimed at ensuring they have a voice in the governance of Iraq. The convention chair, GhaIib al-Rikabi, insisted that Iraqis themselves draft the new constitution and demanded early elections for an Iraqi govemment.13 A subset of the rural Shi'ites is the so-called marsh Arabs, said to be about 500,000 strong. They once dwelled in the swamps of southern Iraq, working as fishermen, hunters, farmers and smugglers. In the 1990s, the swamps were used by Iranbased paramilitary organizations of Iraqi expatriates to infiltrate into Iraq and strike at Ba'th targets, and the marsh Arabs themselves often resisted Ba'th rule. They were organized politically and militarily by the Iraqi Bizbu'llah, a radical group that fought a guerrilla war against the Iraqi·state. The Ba'th found it difficult to operate in the .marshes and therefore drained them. The marsh Arabs were forced to settle in poor southern towns such as Majar al-Kabir, or to go to small cities like Amar:a, where they largely subsisted in poverty, having lost their livelihoods. In the aftermath ofthe second GulfWar, 'Abd aI-Karim Mahmudal-Muhammadawi, a marsh Arab who had fought guerrilla actions against the Ba'th under the nom de guerre ofAbu Hatim, emerged as an important civic leader in Amara. He provided security with . the help of his tribal militia (presumably Hizbullah). Although an observant Shi'ite, he decries "religious fanaticism" and urges tole~tion. In early July 2063, he was also insisting on the quick formation ofan indigenous Iraqi government and an early end to what he caIled American occupation.14 The tragic clash between British troops and residents of Majar al-Kabir on June 23 and 24, in'which six British trQOps were killed, came about in large part because the British insisted on disanning the population. Arab tribesmen origi., nally from the marshes saw this step as a way of dishonoring them and rendering them defenseless. for people who had lost everything, being without arms to protect their families was afrightening prospect.IS Muhammadawi himself played an important role in calming tensions after the clash.16 Of all these groups, the urban religious Shi'ites are the most highly networked for political and crowd action. Najaf, the chief shrine city, provides much of the leadership and organization, whereas the slum dwellers ofEast Baghdad can easily be bused as foot soldiers to the center of Baghdad for rallies. Other urban populations -13. Ai-Bayat, July 8, 2003. 14. Patrice Claude, "Dans Ie sudde l'Irak, Ie 'Seigneur des marais', hiros de la resistance cOnlre Saddam, aspire II la paix," ["{n southern Iraq, the 'Lord ofthe Marshes', Hero ofthe Resistance against Saddam, Hopes for Peace"], Le Monde, July 3, 2003•. IS. PatrickCockburn in MajaraI-Kahir, "MarshArabs threaten to resist 'Anny ofOccupation,'" The Independent (London), June 27,!."'eastl story.jsp?story=419367. 16. Michael Howard and Jamie Wilson, "British forces try to mend fences in town where six soldiers died,"The Guardian, June 28,2003. -<fr- 1CW12OC)3, 4;00PM Ir .. .f"I. IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*549 have also demonstrated a potential for crowd action. Some 10,000 demonstrated in Basra against the US occupation in June. As many as 20,000 demonstrated in Nasiriyya in late April, and there have also been-demonstrations in Baquba. THE AFl'ERMATH OF THE 1991 UPRISING The religious movements of contemporary Iraqi Shi'ites today have important roots in the failed rebellion against the Ba'th of spring, 1991.17. During the first Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush called up0D: the Iraqis to rise up and overthrow Saddam Husayn. When Saddam was forced to withdraw from Kuwait and seemed weakened, the people did just that. It is alleged that 17 of 19 provinces were lost to the Ba'th government in the popular uprisings ofMarch and April, 1991. In major Shi'ite population centers such as Basra, Nasiriyya, and Najaf, local Shi'ite religious figures emerged as popular political leaders supplanting Ba'th authority. The leaders were aware that the uprising could succeed Oldy if it received US support. But the request for assistance by Grand Ayatollah Khu'i on March 11 was rejected by the US. The Ba'th military, ~eeing that the US had decided to remain neutral, massacred tens of thousands. It also rounded up the prominent clerics of Najaf and Karbala, seen as ringleaders of the southern revolt, and over 200 were executed or made to disappear. Others escaped into exile in Tehran or London. The property of many clerics was also expropriated by the regime. The major scholars who remained lived under virtual house arrest, their movements and statements closely watched by the Ba'th secret police. How many persons were killed and buried in mass graves may never be known, . but it certainly ran into the .tens of thousands._ Iraqi Shi'ites have for the most part never forgiven the US for its callous policy of standing by during these massacres. Najaf's seminary establishment -was gutted ~nd its student body shrank precipi-tously. The preeminent Grand Ayatollah in Najaf in the 1970s through his death in 1992 at the ag~ of .93 was Iranian-born quietist Abu al-Qasim al-Khu'i. After his death, one of his sons, Taqi, garnered respect as an ayatollah in Najaf, but died under suspicious circumstances in an automobile accident in 1994. His remaining son, 'Abd ai-Majid al-Khu'i, had relocated to London, where Khu'i senior had in 1989 established the Khoei Foundation (that is how the family spells the name in English). 'Abd . ai-Majid, then only 40, Was too young to become the object of emulation for Iraqi Shi'ites, but he did become involved with Iraqi expatriates aiming.for the overthrow of Saddam. Husayn. The repression of the Shi'ite establishment was so severe in the aftermath of the crushed uprising that Najaf became a shadow of its former self, and its twentieth century position as a center of Shi'ite leadership and learning was threatened with oblivion. In 1900, Nakash estimates that there had been 8,000 seminary students in Najaf, but the shrine cities declined under the British Manda~e and the Sunni monar- -17. Keiko Sakai, "The 19911ntifadah in Iraq: Seen through Analyses of the Discourses ofIraqi Intellectuals:' in Keiko Sakai, ed., Social frotests andNation-Building in the Middle East andC.entral Asia (Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developing Economies, 2003), pp. 156·172. 101&'2003, 4.:COPU ·I~ . .'" 550*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL chy, so that by 1957 there were only about 2,000 students there. There may have been a slight rebound during the "golden age" of intellectual activities in the shrine cities during the 19605 and 1970s. But after the Ba'th crushed the movement of the late 1970s and began deporting lraqis of Iranian heritage, Najaf's student body shrank . once again, to only a few hundred. 18 In the 1990s the decline became even more steep. Clerics pulled back from teaching anything but the most basic classes in Shi'ite law and practice, lest their teachings be viewed by the secret police as seditious. ~ Friday prayers were for the most part banned, and clerics often declined to hold them in public.. ~9 Qom, in Iran, emerged as the intellectual center of Shi'ism, as Najaf's campuses became a virtual ghost town. Najaf the city continued to flourish, as a provincial capital, growing to over 500,000 residents in the late 1990s from 134,000 in 1965. Reversing the historical situation that had obtained for two or three centuries, "town" thus became substantially more'important than "gown." Even in the tense and repressed circumstances of the 1990s, religious leadership did emerge in the shrine cities. Grand'Ayatollahs 'Ali Sistani, 'Ali al-Gharawi, and Shaykh 'Ali Muhammad Burujirdi were among the m9re prominent, though Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr also began to become respected for his small symbolic acts of defiance against the regime. Sistani, who was born around 1930 in Mashhad, had come to Najaf in 1~52. He came to have the largest reputation outside 'Iraq, gradually succeeding to the position ~I-Khu 'i had enjoyed, ofchief legal anq religious authority for many Shi'ites in Lebanon and elsewhere outside Iran and Iraq. He also garnered support from the older generation of Iraqi Shi'ites that had followed alKhu'i. His growing reputation worried the Ba'th regime, which in 1996 launched an unsuccessful assassination attempt against him, in which two employees of his office were killed and two others wounded.20 He was not the only target, or the only postuprising leader to enjoy new prominence. In April of 1998, Grand Ayatollah Murtada .Burujirdi was shot down by an unknown assailant, who escaped. In June of the same year, gunmen sprayed Kalashnikov fire at the car of Grand Ayatollah Ali Oharawi, killing him and three others in the car. The regime attempted to imply that the deaths were the result of internecine fighting within the clerical establishment, and executed several minor Shi'ite clerics whom ,it accused of the assassinations.:n No one inside the Shi'ite community doubted that these were the actions of~a'th Party death squads. THE SADR MOVEMENT IN THE 1990s An up-and-coming figure in the 1990s was Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr.. His rival, Sistani, enjoyed the greatest reputation as a scholar and a jurist, especially outside -18. Nakash, The Shi'is ofIraq, pp.256, 259;he gives only 150as the number ofNajafseminarians in the 19808; this seems low for that period; see a high~r numbercited in Footnote 19. 19.MukhtarAsadi,Al.Sadral-Thani:al-shahidwatl-shahid,al-zahirawa-rududal-ji'1[Sadrll:The Witnessandthe Martyr, the Phenomenonandthe Reaction], ([Iran]: Mu'assasat ai-Acraf, 1999), pp. 53-54; he says in the 19808 the number ofstudents fell to 700. See the preceding footnote for anotherestimate. 20. Al-Ha)'at, Dec. 3, 1996, via BBCSummary ofWorld Broadcasts, Dec. 4, 1996. 21. AI-Thawra, March 14, J999, via BBC Summary ofWorld Broadcasts, March 17,1999. -+-. 10I8l2OO3. 4:00 PM Ir• oJ'\ IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*551 Iraq. Sistani's cautiousness about getting involved in politics, however" appears to have made many local Iraqis impatient with him. The more militant younger generation of Iraqi Shi'ites turned to Muhammad Sadiq, a cousin of the martyred revolutionary Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, who was executed in 1980. Muhammad Sadiq was born March 23, 1943, into a prominent clerical family. He married the daughter of his paternal uncle, who bore to him four sons, Mustafa, Muqtada, Mu'ammal, and Murtada. The first three of these married daughters of Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr. lie also had two daughters. Educated in the seminary founded by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, he received his certificates of independent legaJ reasoning (ijazat al-ijtihad) in 1977, when he was only 34. The diplomas were granted by Muhammad Baqir aI-Sadr and Abu al-Qasim al-Khu'i. He studied law with Ruhu'llah Khomeini (who labored in exile in Najaf 1964-1988). Muhammad Sadiq had a wide-ranging intellect. He not only excelled in the Islamic branches of knowledge, but also learned fluent English, and studied psychology and. history. AI-Asadi says that I!is history tutor,Dr., Fadil Husayn, considered him his best student and presented him with a rare copy of The Paris Commune (presumably the one authored by Karl Marx).22 This anecdote suggests the way in which leftist and Marxist influences circulated even in clerical circles in the shrine cities, a phenomenon that went back at least to the 1950s. Muhammad Sadiq wrote a Shi'ite commentary on the 1789 "Rights of Man" issued by the French revolutionaries. Muhammad Sadiq was briefly imprisoned by the Ba'th in 1972 and again (with over two dozen others) in 1974. The second time, he was tortured, though he escaped the fate of five of his colleagues who were secretly executed.23 On his release in 1915, he turned to Shi'ite mysticism (al-'ir/an), and engaged in ascetic practices. His self-denial went to the extent that Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr advised him to be more moderate. 'bfan is a Shi'ite form of individ~alistic Sufism, and although some cler-. ics have been attracted by it, it is unusual. for someone so centrally located in the ,seminaries to pursue it (though Khomeini also had a keen interest in the works of medieval Sufis). Muhammad Sadiq studied the subject with a common wage-earner in Najaf, provoking astonishment. When pressed on the issue, he explained that close.. ness to God does not depend on knowledge, but rather on the goodness of the self, and he cited the prophetic saying, HGod has hidden his $aints among his servants!'24 He remained a mystic all his life, and the egalitarian ethical and spiritual outlook it fostered appears to have made him especially beloved by the poor and the co~mon people. Under the influence of Khomeini and ofMuhammad Baqir ai-Hakim, Muhammad Sadiq came to believe in the necessity to establish an Islamic state. Indeed, he main-. -22. Al..Asadi, AI-Sadr al-Thani, pp. 28..29. 23•. 'Adil Ra'uf, Muhammad Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr: marja'iyat ai-maydan: mashru'a al-. thaghayyiri wa-waqa'i' al-;ght;yal [MuhammadMuhammadSadiqal-Sadr: The ReligiousLeadership ofthe Arena: His Transformational Plan and the Facts ofthe Assassination.] (Damascus: Markaz al.. 'Iraqi Ii'l-I'lam wa-al..Dirasat, 1999), p. 92; Phebe Marr, The Modem History ofIraq (Boulder, Co.: Westview Press, 1985), p. 237. . 24. AI-Asadi, al·Sadr al-Thani, pp. 29·30. .-+- II ·55' '~4:COPM 1,1 '. ;..,. IL 552*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL tained that Islamic law could not be fully implemented without such a state. In 1984, four years after the execution of his cousin, "Sadr r' (Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr), he began functioning as an object of emulation for lay Shi'ites. He was imprisoned for a third time after the 1991 uprising, for having issued a strong statement in its support. 2.S On his release, he threw himself into organizing the Shi'ite community, especially in populous East Baghdad. He established informal Shi'ite courts that would adjudicate issues among Shi'ites outside the secular Ba'thist legal system. He also gained wide influence among the settled tribes. Unlike most clerics, he worked with tribal leaders to find ways of addressing clan customs and law in the framework of Shi'ite jurisprudence.26 He took increasingly controversial stances as the 1990s progressed, forbidding membership in the ruling Ba'th Party and forbidding Iraqis to hold Friday prayers in the name of the secular authority, "The Leader-President" (i.e. Saddam Husayn). He forbade cooperation with the Mujahidin-e Khalq, an anti-Khomeinist Iranian guerrilla group that was given bases in Iraq by the Ba'th. He accepted Khomeini's theory of the guardians~ip of the jurisprudent, which required ultimate clerical control of society, and called upon his students and congregations tQ esta!>1ish a state like it in Iraq. He condemned-women for coming in public unveiled, saying that for even one hair of her head to show is religiously prohibited.2'7, He is also said to have ruled that even Christian women living in lVIuslim societies must veil.. He took hard line·stances against Israel anq the United States, maintaining that if only the Shi'ite clerics would unite; they could easily defeat Israel. A recording of his Friday sermon for December 25, 1998, reveals his congregants chanting, "No, no to falsehood; No, no to America; No, no to Israel; No, no to imperialism; No, no to arrogance; No, no to Satan!" He made war against the influence of American popular culture, and discouraged his followers from wearing clothing with American labels. He scolded one couple who had put their toddler in American clothes, saying words to the effect that "Why do you imitate the West, when they try to subject you to their monopoly!. Think!. Analyze!"~8 Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr criticized Grand Ayatollah Sistani for locking the outer door ofhis office, thus barring casual visitors, after the assassinations ofGharawi and ~urujirdi. He said that if this were done as a sign of mourning and as a protest, it was understandable, but if it was done out of fear, there was nothing to fear. He also developed a theory of the "silent jurisprudent" and the "speaking jurisprudent," saying that quietist Shi'ite leaders i,mplicitly uphelQ the oppressive status quo, and insisting that the only ethical course for an object of emulation was to speak out against tyranny., This h~lfsh condemnation of Sistani and other quietist clerics in· Najaf provoked a severe split in the Shi'ite population. He appointed as his successor Sayyid Kazim al-Ha'iri. An Iraqi cleric resident in Qom, Iran, and associated with the al-. -25. Ra'uf, Sadiq al.Sadr, p. 92. 26. Ra'uf, pp. 113 ff.. 27. AI-Asadi, AI-Sadral.Thani, p. 64 28. Ra'uf, Sadiqal.Sadr, pp. 207, 217,. --<t-. t~4:OOPM · .... 'jf~--~ JL THE US AND SHI'ITB RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*553 Da'wa Party, al-Ha'iri had also embraced Khomeini's theory of vilayat-efaqih or the rule of the clerical jurisprudent and had attempted to subordinate the Iranian branch ofal-Da'wa to the authority ofthe SupremeJurisprudent(Khomeini and then Khamenei) in Iran.29 Despite the Ba'th prohibition on the holding of Friday prayers, Muhammad S~diq insisted on trying to revive them, giving moving and defiant sermons at his mosque in Kufa on social issues that thrilled his congregations. He sent representatives (wukala') to mosques throughout Iraq, but especially in East Baghdad, who opened the mosques on Fridays and preached to crowds as large as 2,000, despite Ba'th opposition. His representatives were tightly networked and had the reputation of being young, upright and highly competent. Unlike those of.other Objects of Emulation, his representatives were forbidden to represent anyone but him, an exclusivism that clashed with pluralistic Najaf traditionJO He considered holding Friday prayers to be an unambiguous duty, even though this was a minority position in Shi'ite legal thought, because they were a symbol of Islam at a time·and place where it was under attack. Crowds began chanting slogans at the prayers such as "Our frophet is Muhammad, our leader is Muhammad, our messiah is Muhammad," and "Our first is Muhammad, our middle is Muhammad, an4 our end is Muhammad." The middle term, their leader, was of course Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr himself. This adulation seems to have gone well beyond the typical veneration for an "object of emulation." In one of his last sermons, he compared.Saddam Husayn to the medieval Umayyad Caliph al-Mutawakkil, who is vilified by Shi'ites. for his persecution of them. 31 The Ba'th regime was extremely disturbed by these sentiments, and by MuhammadSadiq's defiance in holding the Friday prayers and in establishing a dense network of activist mosques. One of his fatwas is said to have stipulated that it was not wrong to kill a , Ba'thist persecutor, and he met with some members of th~ paramilitary Badr Corps, based in Iran, which snuck across the border to strike at Ba'thist targets in lraq.32. AI-Hayat newspaper reported that Ba'th internal security warned Muhammad Sadiq about his defiance in early 1999, but was rebuffed.33 On February 18, 1999, he was gunned down in his car with sons Mustafa and Mu'ammal as he was driving home from his office on the outskirts of Najaf. Southern Iraq erupted in demonstrations and riots, which were brutally put down. Over 100 were killed in Najaf, and 54 more in East. Baghdad, while demonstrations spread to provincial cities. The total.death toll was put at 200. After Muhammad Sadiq',s death, Iraqis were divided on to whom to pledge their religious allegiance. Some followed Sistani, while others turned to MuhammadSadiq's appointed successor, Sayyid Kazim al-Ha'iri.34 The latter, however, had the disadvan- -29.AI-Asadi,Al.Sadra.l-Thani, pp.ll ff.,94,99-100, 109, 221-222; Khursan,HizbaI.Da4wa,PP. 411-420., .30. Ra'uf, Sadiq al·Sadr, pp. J42 ff., pp. 160-161. .31. AI-Asadi, Al-Sadrai-Thani., 57-63. .32.. Ra'uf, Sadiq al-Sadr, pp. 216-217• .3~. AI.Hayal, February 22, 1999 (Arabic text)• .34. AI-Hayat, March 9, 1999, BBCSummary ofWorld Broadcasts, March II, 1999. 10t'&'20CX\ 4...00PM 1·1 · .,,-., ..J(L--·~ IL -+-. CoIeFlnalp65 .554*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL tageof residing in Qom and of being somewhat distant from the daily realities in Iraq. The young Muqtada al-Sadr (born in the early to mid-1970s), on~ of Muhammad Sadiq's surviving sons, now went underground, using his father's networks to establish a tight, clandestine organization among the poor and repressed Shi'ites of Kufa and East Baghdad. He had not finished his studies and so was not a legitimate Object of EmulatioQ for the laity in his own right. But he won their hearts as a leader.. He retained the loyalty of many of his father's devotees and agents, and, unbeknownst to the outside world, established the most effective religious opposition movement in Iraq. His followers became k:nown as al-Sadriyyun, or the Sadrists, and their organization was Jama'at al-Sadr al-Thani, the Sadr II Movement. They were characterized by a Puritanism, militancy and intolerance that was very different from the genteel Najaf tradition. They held that only the legal rulings of Muhammad Sadiq alaSadr could be followed, rejecting any other religious authority. They insisted that the leadership of Iraqi Shi'ites be invested in Iraqis, a slam at Iranian-born Sistani.. The strict code of moral conduct to which they aspired, their opposition to movie theaters, the serving of alcohol, and the appearance of wQmen unveiled in public, on the other hand, simply reflected the social and religious milieu of Najaf itself.?S For the moment, they constituted a proscribed and clandestine movement, but political events would soon allow them to make claims on local power. . THE SI\DR MOVEMENT AFTER THE FALL OF THE BA'TH Muqtada al-Sadr, underground in Najaf, saw the fall of the Ba'th coming in the spring of 2003, and arranged for the extensive mosque network of the Sadr Movement to be reactivated as $oon as th~ government collapsed under the weight of the Anglo-American invasion. He was aided in this endeavor by the quietism ofhis rivals, who had acquiesced in the Ba'th prohibition on Friday prayers, and so had not been running mosques. Even before the Sadpam regime fell on April 9, Sadr Movement militias rose against the Ba'th and expelled its police and soldiers from al-Thawra (Saddam City), which they promptly renamed Sadr City. (Accounts differ as to whether this uprising began on April 7 or April 8.) The mosques were immediately reopened, at least for organizational purposes, by Sadr Movement preachers such as Shaykhs Muhammad alaFartusi and 'Ala' al-Mas'udi. On April 8, Sayyid Kazim al-Ha'iri, the appointee of Sadr II living in Qom, Iran, is~ued a fatwa calling on Iraq's Shi'ites to ignore the Americans and simply take control of Iraq themselves, fighting against the cultural corruption the US would bring with it. He also made Muqtada his representative in Iraq, more or iess giving him authority to do as he pleased in alaHa'iri's name. Muqtada sent money around, made appointments of followers to take over public institutions, and signed numerous decrees posted on walls throughout Iraq.36 -.35. Fayyad, "Shahid.:' April 28. 2003• .36. Craig Smith, IIShiite Clerics Make Bid for Power:' New York TImes, April 26, 2003. II • •'.j t t I' .-II .-<fr IL. 1.1 THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*555 The mosques and their Sadr Movement preachers became centers of power.. They organized private militias of young men to go out and take control of the major hospitals in East Baghdadl7. They organized neighborhood patrols to reestablish security · with the disappearance of the Ba'th police. The Sadr Movement militias raided old Ba4th weapons depots and came away with stockpiles of Kalashnikov machine guns and rocket propelled grenade launchers, along with massive quantities ofammunition. They stored·these arms in mosques and safe houses.. THE BATTLE FOR NAJAF AND THE D/JATH OF AL-KHU'1 Muqtada faced three challengers for authority in the post-Ba'th environment. One was Grand Ayatollah Sistani and his colleagues at the Najafseminaries, with their quietist political tradition and their rejection of clerical rule. Another was the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI), which had been based in Tehran since 1982, and the members of which began returning to Iraq even before the Ba'th had fallen. SCIRl maintained a paramilitary wing, the Badr Corps, of about 10,000 trained men, and these began infiltrating back into Iraq. A third was a new force, 'Abd aI-Majid al-Khu'i (or al-KhOei), mentioned earlier in this article. He was flown to Kuwait by the Anglo-American Coalition that had invaded Iraq, and then given resources to go to Najaf around April.3. It has been alleged that al-Khu'i had been given $13 million by the CIA, and began spreading money around Najafin order to line up clients and begin taking over the city politically.38 It has also been said that he was accompanied by a CIA field officer and some Iraqi-American aides detailed to him, and sometimes by Coalition troops.39 His family and admirers dispute the CIA connection, but even his companions admit that he came to Najaf with American help. Now SO, and the son of the former Object of Emulation who had dominated Najaffor two decades until his death in 1992, al-Khu'i had the credentials to make a serious bid to become the chief religious and political authority among the Shi'ites. Muqtada's rougher followers in Najafviewed al-Khu'i's activities,.with extreme suspicion and anger. He was everything they stood against. They rejected the religious authority of anyone but Sadr II and his successors. They rejected clerics from Iranian lineages as leaders of Iraqi Shi'ites (conveniently'ignoring the Iranian antecedents of the al-Sades themselves). They rejected Western influence, and,saw al-Khu'i as little more than an American puppet. AI-Khu'i was attempting to get control of the shrine of Imam 'Ali, among the holiest sites in Iraq. Saddam's Fida'iyun had established themselves in the shrine and stockpiled grenades and ammunition there, firing at US~ -.37. Lara Marlowe, "Islamic Radicals Ready to Reach.for Power:' Irish Tunes, ,Aprill7, 2003; Juan Cole, "Shiite Religious Parties Fill Vacuum in Southern Iraq:' Middle East Report Online, April 22, 2003, at http://www.merip.orglmero/mer0042203.html. 38. Knut Royce with MuhammadBazzi, "Cleric's Killing aSetback to US: CIA Lost anAlly and $13 Million:'Newsday, May,3, 2003. 39. David Ignatius, "Omens ofTrouble in Iraq:' Washington Post, April 29, 2003. 1~~PM -<fr. -, I ... IL 556*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL troops from it in hopes of tricking them into harming the shrine and enraging the Shi'ite public. "The US military declin~d to fall for the trick. Eventually Saddam's forces became so exposed that they departed the shrine. The Sadr Movement militia immediately replaced them and claimed the weapons stockpi'e there.40 One of al-Khu'i's companions, Ma'd Fayyad, an Iraqi journalist, described what happened next in an eyewitness account. 41 His account is largely corroborated by the narrative of Jabar Khani la'far, the deputy keeper of Imam 'Ali's shrine.42 .Al-Khu'i decided that the easiest way to assert control over the shrine, wresting it from the Sadr Move~ent, was to rehabilitate the shrine keeper, Haydar Rafi'i Kalidar. The Kalidars had overseen the shrine for generations, and so al-Khu'i seems to have believed they would have legitimacy. But Kalidar had allowed himself to be co-opted by the Ba'th department of religious affairs, and had gained the reputation among many Najaf Shi'ites as a collaborator with Saddam Husayn as a result. The Sadr Movement, which mourned the martyrdom ofSadr II at the hands of Ba'th a~sassins, was particu-. lady bitter about prominent Shj"ites who they felt had secured their lives by collaborating. On April 9, al-Khu'i told Kalidar to start coming back to his office at the shrine, an attempt to install him there. Kalidar was there on April 10 wh~n al-Khu'i and his companions performed the rites of "visitation" or pilgnmage to the shrine.. Fayyad says that an angry crowd gathered in the square outside the shrine, chanting slogans in favor of Muqtada al-Sadr. -Determined to prevent 'Kalidar from becoming established at the shrine, they demanded that he be surrendered to them. They were also enraged that al-Khu'i was accompanied by Mahir al-Yasiri, an Iraqi Shi 'ite. settled in Dearborn, Michigan, who was part of an expatriate group helping the US forces and who was wearing a.US flack jac~et. The encounter became a firefight when someone in al-Khu'i's party, perhaps al-Khu'i himself, fired,a pistol over the heads of the Sadr Movement mob. They replied with gunfire, and killing aIYasiri. Eyewitness Ma'd Fayyad says that after an hour-long standoff, al-Khu'i and his party surrendered. He then maintains that al-Khu'i and others were bound and taken to Muqtada al-Sadr's house, but that the latterdeclined to admit them and that the word came back out that they should be kill~d in the squar~. Fayyad admits, however, that he had loosened his ropes and escaped before this point, so that he may have had this story second hand... Other accounts suggest a more spontaneous mob action, in which the crowd closed on al-Khu'i and Kalidar and stabbed them to death. If the Anglo-American Coalition had in fact entertained hope that al-Khu'i could exercise a moderating "influence in Najaf, the attempt died with him.· There seems little doubt that al-Khu'i fell to angry members of the Sadr Movement. -40. Fayyad, '·Shahid 'ala Rih/at al·Khu'; ila al.~lraq," [UWitness to the Journey of al..Khu'i to Iraq"], Al.Sharq al.Awsat, April 30, 2003. (Second Part of a two-part story previously cited.) 41. Ma'dFayyad, "Ightiyalal-7A';m al·Shi'i tAbdal-Majidal-Khu'ijiNajaf," [Assassination ofthe Shi 'iteLeader 'Abd al·Majidal..Khu'i in Najaf;' Al-Sharqal-Awsat,Aprilll, 2003. . 42. Meg Laughlin and Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, "Shiite Killing Described:' Knight Ridder News Service, April 27, 2003. 10I8l2OO3. 4:00PM 1·1 / rL ----III!II~ ...._-_.....!~ , ....... , '.' , • -.J I I • • -, THE US AND SHI'ITB RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN"IRAQ*557 Crowds from the Jama'at al-Sadr al-Thani, inclpding 50 armed'men, now surrounded the houses of Grand Ayatollah 'Ali Sistani and his colleague Ayatollah Muhammad Sa'id ai-Hakim, both of whom had been rivals of Sadr II and both of whom he had criticized by name..They gave the two 48 hours to leave Najaf, demanding that the Iraqi Shi'ite leadership, be solely in the hands of Iraqis.~3 'Sistani had, however, already left his home and gone into hiding, which was one reason al-Khu'i had never been able to meet him. The mobs made a similar demand of other major clerics, including the Afghan ayatoll~h, Ishaq al-Fayyad. The crisis lasted until Monday, April 14, when city elders brought armed tribal elements loyal to them into the town to restore order. The Sadr Movement crowds were dispersed and a modicum of security was regained.44 The US military forces were, throughout, careful not to intervene directly, because of the sensitivities of Shi'ites to the presence of foreigners at the shrine. Since the CIA had long cultivated the Iraqi tribes, and had spent millions to encourage them to rise against Saddam during the war, it is not impossible that the iribal take-over of the city was in part the Agency's doing. In the aftermath, the US forces appointed a Sunni ex-Ba'th officer who claimed to have turned against Saddam during-the war as the mayor of Najaf, and he kept order with his supporters until he was finally dismissed two months later for corroption and kidnapping. The battle for Najafwas inconclusive, though it is likely that Sistani retained his position mainly among the older inhabitants, while many of the youth gravitated to Muqtada. When for the ,first time Muqtada came out into the open and led Friday prayers at his father's old mosque in Kufa, on April 18, thousands attended. Sistani and. his senior colleagues remained much more circumspect about coming into public, for which Muqtada derided them. At his first Friday prayers sermon after the war, on April 18 in Kufa, Muqtada thanked God rather than the US "for religious freedom and for liberating us from-dictatorship." Thousands had flocked to hear him from among local laborers and farmers, suggesting the class base of his movement. He complained about the lack- of electricity and water, and implied that the US was deliberately withholding services. He also criticized then-SCIRI leader Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim, saying, "Religious people who went'into exile should not have left. The country needed them." Since Muqtada's father died for his insistence on remain-. ing, one can understand his bitterness. The slam at aI-Hakim was more than rhetorical. Shaykh 'Ali al-Maliki, the leader of the paramilitary branch of the Sadr Movement, toldjoumalist Lara Marlowe that his forces had driven Badr Corps fighters out of East Baghdad on April 17. She concluded that the rumors that Shi'ite militias were fighting off "Ba'thists" and "Wahhabis" were a cover for. internecine battles among Shi'ite forces themselves.4s -43. ··Jama'at Muqtada al·Sadrtuhasir Mandl al·Sistan;," [''The Muqtada ~-Sadr Movement Besieges the House ofAl-Sistani:·] Al.Sharqal·Awsat, April 14, 2003. 44. 14TadakhkhulShuyukh Qaba'ilal·Furat," ["Intervention ofthe Shaykhs ofthe EuphratesTribesn ]. Al.ShalrJ al·Awsat, April IS, 2003. 45. Lara Marlowe, report from Najar, The Scotsman, Apri119, 2003. t~4:COPU ·j I' I I_=~ IL +. 558*MIDDLBBASTJOURNAL AL-THAWRA TOWNSHIP OR "SADR CITY" The more important political action took place in the poor quarters of East Baghdad or al~Thawra, now informally known as Sadr City, where the Sadr Movement became a "youth movement" par excellence.s46 Journalist Muhammad Husni reported firsthand on April 17 that Sadr Movement militias had filled the power vacuum created by the fall of the Ba'th Party, establishing patrols and engaging in firefights with infiltrators. They had also organized the return of looted goods, and were providing food aid (rom the mosques. He reported strong anti-American sentiments among the Friday prayers leaders at the Sadr mosques, who insisted that the US leave as soon as possible. The movement leaders told flusni that the enemy infiltrators were "Arab volunteers:' with the implication that they wereal-Qaeda or Sunni Arab · nationaIists.47, We have aiready seen that Marlowe concluded they were actually fighting the Badr Corps. The following day, on Friday, April 18, the Sadr movement helped staged one of the largest demonstrations yet seen in post-war Iraq, with an estimated 20,000 Baghdadis coming out for it. Sadr Movement supporter Shaykh Muhammad al-Fartusi and self-styled "head Qf security" gave a rousing sermon at the al-Hikmah mosque in al-Thawra, saying that the Shi'ites would not accept a brand of democracy "that allows Iraqis to say what they want but gives them no say in their destiny," adding, "this form of government would be worse than that of Saddam Husayn.~' fie urged believers to follow the decrees of the Najaf religious establishment (by which he meant Muqtada al-Sadr), and listed ~ four-point code ofconduct, stressing that music, imitation of Westerners, women going unveiled, and preferring tribal custom to Islamic law are aU forbidden. After Friday prayers (where the congregants received their instructions), crowds poured into the streets, demanding that the US depart from Iraq and insisting on an Islamic state. Placards read, "Oetout Now," and "No to Bush, no to Saddam, Yes to Islam!." The largely Shi'ite crowds were joined by Sunni Islamists. Asupporting large demonstration was held the same day in the holy shrine city of Karbala, spurred on by the sermon of Sadr Movement preacher Kazim al-'lbadi alNasiri at the mosque attached to the shri~e of Imam Husayn, also demanding an immediate departure of US troops, saying "We reject this foreign occupation, which is a new imperialism."4& ' The religious rites of commemorative pilgrimage carried out by Shi'ites to Karbala that began over the weekend ofApril 19 and 20 did not, as some radicals had -46.Agood overview is al·Amin, "Baghdad allati lam taral/' and by the same author, "Madina tahkumuha shabakat masajidal-Hawzaal-Natiqa," ["CityGoverned by the Networks ofthe Mosques oftheSpeaking Religious Authority:' A1.Bayal, July'12, 2003, both parts ofa6-part series on Muqtada and Iraqi Shi'ism. 47. Muhammad Husni, "Rijal aJ-Din al-Shi'a yandafi'una Ii mil'al·Firagh al·Si)· al- 'Iraq," [Shi'ite Clerics Rush in to Fill the Political Void in lraq"],AI.Quds ai-'Arabi, April 18, 2003. 48. Hasan Hafiz, ~'Muzaharat Hashida," ["Mass Demonstrations"), AI·Quds ai-'Arabi, Apri119, 2003; Mohamed Hasni, "iraq's Friday Prayers IssueWarnings to US:'Agence France-Presse, April 19, 2003; "The Search Continues:' Monday Morning (Beimt),ApriI28, 2003. II 10l812003. 4iooPM ·11 • \i IL THE US AND SHI'ITB RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*559 hoped, tum into an anti-American political protest. The large crowds, in their hundreds of thousands, remained peaceful and apparently more interested in the pilgrimage itself than politics, though a small group occasionally chanted against the US occupation. Many followers of Sadr II stopped off at his tomb in Najaf to pay their re~pects.49 Shaykh Fartusi visited Najaf over that weekend to get instructions from Muqtada, and returned to Baghdad late Sunday,,after the curfew. He was stopped by Marines at a checkpoint, and they found a pistol in his car. They arrested him, apparently unaware of his importance. The next day, Monday April 21, the SadrMovement mobilized and bused 5,000 protesters to the center of Baghdad, who chanted for the release of Fartusi. The rallies of the previous Friday had been much less visible, because they took place in neighborhoods. This demonstration was the largest yet staged at the center of the city. It was repeated on Thesday, but then the Marines, finally aware of their mistake, released Fartusi. He maintained that he had been beaten and mistreated, saying that theUS was "worse than Saddam!' .so The Sadr Movement continued to express strong anti-Western feelings, with gangs threatening and closing down liquor stores and cinemas, and enforcing the veil on women. Some Sadr Movement clerics nevertheless cooperated thereafter with US military community development effoi:ts, and they continued to have great sway in East Baghdad, supplying food and other aid paid for by Iranian sources.51 Muqtada has taken a rejectionist but non-violent stance toward the US presence and its ~fforts to establish a new Iraqi government. He was invited by Jay Garner, the first US civil administrator of the country, to participate in a leadership conference held at Nasiriyya on April 28, but refused.52 He said, "I don't want the chair of the government because it will be controlled by the US and I don't want to be controlled by the US" Eyewitness journalist Nir Rosen reports that, "When asked if that meant he would want to attack the Americans, he snorted and replied with the colloquial Arabic equivalent of 'Why would I want to f**k myself1"'~3 The al-Da'wa Party also opposed that meeting, because it was being held by a former US General under Pentagon auspices. SelRI $ent a low-level delegation. Later, when Garner was replaced by civilJan L. Paul Bremer Ill, both SCIRI and al-Da'wa proved ultimaJely willing to join the new Governing Council that declared itselfon July 13 after negotiations with the US. Muqtada, however, refused, denouncing the plan at his June 14 Friday sermon at Kufa.$4 He later expressed severe reserva~ions that the Americans could establish a just government in Iraq, since they were opposed to a Shi'ite state. Muqtada called on May 2 for strict Islamic law to be applied to Iraq's Christians, as well, including the prohibition on bars and on allowing women to appear -49. Richard Uoyd Parry, "Pilgrimage represents Rebirth ofShia Faith:' The 1i'mes, April 21, 2003 (reporting from Najaf). 50. Nadiya Mahdid, "AI·Quwwat al-Amrikiyya tufrij 'an Rajul Din," ["American Forces Release ClericPIJ, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, April 23 2003; same author., ''AI-Fartusir,Al-Sluzrq al-Awsat, 24 April 2003; Craig S. Smith, "Shiite Clerics make Bid for Power:' New York limes, April 26, 2003. 51. Anthony Shadid, "Troops Test Cooperation With Clerics:' Washington Post, May 23, 2003., 52. Nadim Ladki, "Gamerto Meet Prominent Iraqis:' Reuters,· April 27,2003 (via Lexis Nexis). 53. Nir Rosen, "Shiite Contender Eyes Iraq's Big Prize:' 'lime Magazine Online, May 3, 2003. 54. AI-Zaman, June 16,2003. 10t'812003. 4:00PM II ,.----,=~ IL · .~ "if l , ; '.-1 I t .~ ~- 560*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL~ unveiled.55 This ruling appears to be a restatement of one of his father's fatwas, but this time the al-Sadr family had the authority to make it stick in some parts of Iraq. In contrast, Grand Ayatollah Sistani issued a statement saying that the Najaf establishment had not called for forcible veiling. Muqtada also forbade Iraqi merchants to deal with Kuwaitis, and his mentor Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri forbade Iraqis to seUland to Jews, calling for such Jewish buyers to be killed.56 The Sadr Movement stranglehold on power in al-Thawra continued to be strengthened in May, June, and July. Sadrists established informal Shi'ite courts in mosques to deal with local disputes, including over burglary and murder. Sadr II had run such courts clandestinely, but now they were the de facto tribunals of justice in many neighborhoods. The al-Muhsin Mosque 'was a key Sadr Movement institution in East Baghad. Shaykh Kazim 'Ibadi al-Nasiri called in his sermon on May 9 there for vigilante reprisal killings of Ba'thists, referring to a fatwa of Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri.57, In his sermon from the same mosqu~ on May 16, Shaykh Muhammad Fartusi thundered, "The cinemas in AI-Saadun Street show indecent films. I warn them: if in a week they do not change, we will act differently with them. Wewarn women and the go-betweens who take them to the Americans: If in a week from now they do not change their attitude, the murder of these women is sanctioned (by Islam). This warning also goes out to sellers.of alcohol, radios and televisions., The torching of cinemas w~uld be permitted," he said, if cinemas did not change their ways.58 In fact, many liquor shops, cinemas, and cosmetic shops·were closed by threats or in some instances tire bombings. DEMONSTRATIONS The Sadr Movement attempted to provoke numerous demonstrations in Baghdad and Basra, calling for a withdrawal of Anglo-American troops, as a way of showing its popl:llar influence. On May 14, hundreds of Shi'ites demonstrated in downtown Baghdad for an Islamic government, saying that it should be Shi'ite because they had suffered most under Saddam. On May 15, Shaykh al-'Ibadi al-Nasiri preached a thunderous sermon to 30,000 congregants at the Imam Sadr Mosque in East Baghdad, accusing US troops of using night vision goggles to see through women's clothes and of passing out pornography to children in the form of candy wrappers. He all but called for terror attacks on US forces. Ironically, the US forces had provided special security to the mosque. His sermon appears to have alarmed Muqtada al-Sadr back in Najaf, and it was announced that it had not been approved and that henceforth the -.55. Mohamed Hasni, uSadr Calls for Iraqi Christians to Follow Islamic Law;' Middle East Online, May 2, 2003•. 56. Ulraqi Fatwa Bans Trading with Kuwaitis;' Arab nmes (Kuwait), July 12, 2003; "Cleric Calls for Killing ofJews who Buy Land;' Reuter, June 28, 2003. 57. James Drummond and Nicholas Pelham, "Shia Clerics Urge Faithful to Attack Returning Ba'athists;' Financial 7imes, May 10,2003. _58•. "Shiite Leader in Baghdad WarnsWomen, Alcohol Sellers, Cinemas;'Agence France Presse, May 16,2003 (via Lexis Nexis). 11 1~4.'OOPM . '" 'j(I---~:~ •• IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*561 Najaf religious establishment (i.e. Muqtada) would have to pre-approve such sermons. Muqtada has steadfastly refused to sanction violence against A~ericans. That weekend, Shi'ite clerics like Shaykh Fartusi began calling for a million man march on Monday, May 19, the Shi'ite commemoration of the death of the Prophet Muhammad, wh~ch they had been forbidden by the Ba'th to mark on a day different from the one honored by the Sunnis. bn May 19, Shi'ites conducted the commemorative procession to a mosque, and about 10,000 Sadrists turned the occasion into an anti-American rally, demanding an Iraqi government overseen by the Najaf ayatollahs and the departure of the Americans.s9 Given the difference between Fartusi's predictions and the actual turnout, arid given that even it depended on the holy day procession, this outcome can only be seen as a setback for the Sadr Movement. Most Iraqi Shi'ites clearly were still willing to give the US time., On Thursday, May 29, hundreds of Shi'ites, including 50 clerics, gathered in downtown Baghdad to chant against the US for using troops to make arrests of armed clerics in Najaf. They also chanted against Israel, and called the US "the number one source of terrorism.~'60 The same day, a Baghdad cinema near the demonstration was rocked by a grenade attack, after defying·demands from the Sadr movement "punishment committee" to close down. On June 3, hundreds of Sadr Movement Shi'ites demonstrated against the US in downtown Baghdad, protesting the brief detention of Shaykh Jasim Sa'adi on weapons charges. Among those protesting were members of the breakaway Fadilah Party, a faction of the Sadr Movement headed by Shaykh Muhammad Ya'qubi.6l On Saturday, June 21, 2,500 Shi'ites demonstrated jn downtown Baghd~d at the behest of Sadr Movement preachers, demanding that the Najaf religious authorities establish and supervise the new Iraqi-government, and denouncing the Americans as occupiers. This protest came at a time when US civil administrator L. Paul Bremer seemed determined to relegate Iraqi leaders to a merely ~dvisory role. During his Friday Prayers sermon, Shaykh Kazim 'Ibadi al-Nasiri had told his 10,000 congregants that they were engaged in a "clash of civilizations," and urged them to gather downtown during his Friday prayers sermon. They were joined by worshippers from Kazimiyya and Shuala.62 June saw three big demonstrations against the British authorities in Basra, on June 1(5,000), June 7 (2,000), and June 15 (10,000). The BBC online reported of the June 7 rally, "They were said to have rallied on the instructions of an organisation named after Ayatollah Mohammed Sadeq al-Sadr . " ."63 Although ShiCite-unrest in -,59. "Shiites call for Iraqi government free offoreign influences:' Deutsche Press Agentur, 15May 2003; Warren Richey, "Reverberations from an I~q PrayerMeeting:' Christian Science Monitor, May, 19, 2003; "Shiites o~nly mark Mohammed's birthday in Iraq as lawlessness still reigns;' A~ May 19,2003. 60. "Hundreds ofShiites hold anti-US rally in Baghdad:' Agence France Presse, May 29, 2003. 61"Iraqis protest at arrest ofShiite dignitary," Agence France Presse, June 3,2003. 62. Patrick1Yler, "'2,000 at Rally Demand Jslamic Supervision ofElections:'New York 'limes, June 22, 2003; Anthony Shadid, "Iraqi Shiite Leader Uneasy With U.S. Role," Washington Post, June 23, 2003. 63. "Basra protest against British presence:'BBCNew~ Online, June7,2003 at Continuedon Next Page 581 1CWJ2OO3, ":00PM ,i lI'·~ • ~I 562*MIDDLBEASTJOURNAL Basra is often blamed on al-Hakim's Supreme Council for Isiamic Revolution in Iraq, the Sadr Movement is a considerable force in the city in its own right.64 Still, the demands of the protesters were remarkably local, having to do with discontents about the way the British were running the city and with their appointees to the governing council. FACIIONAUSM Muqtada al-Sadr ma4e a trip to Iran for a week beginning June 7, meeting'with high Iranian authorities and with his mentor, Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri. Given the subsequent tension that developed between the two, this meeting may not have gone well. The Iranians had supplied food and other aide to Sadr Movement clerics in East Baghdad, allowing them to gai.n popularity by providing services to the people. Muqtada may have been seeking further such aid. If so, the Iranians wanted a quid pro quo. They wanted the exclusivist and sectarian Sadr Movement to avoid any further internal Shi'ite clashes such as had broken out over al-Khu'i's arrival in Najaf in early April. Former Iranian president and head of the Expediency Council, 'Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanja~i, said "All Iraqi Shiite groups and fighters, especially those of the Supreme Assembly for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, should keep their unity and work for Iraq's interests by combatting internal and external conspiracies."6S Rafsanjani's pleading was not entirely successful. By late June, Muqtada was telling journalist Hazim aI-Amin that there was no coordination between him and the other Shi'ite leaders in Najaf, and that it was the fault of Grand Ayatollah Sistani and his colleagues, who were apolitical because they were not Iraqis. (This is a reference to his father's theory of the "al-Hawza al-Natiqa" or the "Speaking Religious Authority:' the mantle of which Muqtada now claims). AI-Amin also reported thatSistani and Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim of SCIRI had grown closer, in hopes of uniting against the threat of the exclusivist and powerful Sadr Movement. Muqtada told him that he believes in the Khomeinist theory of the role of the jurisprudent, but -Continuedfrom Previous Page Ilhilworldlmiddle_east/2972308.stm ; "Iraqis protest against new British. roler in Basra :' Agence france Presse, June I, 2003; "Iraqis protest against British role in Basra:'Agence France Presse, June IS, 2003. 64.. Andrzej Rybak, "Irak.Tageblicher: Basra holt Schwung JUr den Neubeginn," ["Iraq Diary: Basra gets Momentum for a New Beginning:' Financial 'limes Deutschland, AprilS, 2003 at http:// www.ftd.deJpw/inlIOS0940024444.html?nv=tn-rs. He says, "Viele unterstiitzen den jungen 'Religionsgelehrten Muqtada al·Sadraus Nadschaf, der gegen die Priisenzder USA in Irak. '.• eintritt." [Many .Support the Young Religious Scholar Muqtada al·Sadr of Najaf, who Stands against the US Presence in Iraq:'] 65. "Iran's Rafsanjani Appeals for UnityAmongRival Iraqi ShiiteGroups:'Agence France-Presse, June 8,2003,. See also "Muqtadaal·Sadr)'abhathfi Qumm lawdatal-Ha'iri ila al-Najaf," ["Muqtada al-Sa~r discusses in Qom the Return ofal-Ha'iri to Najar'), AI-ZLzman, June 6, 2003.. 1CW12oo3. 4:00PM IL .Q IL THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*,563 that the supreme jurisprudent of Iraq would be a different person than the supreme jurisprudent of Iran (among believers in the th~ory, a big debate has raged for over a decade over whether Iranian Supreme Jurisprudent 'Ali Khamenei's authority extends to aUShi'ites or is country-bound). Muqtada reaffirmed that he refused to cooperate with the American administratio!l, but also declined to oppose'it.66 June and July witnessed an- outbreak of fierce rivalry in Karbala between the Sadr Movement and followers of Grand Ayatollah Sistani over the right to preach in the mosque attached to the shrine of Imam Husayn, among the' more prestigious venues in the Shi'ite world. An agreement was initially reached to alternate each Friday, but then in e~rly July Muqtada issued a typically exclusivist decree that only Sadrist clerics had the right to lead prayers. On July 4, the two factions came to blows inside the shrine of the Imam, leaving the city polarized and tense.61. In July, as well, the Sadr Movement and SCIRI quarreled over the shrine of Imam 'Ali in Najaf.. In early JulY,Muqtada, who is said to be on the brink of being an independent jurisprudent (mujtahid) and Object of-Emulation himself, also began being,critical of his supposed mentor, Ayatollah Kazi1!l al·Ha'iri, for refusing to come ba,ck to Najaf from Qom, and suggesting that he did not after aU recognize him as a superior.68 For his part, according to the Iranian newspaper Baztab, al-Ha'iri began backing off his support for Muqtada, saying that offices dedicated to the memory ofSadr II should tie closed except in Najaf, and that the activities of the Muslims should henceforth be conducted under the shadow of. the quardian (Wafi) of the Muslims (i.e. al-Ha'iri himselt).69 If Baztab is to be believed, AI-Ha'iri was positioning himself to succeed . to Sadr II and sideline Muqtada. He received some help, inadvertent or not, when on July 16 Shaykh MuhammadYa'qubi finally declared himself an Object of Emulation, making formal the split of his al-Fadila group from the Muqtada loyalists.. His followers demonstrated again~t threats ~o him in Najaf, though the Muqtada group maintained that he had no local support and just brought in some'armed tribes~en to stage the demonstration. Ayatollah Kazim al-Ha'iri is said to have blessedYa'qubi's schism, saying he had the prerequisites for being an Object of Emulation.'° The movement o( Muqtada al-Sadr seems likely to survive this minor schism, and it continued to show, great popular strength through late summer.. Sadrists appear -to have been involved in riots against Marine patrols in Karbala in late July, resulting 66.'Hazim aI-Amin, "Arwiqatal-Hawzah fi at-Najaftadijj bi inqisamat:' [The Halls ofthe Hawzain Najaf are Riven with Divisions"] AI-HaYlJt, June 27,2003. " 67. Hamza Hendawi, "Once Showcased as Example of Peace, Holy Shiite City now Moving in Opposite Direction:' Associated Press, July 15,2003. 68. AI-Amin, "Madina tahkumuha shabakat." 69. "Awj-giri-yi Tanish miyan-i Sadri-ha va Majlis-i A'la:' ["Tensions Peak Between the Sadrists adn SCIRI"] Baztab, July 13, 2003122 Tir 1384 at index.asp?ID=9120&Subject=News 70. IIInshi 'ab darSadriha," ["SplitAmong the Sadris"] Bazrab, July 16, 2003/25 "lir 13~4 at: http:/ Iwww.baztab.comlindex.asp?ID=9299&Subject=News; theYa'qubi schism, which began last spring, is also reported bya)-Amini ,cMadina," andjournalist NirRosen in Najafkindly sent me an unpublished report he had done on aI-Fadila. I am also grateful to Trudy Rubin of the Philadelphia Inquirer for sharing inSights from her 3-week trip to Najafand other Shiite sites in May-June, 2093. - 1tlJ&'2OO3. 4:00 PM " ~ I,L 564*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL in one dead and nine wounded when the Marines replied to gunfire and shot into the crowd. In a Friday sermon in early August, Muqtada called on the IVJ;arines to be tried for murder in accordance with the sharia. Sadrists were definitely involved in major riots in Basra the weekend of Augus~ 9-10.. Followers of Muqtada have significant power in Basra, and are said to hold a third of the seats on the current city council. On August 15, Shi'ites in East Baghdad rioted against the United States because a military helicopter had blown a Shi'ite banner off a telecom tower. The banner invoked the promised one of Shi'ite.Islam, the Imam Mahdi, and appears to have been placed on the tower by Sadrists who believe he is· about to come back. Muqtada had announced that he would begin recruiting a militia called the "Mahdi Army," though he pledged it would be non-violent. Some 10,000 young men are ,said to have joined, and the banners put up in East Baghdad may have been in part celebrating the militia's formation. Muqtada continued to call for an immediate withdrawal from Iraq of American and British troops. When Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir aI-Hakim was killed along with nearly 100 others in a huge truck bomb in Najaf on August 29, SCIRI leaders began demanding an immediate US military withdrawal, as well.'Because of religious sensitivities about close Marines patrols in Najaf, after the bombing the US civil administrator Paul Bremer winked at the emergence of armed par~militaries in Najaf, including Badr Corps fighters trained by the Revolutionary Guards in Iran and members of Muqtada's· .Army of the Mahdi. The US military had been dead ,set against such paramilitaries appearing in public with arms, and indicated that it would not be tolerated for long. The bombing brought SCIRI and the Sadrists closer in their position on the Coalition military forces. It also removed an important rival to Muqtada, though Muhammad Baqir ai-Hakim never had the young al-Sadr's widespread popularity, in any case. Muqtada's enemies among the Sunnis accused him of blaming them for the bombing and of provoking Shiites to expropriate their religious sites., The Sadr movement remains significant in Iraqi street politics despite ·its exclusion from the Americanappointed Interim Governing Council and the new cabinet appointed in early September. 71 Observers on the ground rep9rt that the Sadr Movement controls the major mosques, Shi'ite community centers, hospitals and soup kitchens in East Baghdad, Kufa and Samarra', and has a strong presence in Najaf, Karbala and Basra, as well. Jt is highly networked, and its preachers have taken a strong rhetorical line against. what they view as an Anglo-American occupation. It is sectarian both in its demographic base (poor, urban and young) and its dedication to the themes of difference, antagonism and separation. Politically, jt must be seen as a movement of the populist Right, seeking to impose rellgious authority on the public, to. institute corporate techniques of control, to -reduce women to second class citizens, to exclude foreign influence, and to subordinate ihe minority Sunnis to Shi'ite religious leadership. -71.Acontinuingchronicle ofShi'itemovements in contemporary Iraq, with citations, may be found at; for these points, see theAugust and September2003 archives.} 10J8r'2003. 4:00 PM Tr-- , .. ,~ A• -<fr . IL ~I THE US AND SHI'ITE RELIGIOUS FACTIONS IN IRAQ*565 Sadr Movement adherents differentiate themselves from middle class and wealthier, more secular Iraqis of the sort who controlled Iraq politically for most of the twentieth century. They decry the wearing of Western-made clothes, patronizing movie theaters that show Western films, drinking alcohol, and the appearance in pub-. lic of unveiled women. They insist on the necessity of holding and attending Friday prayers at mosques. They also represent themselves as more socially conscious and caring than is the Westernized and individualistic Iraqi'middle class. Their militias provided security to millions of Shi'ites in the spring and summer of 2003, at a time when the Iraqi police force had collapsed and the Anglo-American forces were too small to provide $ecurity. Sadrist clergymen fought looting and insisted on the return oflooted merchandise. Adherents also specialize in providing food and medical aid to poor neighborhoods, seeking thereby to build a political base when elections come., They appear to have gained some Iranian patronage for these efforts. Sadrists are antagonistic to other social forces and often attempt to keep themselves separate from them. They denounce the Anglo-American presence in Iraq as a form of imperialism, insist that the occupiers leave immediately, and say that the US treatment of the Sadr Movement leaders they have occasionally arrested and released has been "worse than Saddam's.~' They accuse Western troops of using night vision goggles to see through women's clothes, and of distributing pornography to children in the form of candy wrappers. Some have called for the assassination of any Iraqi woman who forms a liaison with a Western soldier. Muqtada says that since the US is opposed to the erection of a Shi'ite state, he expects nothing good of i~ state-building efforts in Iraq. They attack the supposed influence of Jews andof israel.. The repertoires of social action to which they have resorted include large rallies in neighborhoods or downtown Baghdad, Najaf and Basra, orchestrated by the Friday prayers leaders at mosques. They also engage in social displays of power, as with their armed miiitia patrols,- though the US is attempting to outlaw the carrying of weapons in public. - Their antagonism to the secular middle class values of. the Iraqi political and economic elite is often extreme, and has sometimes been expressed in the form of firebombing cinema houses and liquor shops, or at least threaten,ing owners in an effort to make them close., Not only is the Sadr movement antagonistic to the Coalition and to secularist Iraqis, but it is hostile to other Shi'ite religious forces. The Sadrists insist that no Object of Emulation is acceptable who does not stand in the shadow of Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr. They thus break' with the mainstream tradition ofUsuli Shi'ism, which recognizes plural authorities and leaves it up to the individual believer to choose his or her ObjectofEmulation. They reject the leadership of Grand Ayatollah Sistani and the Najaf establishment, on the grounds that it i~ foreign and politically timid. They insist on having an Iraqi Object of Emulation, and one who speaks out rather th~n one who keeps silent, and some of them tried to force Sistani out of Najaf altogether. They have brought into question his right to appoint prayer leaders in other cities. The Sadr Movement attempte4 to exclude the Badr Brigade from East Baghdad, and is locked in a struggle with SCIRI for control ofthe shrine of Imam 4Ali in Najaf., In Karbala, they are battling supporters of Sistani for control of IrIL +. S66*MIDDLEEASTJOURNAL the mosque attached to the shrine ofImam Husayn. They have separated their congregation from the one led by Sistani's appointee. Their antagonism to these other groups is in part rooted in their attempt to monopolize sacred space in Iraq. Can the Sadrists maintain their political momentum? If the Defense Department scenario comes to fruition, and Iraq holds relatively free and fair elections~ in late 2004 or early 2005, the Sadr Movement's political" power may be diluted in a new Iraqi parliament that. they cannot hope to· dominate. Assuming they agree to field ~andidates, they could only hope to play in it the sort ofrole that the Lebanese Hizbullah does in the Lebanese parliament, where the radical party is often forced to cooperate with the Maronite Christians and other forces.. If, on the other hand, Iraq begins to collapse into insecurity and angry urban crowds seek an early exit ofCoalition forces, the Sadr Movement networks and militias will stand them in good stead in asserting power in East Baghdad and the south. It seems clear that the future of Iraq is intimately wrought up with the fortunes of the Sadr Movement. II 568. +. IrALL INFORMATION CONTAII~D HEREIN IS UlJCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/!sg ! , t'll 1 o 42. Th,e. Iranian Hand UNCLASSIFIED o UNCLASSIFIED Michael Ledeen, Wall Street Journal, 16 April2Q04, Page A14 Much is being made about the irony of an Iranian envoy arriving in Iraq to help negotiate a solution to the U.S. standoff with radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr. How could,we al~owa charter member of President Bush's"Axis of Evil" ~o negotiate a "peace" with the thuggish Sadr and his band of fanatical militants? Indeed, the irony is as thick as Sadr's own beard. But the fact that Iran holds sway over him and other Shiite militants in Iraq should surprise no one. Despite. repeated denials by the State. Department, it is an open secret throughout the Middle East that Sadr has b~en receiving support - if not precise orders -from the mullahs in Iran for some time now. That the. war.being waged by Shiite militants throughout Iraq is not just a domestic "insurgency" has been documented by the, Italian Military Intelligence Sendce. (Sismi). In a report prepared before the current wave of violence, Sismi predicted "a simultaneous attack by Saddam loyalists" allover the country, along with a series of Shiite revolts. The Italians knew that these actions were not just par~ of an Iraqi civil war, nor a response, to recent actions taken by the Coalition Provisional Authority against the forces of Sadr. According to Italian intelligence, the, actions were, used as a pretext by local leaders of the, factions tied to an Iran-based ayatQIlah, Kazem al-Haeri, who was "guided in his political and strategic choices by ultraconservative Iranian ayatollahs in order to unleash a long planned general revolt.II The. strategic. goal of this revolt, .says Sismi, was "the, establishment of an Islamic government of Khomeinist inspirati~n."The Italian intelligence agency noted that "the presence of Iranian agents of influence and military insmtctors has b~en reported for s,ome. time.Ii Our own governm~ntwill not say as much publicly, but Dona\d'Rumsfeld and Gen. John Abizaid, the commanderof U.S. force.s in Iraq, have/recently spoken of "unhelpful actions" by Iran (and Syria). / The Lonq.on-based Al-Hayat reported on April 6 that the Iraqi Governing Council was actiyely discussing lithe major Iranian role in the events that took place in the. Iraqi Shiite cities,'· noting that the Iranians ,were. the predominant financiers of Sadr. Another London newspaper, Al Sharq Al-Awsat', quoted a recent Iranian intelligence defector that Iranian infiltration of Iraq started well before Operation Iraqi Freedom. Hundreds of intelligence agents were sent into Iraq through the north. After the fall'of Saddam, greater numbers came across the uncontrolled border, masquerading as students, derics and journalists -- and· \ as religious pilgrims to the now-accessible holy cities of Najaf and Karbala. ./\ r ~'-ttu~ G5R-wr-~G~ts:-~C&~ mlL . - ·. bo· t e UNCLASSIFIEjD o / The editor of the Kuwaiti newspaper Al Seyassah ~ecent1y ~ote a front-. page editorial saying ~at Hezbollah and Hamas were working with Sadr, "backed by th~ ruling religious fundamentalists in Tehran and the. nationalist Baathists ill Damascus.1I No classified information was required for that claim, sinceSadr himself has publicly proclaimed that his militia is the fighting arm of both Hezbollah and Harnas. Nonetpeless, the State Department still doesn't believe - or won't admit publicly - that there's a co~ection between Sadr's uprising and Iran's mullahs. Just last week, State's dep~ty spokesman, Adam Ereli; told reporters that "We've seen reports of Iranian involvement, c9llusion, provocation, coordinaqon, etc., etc. But I think there's a dearth of hard facts to back these"things up.." Iraq cannot be peaceful and secure. so long as Tehran sends its terrorist cadres across the border.. Naturally, our troops will engage -- and kill-- any infiltrators they encounter. But we·can be sure that ~here will be others to take th~ir place~ The only way to end Tehran's continual sponsorship of terror is to 1;>ring about, the demise of the. present Iranian regime. And as it ;happel19i we have an excellent opportunity to achieve. this objective, without the direct use of military power against Iran. There is a critical mass of pro-democracy citizens there, who woulp1ike nothing more than to rid themselves of .their oppressors. They ne~d help;fbut they neither need nor desire to be liberated ~y force of arms. Above all, they want to hear our leaders state clearly and rep.eatedly -- as Ronald Reagan did with the "Evil EmRire" -- that regime change in ,Iran is the goal of American policy. Thus far, they have heard conflicting statements and mealy-;mouthed half truths of the sort presented by Mr. EreH, along with astonishing procl~ations,such as the one by Deputy Secretary of State Richard UNCLASSIFIED ,I . Armitage, in which he averred that Iran is Ita democracy.II (One wonders whether he will liken Muqtada aI-Sadr to Patrick Henry.) , Mr. Armitage notwithstanding, we can reach the'Iranian people by providing support to the several Farsi-language radio and TV stations in this country, all currently scrambling for funds to broadcast a couple of hours a day. We can encourage Brivate foundations and individuals to support the Iranian democracy movement. The current leadership of the AFL-CIO has regrettably abandoned that organization's traditional role of supporting free trade unions inside tyrannical countries, but there are some individual unions that' could do it. I e UNCLASSIFIED o t This sort of political campaign aimed at toppling the Iranian regime -allied to firm punitive. action wi~l).in Iraq against terrorists of all stripes -- will make our task in Iraq manifestly less dangerous. Ultimately, security in.Iraq will come in large. measure from freedom and reform in Iran (as well as in Syria and Saudi Arabia). This is a truth thatwe should not hide from, nor be fearful to take on. Mr. Ledeen, resident scholar at the. American Enterprise Institute, is the author of titheWar Against the. Tert"or Masters" (St Martinis, 2003). ,, UNCLASSIFIED ,', 0, .... Priht Q ~:~ ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HERE IN IS UNCLASS I FIED /!!\. ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 6032~baW/SabJlsg Page 1 ofl Print Window I crose yti!laow Document 4 of 522 Copyright 2004 Natlonwl~e News pty Limited PNG Post-Courier April 19,2004 Monday SECTION: FLARE UP IN IRAQi Pg. 15 LENGTH: 237 words HEADLINE: US policies to blame BODY: ~ TEHRAN: Iran yesterday said Americas iron-fisted policies and the lack of security undermined Iranian efforts to bring calm to Iraq. And that It would no longer co-operate with Washington In such efforts. Iran had sent a diplomatic delegation to Iraq In an effort to Improve security but Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefl said the team did not make the contacts It had hoped, and blamed the Americans. The latest setback to Iranian efforts came after an Iranian diplomat was killed in Baghdad on Thursday, causing Iran to distance Itself from mediation efforts to end a standoff between Iraqi mllitlas,loyal to anti-US cleric Moqtada al-Sadr and US forces. From the very beginning of the crisis, Iran tried to help ease tension but Washington s employment of an Iron-fist policy further complicated the situation" Mr Asefi said., He was referring to the Increasing use of force by the US military, which laid siege to FaliuJah last week after the killing and mutilation of four US civilians. Mr Asefl also said America s policies caused the failure of the mission of an Iranian diplomatic delegation to Iraq last week. He said Hossein Sadeghi, a top Iranian Foreign Ministry official, failed to meet with al-Sadr and Grand Ayatollah All al-Husselnl ai- ,Slstanl, Iraq s most powerful Shi Ite cleric. ' We couldn t meet Sadr or Ayatollah Sistani becaus~ of lack of security, Mr Asefi said. LOAD-DATE: April 19, 2004 I , ~ . -. t ' .. s TUESDAY, APRIL 2,1, 2,00+ C3 Did Michael Rubin, left, write the warning about conditions In Baghdad? He isn't saying. Washington. 11lesky is'notfalling" in. Iraq; he wrote early this month for National Review Oliline. In his articles andbiography, Rubin' says he served as a CPApolitical officer for nine months and previouslyworked on Iraq andIranissues while onDefense Secretary Donald ~feld's staH. N~tiona1 Review Online desCribes Rubin as the onlyCPA politi,cal officerin Baghdad "who lived outside the Americansecurity bubble." 'Thememo, ~ch ~ mentions continuingelectrical outagesand . "frequentexplosions, many ofwhich are not. reported in the mainstream media," faults U.s. officials for their isolationfrom ordinary Iraqis. . Rubin wouldn'tconfinn or deny that he wrote • the memo. Lastweekhe told an AEI spokeswo~ he didn'twantto talk about it, ~d he didn't return our canyesterday. . . Att HI;FORHATION CONTAlNED '. ~IN IS UNCLASSIFIED' 0' ~ 07,29-2010 BY 60324UC baw/s~~ ~ Speak, Memger "Tb.coerirrucpotrirounp,"tiodnecislaoreusr . a remarkably candid insider's assessment ofalleged kickbacks, patronage and otherwoes pJaguingthe U.5.-selected provisional govenunent in Iraq. 'The leaked memo haSforeign policywOnks playinga guessing game: Whois the importantIraqi officW desch1>ed asa'1tappydnmk"? Who is theKurdish politician who seems to be actingoutapart in' 11leGodfather"? . Pennedbya Pentagon adviser attached to the Coalition Provisional Authority, the chatty March memo offersa series of observationsand suggeStions after several months in Iraq as the· ' . author heads into non-goVernment life. "Despite the progress evident in the streets ofBaghdad,much of whichhappens despite us rather than because Baghdadishave an uneasysense that they are , heading toward civil war," the memo reports. Peopleare stoekPiliJ)gguns, the'author saYs, ..and"CPAis ironicalJy driVing the • • Iraqi police sell . their19st'U~S.-6Upplied Weapo~ on th~ black market; tJterare promptly resupplied."· • The~was.thesubject ofa storYdistributed lastwee1Cbythe AssociationofAlternative' Newsweeklies ( While the nameS of certain IraqifigUres andthe memo's"recipient were redacted, the missingname that Prompted the mostspeculationWas thai of the auth'or. Three ~urces tell us Pte ciitiquewas ~tten by Michael ,Rubin, a thirty-somethingneOcon intellectualwho • promptly became ascholar atthe~kiSh American Enterprise Institute~t re~to t~ By GARR~ TRUDEAU • • ......!!!II!I!II!.....---....... ~SOUBOB --- .~ ,By RichardLeiby ". '. t, . ALL INFOR!1ATION'CONTAINED ~. . H . hlEREIN IS UNCLASSI~ OqIme New.: our: IraqIs to be Sent I(Je? -- May 4, 199tATE 07-29-2010 EY~24 uc baw/sab/lsg ~,,~ I ·1 I" . t I' ~age 1of5 ONLINE FOCUS BACK TO IRAQ? May 4, 1998 T/~C New.~Hollr "'illl Jim Lehrer Trnllsc~iQt After bringing them to America, the u.s. government has decided that six Iraqis pose a security risk and must return home. However, the government won't say how they present a risk to national security; tlra! information is classified. JEFFREY KAYE: Imprisoned in a federal detention center south ofLos Angeles, six men·from Iraq face deportation. Although the United States brought them here, the goverpment now considers them national security risks. the case has attracted attention because its t:elian~e on c~assified evidence has prevented the six from rebutting accusations a ainst them. That, ~ccording to Rabih Aridi ofthe human rights p:: ~ ~{t~":. #~~~~~'% ~ group Amnesty International, violates basic ," "". ':~;~ :L standards ofjustice. ~ - "RABIH ARIDI: We believe they have been denied ~ ;, due process because they were not allowed to examine the evidence that was used against them. Nor were their lawyers. We are talking about a right that is clearly stated in the Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights and that-is the right to a fair trial. JEFFREY KAYE: The INS, the immigration & Naturalization Service, maintains the men are not entitled to classified information. Paul Virtue is INS general counsel. A Constitutional question: h~s due process been provided or denied to these men? PAUL VIRTUE, INS: We believe that full due .~ process has been provided to the extent we're required to do so under the Constitution. JEFfREY KAYE: The plen say they bel~nged to U.S.~backed Iraqi opposition groups formed after the 1991 GulfWar. In 1996, opposition members and thousands of other refugees fled to the border \vith Turkey after the Iraqi army attacked rebel strongholds in Northe~ Iraq. The U.S. flew 6,500 Iraqi refugees to the U.S. .I~land ofGuam'in the PaCific. The evacuees included som~ 600 opposition ' • A RealAudio version of this segment is available. NEWSHOUR LINKS: April 28, 1,998 Amb. Butler discusses efforts to verify the destruction of Iraqi weapons. Apri/27,1998 lm..qi exiles search for an alternative to Saddam Hussein. March 13, 1998 A panel of experts debate whether it is time to lift ,SJInctiC?na on Iraq.-. Online Forum Noam Chomsky and James. Wool~ debate U.S. - foreign polley. March 4, 1998 An interview with U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan. March 2, 1998 An interview with Iraq's Ambassador to the U.N. NizatHamdoon. February 20, 1998 A' panel of experts examine the crisis from the Iraqi Rerspective. o Page20f5 February 27, 1998 Congressional vi~w~ .of the U.N_. deal with ltag. February 24, 1998 James Baker and William Perry discuss the deal's impact on U.S. foreign p-oI1cy. ZALMAYKHLILZAD:. They had worked with us closely. They had put their lives at risk. And also it's possible that they would have been killed or jailed, and if they had gone all over the Middle East, I don't· II: ~ know who would have been able to provide them a 1I2.'I!·~~}'~1 ;. . " safe haven, since the Turks were unwilling. "They had worke~ "'lith us closely. They had put their lives at risk.II • Online NewsHour: Iraqis to be Sent ~e? - May 4, 1998 ~ members and their families., Thegovernment felt a moral obligation to • provide a haven, says fonner Defense DepartmentOfficial Zalmay Khlilzad, now with the policy research institute, Rand. January 14, 1998 Iraq's U.N. Ambassador, Mizar Hamdoon, defends his country's actions. February 9, 1998 Regional commentators give local perspectives on the growing crisis with Iraq. January 13, 1998 Amb. Butler discusses the latest disagreement With' Iraq. November 13, 1997 Newsmaker interview with Deputy PM Aziz who defends his country's expulsion of U.N. weapons inspectors. Online Forum: What's the be~t way to ~e~1 with Iraq? SAFA AL-BATAT: (speaking through interpreter) I've been fighting the Iraqi government since 1991. And the evidence Qfthat is apparent in my body-evidence, not words--traces ofthe bullets and shrapnel. An4 even now I suffer frolp the effect of Thallium, which is still present in my body._ JEFFREY KAYE: The 2.5 refugees were flown to California and placed in detention. After hearings, some eventually received asylum. Of. the six still detained in LA as security risks, two are doctors; three deserted the Iraqi military to join the opposition; and one fonner soldier, Safa Batat, says he was shot and bOlnbed by Saddam Hussein's troops, and poisoned by one ofhis agents. PAUL VIRTUE: The U.S. Government has had some concerns that because we had to evacuate people fairly quickly, without an opportunity to vet them overseas, as we mentioned, that people within the evacuee group might, in fact, have also been involved with the Iraq government and working on behalfofthe Iraqi government. February 19, 1998 An exploration of.Rublic . JEFFREY KAYE: Evacuees stayed on Guam for five months while INS and §J!RPJUl for the use of force FBI agents investigated their applications for political asylum~ The vast in 'raq as compared to past majority ofrefugees were settled in America, but government investigators conflicts. concluded that 25 didn't qualify for asylum. Frustration from h'!ving classified evidence presented behind closed dOl;~S. -:J•:~. ." ,....~;.u,.'..~~~(;.::-A'i-a., .,..";.."~ '~~JEI..".,.F,REYKAYE : In'Imm.Igrat.ion court i)!~~~~~'~:=~~~}~'~~ hearings held b~hind c!osed doors, the INS .~. mr:i~~.Ji;'~~~~?1f~~ pl:esented claSSified eVld~nce and secret . ~.,~ ~r.~iJ~J>~~~~)~~:~; t ~~ \Vltnesses. In March, the Judge ruled the men ~ .;~~~~~:~f:ri:::~ .:!; "pose security risks to the United States." Her ~)1j:~~'i~Vki1~($;f~ f~; ~~ public report cited inconsistencies in the men's ~t\'=;:;:::=!~ !~1: sto~ies. Aseparate, 92-pa~e classified decision .J \,::.·.'~~t,;o·~~·~·,,,·.,;;':·'.;l·~rehe~ mostly on secret-evidence. The·men . testifie'd, but the' fact they couldn't respond to !he classified evidence agains~ November 12, 1997 UN Ambassador Bill Richardson discusses the Security Council's vote to impose stricter sanctions on Iraq. November 10, 1997 pefense Sec. Cohen discusses the situation with Iraq. Browse the NewsHour's cov~:age of the Middle. ,.,.,. -r- Page 3 of5 Irag~ArabNet. The United Nations. - . East and the United Nations. OUTSIDE LINK:S: NEILS·FRENZEN: If,sOlneone told us we suspect Mr. X ofbeing a foreign intelligence officer, or we suspect Mr. Yof being a foreign intelligence agent, -we could respond to that perhaps by guessing. But nothing has been ruled ou't. We have simply had these- ivague generalities ofnational security that have been ."~.... ..ra....aaIIlll directed in our direction, with no idea ofwhat the eviden~e is. And so our case has been one of guesswork... 'the use of secret eyidence in a situation where one's life Qepends on it, and where one's life depencJs on being able to respond to that secret evid~nce;there's no place for it in the American legal system. oipine NewsHour:.Iraqis to be Senthe?•• May 4, 1998 ~ them fru~trated their lawyer, N~Ffenzen. PAUL VIRTUE: I think we have to ptit1this in context. I think the use ofclassified infonnation in immigration court proceedings is very rare. We've usedli~ a couple of dozen tinles in the last two.years, during which immigration courts considered about four hun4red thousand cases, so we're talking a very minuscule percentage. Jl~FFREY KAVB: To get the classified evidenc~ in case, the legal team brought fn R.. Jatnes Woolsey, the man on the left. As a former head ofthe CIA, Woolsey was privy to the nation'$ top secrets. rIe still holds a security clearance. In March, he came from Washington to meet with the Iraqis and to criticize the government he once served. R. James Woolsey: "This case at this point stands as really, I think a stain oli the honor of,the United States.II R. JAMES WOOLSEY~ This case at this poiptstands as really, I think a stain on the honor ofthe United States. JEFFREY KAYB: Woolsey signed on as the Iraqis' co-counsel, and filed a motion to obtain the classified evidence.. - R. JAMES WOOLSEY: I believe. whether it's me or someone else, that an attorney with security clearances, in order for fairness to be done, ought to be able to review this material on behalf of these men. If the government doesn't,want to share the classified information \vith counsel who are cleared, it would be my very strong suspici~n it's because the governmenthas made some serious mistakes and has something to hide. - JEFFREY KAYB: Virtue says the INS has n~ intention ofproviding Woolsey with a classified document because his clients have no legal standing in this country. PAUL VIRTUE: These are people who are seeking admission to t4e United States..Essentially they're knocking at the door, asking for the United ~tates to protect them as refugees. The due process requirements are different for someone who has not been lawfj.tlly admitted to the United States. ~'&~"~~~~~~::~.:l ~~?f.,s~~tJ~mR. JAME~ WOOLSEY: They were brought to Guam, a t~rrit9rial possession ;.~: 3;~.:· ,~' ~,~. "n},~' of the United States, by the U.S. Government, and they were taken fro~ ,~ r~\1.~' ,', • ~ , ~, Guam to California by the U.S~ Government. And $e INS is maintaining this .'.. legal position that they have not been admitted to the United States, so it ~,;~~~:~~~~~:~.~:~~~~~~ won't have to grant them any rights ofthe sort that an individual ~,~~~~~ ...~~ does-·have ifhe's.been admitted bu! ~et:l ~~ i~ r~s~ ofbe~~g deported,: •• } "II! • II ;... - - ........ - - ...... OlJ1ine NewsHour: Iraqis to be Sent!he?-- May 4, J 998 0 Page 4 of5 ;\ JE~REY KAYE: The detainees say t!tey are victims ofmisunderstandings by INS investigators, as well as the,.factional in-fighting amo~g I~qi_s. D~. Adil Hadi Awac!h, Who joined tJIe oppositi~n in 1996, after deserting from a military hospital,says Saddam Hussein fostered a culitire of suspicion in order to undermine his foes. DR. ADIL HADI AWADH: We've been living among the~e accusations since a long time in Iraq. So it's a very ~xpected thing to be regarded as a traitor in Iraq simply because ofjust the revenge purposes. JEFFREY KAYE: The detainees say on Quam rivals unjustly fingered them. The .refugees included men once ousted from the opposition who denounced the detainees., according to MQhanuned Tuma, a deserter from the Iraqi army. MOHAMMED TUMf\: (speaking through interpreter) No doubt; they were trying to get back at those who expelled them from the opposition. And the responsible parties in Guam listened to them and~~didn't listen to us. And I don't know why. PAUL VIRTUE: I d011't believe that simply a disagreement or some problems between the factions would have led to this--would have led to people continuing detained in this circumstance. JEFFREY KAYB: The decision was based on more substantive information? PAUL VIRTUE: I believe so, yes. ~ ii' ';-$":" ~t~~~ · . . JEFFREY KAYE: But Virtue said he could not disclose that information. However, ;~ • '. ".. ~~on~ man with intimate knowledge ofthe Iraqi Qpposition says at least two ofthe ~ ." mf~~~ detainees are who they claim to be. Warren Marik is a retired CIA case officer. In ~tI<.".:....:". ~ 1994 an$! '95, h.e and other U.S. ag.ents worked out ofthis house in the city ofIrbii , ~___ _ < ~.iw :JJ.. in Northern Iraq. Guarded by rebel militia, the'CIA team assisted the opposition • . ,., ~~~ nlovement. Marik says he worked with two ofthe detainees. One was Safa Batat ,vhom Marik .says arranged for the Americans. to debrief Iraqi army defectors. In London, Batat publicly denounced Saddam Hussein for trying to poison him. WARREN MARIK: I do-n't believe that Safa Batat is an Iraqi agent because ofhis activities in London. JEFFREY KAYB: How do you know Dr. Ali? WARREN MARIK: Dr. Ali treated me and members ofmy team in Northern Iraq. I EilElI1i had a terrible case of bronchitis. And he gave me medicine. He treated a couple people in my teams and-·and they didn't die. Thilt's-that's--(Iaughs)--rnle number one. And rule number two ,vas, you know, they--they were cured. mFFREY KAYB: So the fact that he didn't kill these people demonstrates to you that he could not be an·agent of Saddam? ' WARREN MARIK: Partially. You get into a good question. JEFFREY KAYB: Marik says that while Saddam's agents did infil~ate the opposition, he knows ofno .evidence that implicates the detainees. The U.S. Government did not make ~arik availaBle to testify in the Iraqis' case. One man who did t~stify on their behalf is Ahmed Chalabi, the head ofthe Iraqi National Congress, or INC, a nmin opposition group. - IIHW~~I~:~t~~~AJ·IMED..CHALABI:,Lhav~119J~~id~~ge ~~ ~~ s~~ no ~a~ t~at t~es~ ~e~ple_are_ f"~"""'~~"'" .. ' .-' -- . - - - -. ,--;--------- i On}in,.e NewsHbur: Iraqis to be Senthe? -;- May'4, 1998 ~ I .~ agents o~ddam Hussein. They' are not agentS .of~dam Hussein. I JEFFREY KAYB:, Does that mean you can persoJially vouch for them? ·Page SofS· AHMED CHALABI: 1kJIO\V three ofthem personally.,The three people who belong to thelNC, I mow them personally. A bleak future if th~ men are forced to return tQ Iraq. JEFFREY KAYE:. The detainees say ifforced backto I~q, they will be killed. MOHAMMpD AL-AMMARY.: (speaking through interpreter) Theverdict ofthe~·II'iI~.~ judge is a death ~entence. All that is left is for the verdict to be Baghdad. That's all that's left. JEFFREY KAYB: The INS says if the men are eventually deported, they could try to fin~ refuge in another country, besides Iraq. But in any event, both the government and .the Iraqis' lawYers expect a protracted legal battle over the use of classified evidence. .........-._------~----------------- honus IIQV.1JlOur index search forwn polilicahwap lette... eaays&dJalogu.s offcUlora ~11.1C~vS~lO!!rJnde~ ,I ie~rch I forum Jpol!~ical wrap Ilette!S Iessays & dialogues Copyright © 2004 MacNeillLehrer Productions. All Rights Reserved. I II t' I! II 1)- - ADM 111e NewsHour is funded, in part, by: CiI ··~·' . ~ • • - ... .. , - I - I -.·m • A ~.~ .. ~' ~., t .~n~..DteaJ4riirJg OfTehran The Nation April 12, 2004 Pg. 16 Q ALL FBI INFOPMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg Still Dreaming OfTehran By Robert Dreyfuss and Laura Rozen The Bush Administration's hawks and their neoconservative allies at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and The Weekly Standard are engaged in a high-risk and high-stakes effort to restore their fading power in Washington by pressing for a confrontation with Iran. It's no secret that the neocons' star has fallen since the war with Iraq. The intelligence scandal plaguing the White House and the ongoing crisis in Iraq itselfcan both be laid at their doorstep, and it's widely believed that President Bush's re-election team would deariy like to extricate the President from the Iraqi tar baby., But the neocons aren't giving up, and they are trying to pull the White House in even deeper. Not only are they undeterred by the chaos in Iraq, but they are pressing ahead to advance their regional strategy, one that calls for regime change in Iran, then Syria and Saudi Arabia. Says Chas Freeman, who served as US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia during the first GulfWar and a leading foe ofthe neocons, "It shows that they possess a level offanaticism, or depth ofconviction, that is truly awesome. There is no cognitive dissonance there." What makes the neocon strategy on Iran especially risky is that with Iraq teetering on the brink ofcivil war, neighboring Iran has significant clout inside Iraq, including ties to various Iraqi Shiite factions and a growing paramilitary and intelligence presence. If Iran chooses, it can help ease the daunting task that the United States faces in trying to put together a sovereign Iraqi government. But if it seeks confrontation, it can help spark an anti-US revolt in southern Iraq, home to most ofIraq's Shiite majority. In that case., nearly all analysts agree, the American occupation could be overwhelmed. Leading the charge against Iran is AEI's Michael Ledeen, perhaps best known for setting in motion the US-Israeli arms deal with Iran in the mid-1980s that became known as Iran/contra. Supporting Ledeen's position are two other AEI fellows: Richard Perle, the ringleader ofthe neocons and a former member of the Pentagon's Defense Policy Board, and David From, a Weekly Standard contributing editor and the former White House speechwriter who coined the phrase "axis ofevil." In their new book, An End to Evil, Perle and Frum call for a covert operation to "overthrow the terrorist mullahs ofIran." Speaking to retired US intelligence officers in McLean, Virginia, in January, Ledeen called Iran the "throbbing heart ofterrorismll and urged the Bush Administration to support revolutionary change. "Tehran," he said, "is a city just waiting for us." Ledeen is viewed skeptically by many experts, including at the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency. "Ledeen doesn't know anything about Iran," says Juan Cole, a professor at the University ofMichigan who is an expert on the Shiites ofIran and Iraq. "He doesn't speak Persian, and I believe he has never been there." But Ledeen does have connections in the Iranian exile community. For the past two years, he has maintained a relationship with Manucher Ghorbanifar, the Iranian wheeler-dealer who worked closely with him in Iran/contra. Ledeen introduced Ghorbanifar to a key neoconservative official, Harold Rhode, a longtime Pentagon staffer who speaks Arabic, Farsi, Turkish 10f3 413012004 5:03 PM e o 2of3 and Hebrew and who until recently served in Iraq as between the Defense Department and Ahmad Chalabi. Rhode and another Pentagonofficial, Larry Franklin, have been talking to Ghorbanifar about options for regime change in Tehran. "They were looking at getting introduced to alleged sources. inside Iran, who could give them some inside information on the struggles in Iran," said Vince Cannistraro, a former CIA counterterrorism chief. Ghorbanifar, he said, was spinning tall tales about alleged (but unsubstantiated) transfers ofIraqi uranium to Iran's nuclear weapons program. Rhode and Franklin were critical players in the campaign for war against Iraq. In 2002 they helped organize the Pentagon's Office ofSpecial Plans, the Iraq war-planning unit whose intelligence staffers ar~ now under investigation by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence for allegedly manipulating evidence about Iraq's nonexistent weapons ofmass destruction and ties to terrorism. Both the OSP and the Rhode-Franklin effort on Iran were run out ofthe office ofDouglas Feith, the Under Secretary of . Defense for:Policy and a key neocon ally. Their initiative on Iran reportedly drew a sharp protest from the State Department. Newsday quoted a US official who said that the entire effort was designed to "antagonize Iran so that they get frustrated and then by their reactions harden US policy against them." There is widespread disagreement about both Iran's intentions in Iraq and the extent ofi~ capability to cause mischief there. But there is a consensus that Iran can exercise significant power. It has close ties to the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, whose Badr Brigade paramilitary force ofabout 10,000 was trained by Iran's Revolutionary Guard, and to the forces ofMuqtada al-Sadr, a 30-year-old Shiite firebrand. "There are thousands ofIranian intelligence agents and operational agents inside Iraq today, and the border is completely op~n," says Amatzia Baram, an Israeli expert on Iraq. So far, analysts say, Iran has chosen to playa waiting game. Ken Katzman ofthe Congressional Research Service says that Iran "views its interest to play it low-key, to keep a low profile'and continue to promote a cohesive Shiite bloc in Iraq in order to be in a position to become dominant once the United States leaves." The "realists!' inside the Bush Administration, led by Secretary ofState Colin Powell and Coalition Provisional Authority head Paul Bremer in Iraq, are well aware that Iran could deal a fatal blow to the already faltering US efforts. Partly as a result, they've engaged in·a quiet dialogue with Tehran. According to the Financial Times, last May Iran offered a "road map" for normalizing US-Iranian relations. Since then, Powell and his allies have sent assistance after the devastating earthquake in southeast Iran, and offered to send a delegation led by Senator Elizabeth Dole. They've also supported efforts by Germany, France and Britain to work a deal with Iran over its nuclear weapons program. (Germany's intelligence service also brokered a prisoner exchange between Israel and Hezbollah, which is close to Iran.) But oflate, some ofthose conciliatory efforts have stalled. Aplanned Congressional staff delegation to Tehran, the first since the rise ofAyatollah Khomeini's regime in 1979, was canceled by the Iranians, according to the office ofSenator Arlen Specter, whose staffwas to participate. And after the·initial harmony, signs are emerging ofa serious split between Washington and Europe over Iran's nuclear program, with echoes ofthe US-Europe split over Iraqi WMD. How the differing approaches--the neocons' war cries and the realists' more conciliatory strategy-·are viewed by Iran's leadership is anybody's guess. But there are at least several factors that might push the Iranian ruling elite in the direction ofthe confrontation the neocons want. First, the hard-line clergy are in the midst ofa crisis with the so-called reformists. In the past, the mullahs have used anti-US rhetoric, and even militant actions, to trump liberal and reformist rivals. Second, while Iran welcomes the rise of Shiite power in Iraq, it is at the same time uneasy about losing influence to the mullahs in Najafand Karbala. According to several experts on Shiism, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani is now the leading Shiite cleric in the wod.d, whi<?h could make him a rival to Iran's less prestigious clerics. Though Sistani 4/3012004 5:03 PM e o has foiled US policy in Iraq by insisting on direct elections,.he has refusea to denounce the US occupation and may cooperate with a UN-brokered compromise for creating an Iraqi government. IISistani is a double-edged sword for Iran," says Juan Cole. And third, there is the Bush factor. Some neoconservative strategists argue that Iran will act decisively in order to prevent Bush from being re-elected. R~Ymond Tanter, a scholar at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a pro-Israel think tank, predicts, IIThey are going to launch a political-military campaign in an effort to defeat President Bush, because they believe that ifBush is re-elected, he will do to them what he did to Iraq." -l§tlu D~iRg OfTehran ..t' It's unclear that Iran would risk a confrontation with the United States in Iraq even if the mullahs do believe that they are next on Bush's invasion list. But the mullahs are famous for misunderstanding US politics, just as Americans have failed repeatedly to understand Iran's. In a way, the neocons' Iran project is very similar to the early phase ofthe~r Iraq one. It includes a steady drumbeat ofthreats and warnings, Washington lobbying, a media offensive and support for exile groups--in Iran's case a mishmash that combines supporters ofKhomeini's grandson; Reza Pahlavi, the son ofthe fallen Shah,and the Iranian monarchists; and the Mujaheddin e-Khalq (MEK), a 3,800-strong exile force based in Iraq. In one ofthe strangest events ever to occur at a Washington think tank, last September Khomeini's grandson--dressed in rough-hewn black and brown robes and crowned by a turban, with dark brooding eyes like his grandfather's--took the podium at AEI, introduced by Michael Ledeen, to call for US assistance to overthrow the Iranian government. He even welcomed an alliance with the Pahlavi monarchists. Many analysts view the prospects ofa Pahlavi-Khomeini-MEK alliance with exceeding skepticism. And they note that the neocons, having bungled Iraq, don't have a lot ofcredibility left on Middle East policy. But it,would be wrong to count them out. A former CIA officer, who took part in the debate over Iraq policy in the 1990s recalls how the neocons.ultimately prevailed. liThe neocons had this idea ofworking with the Iraqi opposition to arm and train them and to overthrow Saddam Husseili, and people like me said, 'That is really stupid,'" he says. "But you get people to think about it, you get the President engaged, then options expand and then when opportunities come along, you seize them. That's what they did. They got people to buy in. Before September 11, people told them, 'It's never going to happen.' Come September 12, the rules An explosion in Iraq, and some Iranian mischief there, and the rules could change again. Robert Dreyfuss is a contributing editor o/The Nation. Laura Rozen is ajournalist who covers national security issuesfrom Washington. .30f3 413012004 5:03PM o o NO. iSS l- _, ••• II' ALL INFOP~TION CO~rrAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED • DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc ba1IT/seb/1sg ..4 . ~Vlr ''\tiMtdi'" q""~~~':~"I:d~"..:.d!,"~I4~"::':' .. :~..:to.Itt:'''::':'''.-a.:::''.::, •• .A.I.~':'::':: .. '!":.t:~JiIr:. ...,..·J.A,..1.\~~:a.""lbiiiiM~~diiJIl_""'. J:)OCtJMlDrl IDa an2142""S , DOCS'f1 - ~ LANtmAfDI DcaLISB VENDOK. J)%ALOCI »tmN»mz .. ~C OR%CJDATJh 20010112' POBLISBRI acwr II. S'l'AltL1l'1'cm 7:ELBNOI· 4' A'CTHOR I late, eli j •. DORa 30030.1. 'I'ORa" 124.128 I 'D!raLMs:rnBD , 'l'X'l'LB. Pew Good MoD - The sGuell !O2:' SY%'ian l:tberala. TOPL:DTSS. B11 a. Lake 1. tba State 1)epartll\e2).t a02:r.8p~t for 'tn'dte4 pre•• mt.a=at10Zla1. 'l'BX'r1 311 a. Iaak. 1•.tha Stat. Deputment co~resp~nclent fo): tJnited pl'eS8 XDcenat.lou1. It ••emae! like a match mada in Deocon heaven. L... than ODe weeJc aftu t:h.e 'Dnitecl Statell aoouse4 syz:ia' of allowing' tenoJ:1sts to enter :tra; an4 Sadd•• Hussein'.~ b.enalmlen .to leave- it, ••1:£4 Gba4¥y informally UDve11ecl hi. l.efozm Jlazoty of Syxola. H. uae4 the ocsClulcm of. the American BDtazprla. tDatitutel ••aa0n4 co lase. weekly briefing on x~aq~ ~a 8~ie8 tha .illllt:i.t:uee o=tgazUlle4 to ·ooinoide with the- wu--to go public- with hi. oppo8it1ozs .£fO:l:t8. Ghac!zy--who plans to azmcnmce a Syzoima gove=ment in exil. iD the aonWIS mcmthll·-asJc.ec1 thea panel o~ WaabiDgt= -hawks', from the auc1i8Da~, th8 ,quG.tion on 8VeryOl1e" m.1D41 'WhAt about zoeg1ma ~e foZ" Sp1a'· Ghacl:ry'. t!.m!.Dg va. poe!. ~ weak befor., Se=etazy of Defens. !d)com_a.lcll.wufe1cl JW:l aeDt ~. W12.1te HoUse a "Roacl Map for BYz'ian_-~ a lUValy pmitlve pol1ay opt1cm8 8pun:ec1 ))y the :PeDt:agoft.'. assessment. -that .a.m~1:'iean .olcti.e~. we~e enc!aDgerG4 :by SY%'ials open-J.:)o:4e: policy d1u"1rlg the wax". Thea -memoI. pxoposal., Tha Mew Reptml1a has lea=ed, inCludadoc:1dJ:ig Ul~ai:r:cZ'a£t cU:l:i.i: within Syrian tU~itoria1 waterSl, ua!ng prox1.. t.o ·unde!:mi216 Sy2iian ,intel-ligenc:a agata wide L~, inte%'diot1ng' :l:rwan fligbt. to Helllbollah p08itiOl18 .in LebanoD, &Dc! .enclinsr AIne!.CWlforGes ove~ the sYz':l.m boZ'cler in llhot p=,uitn or: .enio%' I~aq1 off~aia.1•• MeanWh11e, CongJ:8SSl waa aeveloping a set of new ,8nClcioft8 agaiDat J)ama8ou.a that were tougher than the limited -J:)anl on weapons and othor item. ~ UDited States has al%8&4? pa88a4. COUld ~a be a better moment foZ' the SyziaD Ahmec1 Cbalabl to emeqe? -pufo,.-tunat:*ly, :!~g _ libU'al cIi••ic1eAt. with a base of 8UPPO~t 1D sy¥1a makes ·finc:1inS ,1ibG1:'al 4l&J8ic1cmt. wlth a bas. of aup»o:tt in x:raq looJc .ally. The S?rian oPpo81ti= 1- OY.ftl1a~lypopulated by fundamentalist••- And Syr1u l~aral. have Virtually DO public p:r:o~ile outslcle of ,Wash!.ll51ton. The .iml1arit1e. betw8eA GhaQry and ChalaJ)l; ·Qo..foundu of! the I2:aqt Matlcmal Cong1:8SJI, seem .t~iJd.nS. Ghad%y, like Chalab1, baa hac! his sbare of bad. clays in buSi!1e.8. Whi-1. Chalabi fled .1'o:t:dan·:I.D. 1981 afteJ: Petra Bank, Which he set "'PI oollap&Jec1 -amidst. a11egat:LoIJ:8 of :fi~a:la1 f~auc1" OhaQ:r:y. owne.d Hamubal ' _, Cof~.a Co., a chain of Ama~laan Goffe. .hops that: wen1: })azikX'UPt in 1196. LiJca Chalabi, Ghadzoy walk•. and-· talks the languaseof :Libe~al damoc:Z'acy. Hi. pazotY',8 .website boa.sts paperl on refomins s?:ria'SI 1 • _I I ! '\ o NO. iSS PI3 omm.pz-.a.t .OCNZi~y ••mcee, wb!cb U'••imtlU :lD acme :l:e~peGt. to %%'aq'l f~ Baath luty a~atWl, and on 8steb118hing ~epJ:eaentative sr~~•.TM ..foal Pa~ty of Syria haa even ckafte4 & modal ccmatlt\ltloD tMt: would .8:=iu no~ cm1y "81a zoight:8 of apeach, u.embly. life, aDd pzocpezty but allo lnOJ:le i4ea1!st:La goal', suah as a pol1utiOA-fZ'.. ttIl'ri=mnent, fa12: la]:)o~ practice.,. uel aesc... to health cu.. Gbacby allO aupport. peace with %8rael. "Why 40 ~ have to be e ••• with QUI' lSeighbcZ'?1I he uu, that he :baa ~een impt'a,uIK :by :t8:r..l'. UIIIO':&CSY' ADd viJ=ant. a1vil "oaiety on business visits to the countzy. CIbacIzy, aaccmJ..hingly enough, i. eYeD • merabu of the AmeZ'icaD %axaal ~:Lia At~a1r. Committe•• Oth~ anti-gOYUllUDt axila. bav." .taRed to amuga .. well. on Ap~il 24, 120 Syrian exiles of all " ideologiG&l .t~1p••, ranging' iZ'om c:ommUDiata to Alaw1te :bus:LDesuJmeD, sa:Lgned. an open lett.Z' in Al-Hayat, a leading ~ab new8pape~ puhl1shed. :I.D LcmdcD, to Baabu' Assaad, Gall1q cm.h11ll 1:0 allow exiled. dissident. to ntum to tu CQUUC2:Y. to aboli8h m11itaxy-t~. oo=ta, and to c!ismaJltle put of tU atat..'. s.c:n.u:ity ••:rIie... "'rhea Iraqi wazo p:a:ovad thea 8ocw:1ty .uvio.. aazmot defend the .tnd.eptmdanaa, aovU'e:L91'tyt ancl cUgD1ty 0:1: ~i.,a ~!4. ~~. _I". limited. .:Lgna that ~.~o:a:met'. -.y ~ SZ'owiDg :boJ.daz within 8~ia u well. ':r:10zo 1:0 • ol"ackc!cwn in II\1d-2001 agaiut. aivil .ooiety o:r:ganizat:Lcmll, Sy:aiaD8 ba4 bea ~oming!.mall gZ'oups . that opeD1y c:U..c:wlluad polit:1a., pJ:eviously a ~u. oo~eno•• Some of that. fum&Dt remaw. In &.%'&2:8 interview last mcmth with SyZ'ian ~afo=a:. in Damuwa, Haticma1 Iublia Ra41o'. JCa.t.8 Seelye found sevexal people to publicly .peale cut against the political zoep:a:ession pez:vadinSJ the ClO1mt::ry. But, 4e8pita tb1. miner thaw, J\meZ'iaaa. of:!1a!a111 axe deeply pessimistic that 8~ia acmtaizul t:ha type of leade the tm1tacS State. :I.. lookinS' fo~••We have done lloth1ng eo tJUltivat. Or enaow:age •• , cppoait:Lcm (to Sy~1.'8 :reg:Lme) e1theZ' abroac!oZ' 1zl the count:y, a ,ay. ODe pentas= o!fioial. AocozocSiJlg to 21raDk J\ndeX'SOD., the CD,'. fome Hea%' BaIt CIhi.f, the DD:Lted atat•• -thought: about GbaDging' gova=manta 1A %Z'aD., %J:aq, aDd Libya, wt in SY2='ia we d.ea:l.da4 that ~ of the opt:Lona wa~a more .t.I:~aat1ve than the inCN!l\1)ent.8.· Xn faot, seve:ral :Am8:riGaD off1a1a1. Jcnowled;eable ahou~ Syria lIay that Assad'.. moat liberal OPPOlUmt. haw DO J:ea1 pol:Lt:Lcal J)aakiDg. 'or Syzo1m l~eZ'al. to cZ'eate Itany meazUDgfuJ. poltt:Laal opposition 1,. ridiaulO\l', I say. a !OI'meZO AmuicaA ambassador to· Syria. After dec:ac:1es of being closely l:LDked. to Leb&nCZl, aay Am.ex'iclA official., many Sy~:l.a.D8 have coma to associate pxo-W••te= l:U:leal. with Leban••• Ch:I:;;L8I18, who mq.y SY~UDa :blame foZ' oppressing **lim. !D LeJ)anou anc! for b.~ evpporta4 by :r.rael. the 8~iaJl libeZ'al.' lack of • POWU" base, llumsteld.'. policy memo c1id not advoaat•••ekiDs' out. Sy:iaD exile. and. diSlideDt. for an OPP08:l.t1= lDO'VamaDt, a. the PeDtagOD did :I.D the Wa..t BaDJc aDd. Ciaza aft.xcba p~e.i4ent'. apaedh la.~ ~ Galling fo~ & newPaleatiDian lea4eZ'.bip. HOJ: did .'!Jft\.fll1c1' a plu aet a81~ l\JDc!.iq fo~ cSi••idtmt.. w:Lda Sy:a:ia, .a Jl'entagOll oiriliaDa advocate fOX' the intemal opponents of Iran'. W1:LDg' mullaha. , Ghacb:y :LlluatZ'at.. tha point. His oZ'gaDizat:LOD. i8 ODly now g8t.t!ng of! Ue g:round. ADcl a Syr:Lan who belong.. to em. of %8X'.el" ma:J.n lobby:I.Dg 9:a:ouP. i. DOt exactly a st%'ODS polit1cal candidate in a aount2:Y that :remain. 011. of the most: ~ab:Lc!1y anti-:l:8~ael in the zoegi=. At Ghadty himself admit., -'1'M S;v:c'ian8 are not ready foZ' someone who WaDt. to make peaoe with I.rae1.· A.,ad', moat. powerful opponct, admit. one en Jage 2 \ MAR~24'.2004 2:2aPM 0, tDTaLUI:E.:EBD P.4 .'.~ ..,'"....', ecmaultmt with extaaiva ~wlec!gG of Syx"ia, ia the tbeoaJ:'atia M\Jlll:1.m ''&8 cmly' oppos1t:1on J: know 01: 1n 'p:La i8 t~ MWl1im B~o~hood,· apo... fa:r:mezo Assistant Secretary of Hear Bastem .u:ail:. Iclwuel Walke. %Ddee4, aaco~cU.Z1g' to Youssef M. %brahim, a fOnl8Z Middle IUt Ipa1a11at at the caunail = :ae1ati0D8, Aslsacl baa ·g:a:cwn so . f.~ful o! tU D'otheJ:h004'1I ah111¢Y to, 8P~ ~ad:Laa1 Xslam that he hag ;begun uJciDg tpMohe. 4en1gratizlg nl!giou8 extremism.aa4. ohast:Lsing' Th.e :r.lam:L.t-iAfl1aC011d mec1iaal m.ixin£.l scie-nce an-d. ::t.lam. B:r:otba:r:hoocl--wh:Lch AaaadI8 :eathe:r:, Hafel, banned.... 08 cough ah&rac:t82:8. III. 1112, 1:Ile1~ Sy2:ian b~antJh laUlltJhed a bloody :LDtifada,against tb.8 %'egtma that 1nolw!84 :r:ULC!OlIlly usuabatiDglQGmbo%'& of the nlill9' Alita. ·What'_ mo:r:., they chum out. a ataa4y atme of anti-, 18:r:ae1 and anti-U'-S. :r:hato:ria. JIveD wo:c••, Newsweek bae reported. that Ame:r:icaD aDd. German inv••t:Lgato:r:. kaaliava that: ~embe:r:. of the S~ian MIl.lim B%othe~boo4playad o:r:it::Loal rolu ill ,uppoJ:t:Lng anc! :reezuit:1ng the HambUX'S'~baBec1 lea4ers ot! the A1 aa.s& cell. that. CU't'ied cut th8 Septembezo 11 attaaka. roJ:' the . t:Lme be:LDg, Buh .ami ai .t=at:1cm hawJc8 W&ft1: eo !~1:heZ' :l.801at:. Aallaa mel thWlp~••aw:a him to ahange. '.t'hey b.liaw tbi. pr••• will, lead mo1:e SyzoiAZl. di••idlme. 1:0·acme out o~ t~ woodwozk. seoretuy of state COlin lowell'. raCl*4t to Damascue may uncie:r:i1co:r:e tb1. strategyl By infomilll b:Lm that the United States could tum the scr:ewa em. Sy:ia, lowell! Aggad,. like Yui2: ~a!at: beF02:8 last. JUne'" ..peach, a final oppoZ'~UDity to ahcge. trl1fo~tuna.tely, i£ AsSac! 40.8. not aome U'oun4, wulUngton JhI¥ di8coveJ: :Lt aannot 'f:Lnd UyODe .it. likes to J:eplace him. (COp~ight. :2003, 'I'M Hew Republ:Lo) . .... '., ..~. , _ tDTCLASSZJI%ID_ \ , .., -~-,,--"-.. -,...,..-.""....~-."-.,,.-,----:-;---;- - ~. ----,-.-.-,.-.---:::---:-- MAR~24:2e04 ,2:21PM I" ... "'" ......... .. .~" .. ~o~_mi J)OCSTI LMlGUAGB. vmmoI.i JtmNAMBI Olu:GnA'1'B I PtJBLISHR. PtlBHO,' 'Ita3NO. AlJ'l'HOR.: . DOll. 'l'OR.: CLASS. ~'a TOJL%NBli can'i'1'7C23 ~ .DGL%8B DDS I < 1••":1.215 ,)aJ.,w..'wo~ic! cem-m..'unloat1on., Ina. ~- .. ," •• -rHJI DSHDlCll'ml TIMB8 2.••'111' 210300' ._ mtCLU8:t1'%BD 'u~.CIJwbP QCCUPA~~' i'J:8Ii1i4iaDt u.s ,o~~, ·Ccmpas.-Id.ddta ·B~t· Wi~e ~an'iaa BD'l'HDAY oc:CtJPA~OX :PJ:••!~t ad .~~, Compail."Nic:1ch•.But w~~. S~ce BD.'1'BDAY a.m. 18, 1'541 HOMB1'OW!I W~~g~, D•.~. ~~.IJ'1UU' ~~ecl" f~' oh!lc1ru S~V-PoR~ '1'h~e .more ~lleniilig ~e ~p1), the bett.~. the pel'i~2:IW1C:8 .MO'rTO The~.k¥'. ~.l1m£t· .. ~ ... ~ Mrr'1'I' :r~u~. 1l4C!iq in an. :r1. GO" :tNs:p.IiA'r~oar - '- .. ..... - ~ - - .... - ... ,. ... ~... I -.... -... - - -... , ~ + - ,..., ..... - . mtOz.u8:r:'XB· »al~ 1 ~- "'-"" - - tY""'~.-:a. ...... - ........ __ ~ ...._ ... I .. ",..~~ _ ... JI ....~ ... __ .......... __ ..... __ -. _ .... ~~~ ~ , .P~6 , " .," ------... .No'.·155' ............~ ..~ ,., '''A·'' "',. : Mali. ~t2l, ~ fatbaz' .of! caplt.Ai·:L~, a=.,~:L g'Z'QAt.-P!i~l. wha haye iG~t . • oma~ f= b'mlni ty. ' . ,... Va-. ~..... _TlST nai'- SUPPORiq ~. ~~n,'9'e in a\1a_i& aDd 'Clie pOeI' in W~h1llgt~" . ,JW) DeI'll Ca= ~t '!~:. I.~ the .•ama m1~take tw;l.cse ~ • .. Pm- PUVJI8 C:Lguette emote HoDY ." Cu, raatng ~ apOl:t c(ara LumRY:":DlrDnm , 'b.o~; yo~ lW~ticuS' ~1tDnc'Oll'WD1'B Petru. 11.~,. capp~aino rAWR%'l'I :JUI8~ AUX' :B~u.x .~. ~~%PR ~IO'I ':_t.UlY cummrCJ I~.· G!02:S':Lo~.~. '1!Vn6G~ 1Satu. .i:~Jlsr'G· ·DCHe~.1I ~ CA!l :at GAR..vA1 1"2 Ne2:cadea BOOKS: A'1J Bl:D8ml ul!J:ualc .Jaaa, BlaCJlc. H~t~ ~y ~':'H1ng Chu LU'1' WOR!)S ac:a~t"li~ mwtt .live.· ClRAl'HIC i %lluat?~~tiOD, 110, '~OH _.. _-... ................ _...).~. - _.- -...- ~-~~'! ..~- ~- ......- -- ........ l• - -- , . MAR. 24. 2004 2: 22PM o NO.1~ t'. ( . . ,., "~. ,.-. - ., , ~ v" -¢..{l i'~ t 't' .;. ... .- 'I' ""... let ' .-, Juan Cole .'" .;:0. ..-~ .n.~ Uriit~d StateS and '8hi'ite R~ligious Post-Ba'thi~tIraq :'1~Po.~t-s"addam llusayn Iraq, Sm'l,e mqiti?z$ r..apidly e!tablished their authori.ty ,i~ Eas( Baghdt¢andother urban neighb.or1)oo(Js a/the south. Amongthe. various Ill"" .... ,. '\. ......- 'Hgroups which emerged, the Sadr Movement staritlS'out-as militantand cohesive• :?The'sectarian, anti-American Salirists wislz,td u;,pose apuritanical, Khoniein.'ist ':~~~if,n oli Iraq. :Their P?iitico..(influ~~~is potentially much gre~te~ th4n their' ,.';21wuiers.lncorporaiing them'intoademocratic Iraq while ensuringt1UJt they do 'Y:~iconi~ todoinidate it'posis.tQ severe chailenge to the US Administration. ... t' ;~. .. - ·1 • " • : I -. .. 'f.... ~.,'" vh:(; . " .~ '. • ~E~t~~in,.~~ w~ ~~..~q~~t!l~·.A~~ri~;~fense Dep~~n~. ~d'in!elligeJl~ orgaq~~9~~ ap~a(tp-~~V~~! ~n~~~~!Jia~~JJ.~o!ls ofIraqi~~~:ite~ ha(Uoir~ a" militant"and' "iJritanicaI 'movemenf~Cieajcaiea~ to' the.eStablishment"of·an mm-st Ie Isl~~;R~' ~~1i&~iii iia~~~~~veri ~ih~J8)1~di~~d~v~io"iii~~ts bad been detaiieJ infu~ . ~bi~ianPualle'books~a,~6'le~ioh~rir~#~!~&~i2003':'De~ U Sec~(t . oftit. ~'tf"f'r'¥_.g g.,. ", 4'....: .. "'~......,. ,,"·.... ~.,I' ~ ~~.. ~.-.. ~.... ,...~ !.....P ty -. ~ fense Paul Wolfowitz:' ~e aiiJiiieiView on:.Nanoiiai PUblic.RadiO in which he main- ' .....~...~ •••.,t.... . , • ~ ;,,' .. , ';. ." ::y..~~. -,' ..-":-"' ' '. • • - • /_ ~~~.»i~t ''!I1e.Iia~i~,~":~ ~~by.~~',~~guJ~~,s~jJ!~.~ey ~~~~be~rigl~ SI]!;~!,1}fchIS dlffe~n! fro~ the W8hapls :9ft#!~,pe~n~ula, and they,dc;m't bnng the se,nsi(~ii of h.aving' ~e· hoJy ~ities of.Isl~·¥ing .9,n .their te¢tofy~'1 Even more di~rniIY:'this quote sh~w~ thatWOlfoWiJ;qid hot realize.that religious Iraqi Shi'ites • are~tl;mely sensitive about foreigners inthe~shrine cities such as Najafand Karbala, Ju: uJ s:"", "'f .. ... ... ~~ , "'''. ~ ,. .. • ~ 0f~~a!..t. hc!s~ citi~s are,religious power ~nters of great symbolic potenC?y.· ~.~:~.•}lS pefense. Dep~e.!1t leaders such as ~ecretaJ:Y ofDefense Dona!d Rumsfel~ aR!!Jus. ~~pu~es, W~lfo~tz ~d· Douglas F~itbt mistalCeq!y thought that ~e rnUJdle and lower strata of.the:Bafth bureauCla9'. wHee, and army w0!11d .smyive the war, and'that they.c'ould·simply~~hand it over to secular expatriate-figure i\hmad'ChaJabl and hIS Iraqi NatiQ~~ <;oiigfess. Although ~m a 8hilite bac~ground, Ch~abi' '?laS largely unkDowp:in'Iqlq.~d.:was wanted in Iordan on embezzlement charges. Th~ ciAand'the State Department broke with chalabi late in 2002 when be proved unable :.;J!~ t." . ~~. .. - • " . , :-;-'1.• - y... • ~-~ .... ., .;t{~ \: A .f • .. ..~. .'"' ... a:. ~ . I • ,.... .....".~ • ,.,,~nf. . ..-, ". .. • . '. luanCole is ProfesScirofModciiMiddlc Eastern and South Asian Histol)' at the UniversityofMichigan. He'is 'editor of the Intematio~'~Jouma1 of Middle East StUdics. and author of numerous bOOks aDd aiticJ~. His recent ~rbfriciude~Modemity and1M Millennium (NewYork: Columbia University Press, i998) and Sacre"d Space and HI,11 War: 1MPoliticl. ~ulture and Hillary ofShi'itt: Islam (London:I.B. • .' • 1 ~,.~. • rauriS. 2002). <' ~•••~':: j ;" ~ 1. "Deputy SecretarY-'\~~lf~tzIntcrview with National Public Radio," February 19.2003 at http:! IwWw.wash~gto~le.n~~~!fcbIFeb21IEURS09.HTM. MJOOLEEASTJOURNAL*vOWMSS7.NO.4.Aurt1MN2003 ~ ~.. M J , tit" .... ~ ,. , ..\ .... ...., .....: -, - .I; !! , i if I \; I I I,};. .j~ ... I i , ! t ! ... t I ~ I .' t iO.... j • I .:btl r f ''No fthe ,.:~ ,~ f.!.r N' f}t .I J"~" ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ~ HEREIN IS TlNCLASSIFIED Doc,uinent Results . 1"'""'----0; ~__DAT:_E-,,! 07-29-l:'".)010 BY 60324 uc~Vab/lSg ,selrch Wit~in Results: I I ~ Page"! of2 Edit Search I New Search - 'fdnt I DoWnload. View: J.jSt I Full < ~ Document 2 of 4 ~ > :..w Tag for Print & Download i3l!Ii&Il r Copyright 2003 U.P.1. United Press International April 8, 2003 Tuesday LENGTH: 670 words HEAOLJ;NE: Senator asks $50M to aid Iran dissidents BVLINE: By MARK BENJAMIN AND ELI LAKE DATELINE: WASHINGTON, AprilS (UPI) BODY: A leading member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee plans to introduce legislation Wednesday authorizing $50 million a year to aid democratic activists inside Iran seeking a peaceful end to that country's regime. . A copy of an amendment to be offered by Sen. Sam Brownback, R,:,Kansas, obtained by ~nited Press International, says, lilt shall be the policy of the United States to support efforts to achieve democratic reform inside I~ari, including support for the thousands of protesteJ1> who have expressed a desire for the government to, hold a referendum vote that could permit Iran to move toward a secular, democratic government that resp.ects human ,rights and dC?es not seek to possess weapons of mass destruction.n The senator plans to attach the legislation to a bill authorizing next year's foreign assistance budget for the State Department. .' • Andy Fisher, a spokesman for Senate Foreign Relations Com'mittee Chairman Richard Lugar, R-Ind., said Lugar suppo~ efforts to establish a friendly democracy in Iran. It is unclear if Lugar supports the .proposal. "There is an opportunity in,Iran to make some differences and take advantage of dramatic demographic shifts hi the country," Fisher said. A spokeswoman for the American Israel Public Affairs Committee told UPI her organization supports the amendment. The move comes at a critical moment in U.S. relations with the Islamic world. President Bush in his 2002 State of the Union address identified Iran, along with Iraq and North Korea, as- part of an "axis of evil!' As the United States moves to mop up r~sistance in Baghdad, the Bush administration is hoping to confront ~he twin challenges of Installing a new government there ~nd convlnclng,the Islamic wo~rld the invasion of Iraq does not signal a new e'ra of American occupation In the region. . I:-ast month, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld threatened to treat Iranian proxies that moved. Into Iraq as ~nemy corr-bataQts in pperati~n, Iraqi Freedom. ,On March 24, U.S. intelligence issued a report detailing minutes of the Islamic RepUblic's National Security Council where the leaderShip of the country decided on a strategy to send in irregular fighting units to five large Iraqi cities. In Iranian local elections earlier this year, few Persians took to the polls, with voter turnout in the single'digits. Iranian stude'nts, union workers and intellectuals have intermittently over the past year taken to the streets in the capital and large cities demanding a political referendum on the current regime. While Iranians are allowed to vote for the president, they may not elect the country's supreme leader who'oversees Iran's militC!ry and'security services and appoints religious clerics as judges for the courts. Under Brownback's proposed legislation, the State ,Department would allocate $~O million annually to an Iran Democra~ foundati9tl. T~ p_u.rpose of the fo~ndati~n ~s t~ support "pr~·democracy broadcasting to Iran,II such as the satellite television and radio stations b~sed irf~os Angeles'that many Iranians watch and~listen to already;~suppor:t: training for the"If~uiian;;Americ~ncommunity to,reach out to:Iranian dissidents; and fund h~m~n rights ~,I}~ ~iVii soc!eo/ -' I I '0 - I'".. .' Do~Q.m~nt Results. g{o~P.$ ~orking'i11s{de Ir:an. The proposal Is very sfmTiar to' ideas pro'posed iast'June by Pen.tagon staffers In the~Bush administration's Iran policy' review discus~lons.·But c:onsensus was never reache,d ins.i~e the QQvernment. The amend~ent does not c~1I for regime change', but It.does state, "Del1locratic change within Iran ~ould . contribute greatly to Increasing the stability of the entire region and would serve as a beacon to·the p'eople of Iraq and Saudi Arabia to als~ seek der'!'l0cratic reform from within." . . This language hi the amendr:nent is very sim!lar to the'Iraq Liberation Act, Congress, pa~sed in 1998. That legislation first enshrined regime change as' an .open policy goal for. the UniteCi States in Iraq.· Sen. Brownback was an early supporter and a~thor of the legislation. ~ . . LOAD-DATE: April 9, 2003 Vlew:-.L§.t .I. Full < Rrev Document 2 of 4 !l!tltt. > Edit Search f New Search .' ~ I pownload About lexisNexis I Terms and Condjtions I PrivaCy policY .Co~yright 2~04 Lexis~exls, acllvision"of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved• ...... _.......- ............. - .... _.,.. ...... _oT _ - .,,-... -- .~ - ... -- - ---~ ,.- -........-. - C?SNews., C~labi Tipped Iran To Cf1f Break IJune 1, 2004 21:39:57 Page 1 of2 0 .. Ghalabl Tipped Iran To C'o1le Break ALL INFORHATION CONTAHIED ' . .t_ . " HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED . June 1, 2004 DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg ~ U.S. Intel Passed To Iran? (Photo: CBSJAP) Ahmad Chalabi displays a family photo he says was smashed during the May 20 raid on his home. (Photo: AP) U.S. troops outside Chalabi's home during May 20 raid. (Photo: AP) Stories: • The Latest Interactives: • Hostages Held - Fallen Heroes •WMD Fallout - Daily Photos Attacks Map: -The Postwar Insurgency Videos: (CBS/AP) CBS News has learned new details involving the Iran espionage allegations against Ahmad Chalabi, the Iraqi exile leader who was one touted as a possible president to lead Iraq in thepost-Saddam transition. " On May 20, Iraqi police backed by American soldiers raided the Baghdad home and offices of Chalabi. Chalabi is a controversial figure who provided the Bush administration with prewar intelligence on supposed weapons of mass destruction in Iraq - including the now-discredited information about mobile labs whose true use is still a matter of debate. After the raid, 60 Minutes Correspondent Lesley Stahl reported that the U.S. had evidence Chalabi has been passing highly-classified U.S. intelligence to Iran. CBS News has since leamed that Chalabi recently told an Iranian intelligence official the U.S. has cracked Iranian codes, allowing it to read communications on everything from Iran's sponsorship of terrorists to its covert operations inside Iraq CBS has also been told FBI agents are questioning Defense Department officials about who gave such top secret U.S. information to Chalabi in the first place. Chalabi is still active and visible on the scene in Iraq where he is a member of the handpicked Iraqi Governing Council. Over the Memorial Day weekel)d, Chalabi was reportedly involved in negotiations to maintain a falter cease fire in the city of Kufa-between U.S. military and radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr. Chalabi and other Shiite leaders met with al-Sadr ,representatives and declared there was "a momentum for peace." But Chalabi's star has definitely fallen in U.S. eyes. Despite his seat on the Iraqi Governing Council. it seems the Bush. administration is going out of its way to ensure that the man who made a career get rid of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein has no American-backed political future in Iraq. Other tense situations in recent months between the Bush administration and Chalabi include: ("Iv ')LI'Qr~Cl1 0;~'\l>r-~Slt;, -Alee; c~. _. -- ----------------------------------------- ~BSNews IChalabi Tipped Iran To ~Break IJune 1, 2004 21 :39:57 oVideo Archive • AmeWlt officials have complained (_ privately that Chalabi was interfering 11 r with an inquiry into money skimmed .~~~;~~~ Down Saddam from the U.N. oil-for-food program. • Chalabi has recently accused the U.S.-led coalition of not going far enough to give Iraqis sovereignty. He also fiercely resisted U.S. military commanders' recent decision to soften rules blocking former members of Saddam's ruling party from government jobs. Chalabi still has strong supporters in Washington, and the Pentagon continued to pay for intelligence provided by his organization until recently. Danielle Pletka, 'a vice president at the conservative American Enterprise Institute. after the May 20 raid that she believed the raid was likely "political manipulation in order to disable somebody who has been a thorn in the side of the CPA." 'We need the United Nations right now, and Chalabi is the prime mover behind the investigation in the oil-for-food program/, Pletka said. o P~ge2 of2 Print iiiii -~ /1 ALL INFORHATION CONTAII~D HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 B¥ 6~ uc baw/sab/lsg Page 1 of2 Print Window I C1~se W~ndow Document 41 of S4 Copyright 2004 The New York Times Company The New York Times June 2, 2004 Wednesday late Edition - Final SECTION: Section A; Column 3; Foreign Desk; THE REACH OF WAR: :THE OFFENSE; Pg. 1 LENGTH: 1178 words I:IEADUNE: Chalabi Reportedly Told Iran That U.S. Had Code BYLINE: By JAMES RISEN and DAVID JOHNSTON DATELINE: WASHINGTON, June 1 BODY: Ahmad Chalabi, the Iraqi leader and former ally of the Bush administration, disclosed to an Iranian official that the United States had broken the secret communications code of Iran's Intelligence service, betraying one of Washington's most valuable sources of . Information about Iran, according to United States Intel,ligence officials. The general charge that Mr. Chalabi provided Iran with critical American intelligence secrets was Widely reported last month after the Bush administration cut off financial aid to Mr. Chalabl's organization, the Iraqi National Congress, and American and Iraqi security forces raided his Baghdad headquarters. The Bush administration, citing national security concerns, asked The New York Times and other news organizations not to publish details of the case. The Times agreed to hold off publication of some specific Information that top Intelligence officials said would compromise a vital, continuing Intelligence operation. The administration Withdrew Its request on Tuesday, saying Information about the code-breaking was starting to appear in news accounts• .Mr. Chalabi and his aides have said he knew of no secret Information related to Iran' and therefore could not have communicated any Intel1lgence to Tehran. ~ American officials said that about six weeks ago, Mr. Chalabl told the Baghdad statton chief of Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and ® Security that the United States was reading the communications traffic of the Iranian spy service, one of the most sophisticated InD~A V ~ the Middle East. Pi"\~ According to American officials, the Iranian official In Baghdad, possibly not believing Mr•. Chalabl's account, sent a cable to Tehran detailing his conversation with Mr. Chalabi, using the broken code. That encrypted cable, Intercepted and read by the United States, tipped off American officials to the fact that Mr. Chalabi had betrayed the code-breaking operation, the American officials said. American officials reported that in the cable to Tehran, the Iranian official recounted how Mr. Chalabi had said that one of "themll -a reference to an American .-, had revealed the code-breaking operation, the officials said. The Iranian reported that Mr. Chalabi said the American was drunk. The Iranians sent what American Intelligence regarded as a test message, which mentioned a cache of weapons Inside Iraq, belieVing that if the code had been broken, United States military forces would be qUickly dispatched to the specified site. But there was no such action. ' The account of Mr. Chalabi's actions has been confirmed by several senior American officials, who said the leak contributed to the White House decision to break with him. It could not be learned exactly how the United States broke the code. But Intelligence sources said that In the past, the United States has broken Into the embassies of foreign governments, Including those of Iran, to steal Information, Including codes. t1 The F.B.I. has opened' an espionage Investigation seeking to determine exactly what information Mr. Chalabi turned over to the A-' Iranians as well as who told Mr. Chalabi that the Iranian code had been broken, government officials said. The Inquiry, stili In an early'phase, Is focused. o~ a verY. small number of people who were close to Mr. Chalabi and also had access to the highly restricted inf~rmatlon about the Iran code. . . _ 6S\t,,\\lf-~<"3t5- /Je..-, ~f~fW~ ~-- ~~c o o Page 2 of2 t Sdme of the people the F.B.I. expects to Interview are civilians at the Pentagon who were among Mr. Chalabi's strongest supporters anC,i served as his main point of contact with the government, the officials said. So far, no one has been accused of any wrongdoing. Print In a television Interview on May 23, Mr. Chalabi said on CNN's "Late Edition" that he met In Tehran In December with the Iranian supreme leader, Ayatollah All Khamenel, and the Iranian president, Mohammad Khataml. He also said he had met with Iran's minister of information. Mr. Chalabi attacked the C.I.A. and the director of central Intelligence, George J. Tenet, saying the agency was behind what Mr. Chalabi asserted was an effort to smear him. "I have never passed any classified Information to Iran or have done anything •• participated In any scheme of Intelligence against the United States," Mr. Chalabi said on "Fox News Sunday." IIThis charge Is false. I have never seen a U.S•. classified document, and I have never seen •• had a U.S. classified briefing." Mr. Chalabi, a member of the Iraqi Governing Council, said, "We meet people from the Iranian Embassy In Baghdad regularly," but said that was to be expected of Iraqi officials like himself. Some defenders of Mr. Chalabi In the United States say American officials had encouraged him In his dealings with Iran, urging him to open an office In Tehran In hopes of improving relations between Iran and Washington. Those defen·ders also say they'do not believe that his relationship with Iran Involved any exchange of Intelligence. Mr. Chalabi's allies in Washington also saw the Bush administration's decision to sever Its ties with Mr. Chalabl and his group as a cynical effort Instigated,by the C.I.A. and longtime Chalabi critics at the State Department. They believe those agencies want to blame him for mistaken estimates and incorrect Information about Iraq before the war, like whether Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction. One of those who has defended Mr. Chalabi is Richard N. Perle, the former chairman of the Defense Polley Board. ''The C.I.A. has disliked him passionately for a long time and has mounted a campaign against him with some considerable success," Mr. Perle said Tuesday. "rve seen no evidence of Improper behavior on his part. No evidence whatsoever." Mr. Perle said he thought the C.I.A. had turned against Mr. Chalabi because he refused to be the agency's "puppet." Mr. Chalabi "has a mind of his own'" Mr. Perle said. American Intelligence officials said the F.B.I. investlgatlon Into the Intelligence leak to Iran did not extend to any charges that Mr. Chalabi provided the United States with Incorrect Information, or any allegations of corruption. . American officials said· the leak about the Iranian codes was a serious loss because the Iranian Intelligence service's highly encrypted cable traffic was a crucial source of information, supplying Washington with information about Iranian operations Inside Iraq, where Tehran's agents have become increasingly active. It also helped the United States keep track of Iranian Intelligence operations around the world. Until last month, the Iraqi National Congress had a lucrative contract with the Defense Intelligence Agency to provide Information about Iraq. Before the United States Invasion last year, the group arranged for Iraqi defectors to prOVide the Pentagon with Information about Saddam Hussein's government, particularly evidence purporting to show that Baghdad had active programs to develop weapons of mass destruction. Today, the American Intelligence community believes that much of the Information passed by the defectors was either wrong or fabricated. URL: LOAD-DATE: June 2,2004 War and Piece: June 2004 Archives ~L INFOrotA.TION CONTAUJED ~ ! l"" Hr IS UNCLASSIFIED 0 : '-- 0'1-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/ l:1une 02, 2004 Page 1ofl Can we expect to see Richard Perle start to def~nd Chalabi's leaks of the most sensitive US intelligence to the Iranian . terror masters?·Ledeen? Harold Rhode? Michael·Rubin? I hear Larry Franklil) isn't defending Chalabi any more. There are only two defenses I can see: it's not true (seems the evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of, it's true). Or, it's okay that Chalabi did it. Or, there's a third. How about, WE WERE WRONG. We were fQ.QJs, and dupes. But none. of these people seem to have the moral capacity to admit they were wrong. What kind of blindness,. what kind of pathological arrogance, prevents these people from ever admitting they are wrong? MORE: A friend says Chalabi supporters may also use the defense, ChaJabl was framed by Iranians who wanted him to be politically neutralized In Iraq. [As if he even needed to b,e neutralized by outside forces!] That the two Iranians who were detected in an intercept to be discussing what Chalabi ~upposedly gave them ~o~ld have been trying to frame him. I find this deeply unconv.incing. [Remember how each shred of bogus intel about ties between al Qaeda and Saddam these very same neocons clung to as the holy grail? This Is that In reverse]. A question. Is Chalabi simply believed to have conversationally told'an Iranian source that the US had broken XYZ communications code? Or is he actually believed to have had physical access to some sort. of code breaking technology itself? Why does this matter? Because the. number of US officials who might have known the formerls certainly greater than the latter. Even a civilian Pentagon official known to be very close to Chalabi and who believes himself a huge expert on Iran and the Middle East might have heard the_latter and"passed it on to Chalabi. Posted by Laura at 10:56 AM War and.Piece 1+.L1 INFORMATION CONTAINED 4 Page 1 ~f31 ~·~;·==-=·========~~~~~~~F~ -'.' '6_~~_~'~"~_=__.~__~_~_~'=~~~~~~ ~ ~1~ UI ~~-~u~o ~1 ou~~~ ac ~awjs~~ Warand Pi ec~l~n_e1_4-,--,:-2_0_04_"-----.-;;... ABOUT WAR AN-D' PIECE War and Piece is written by Laura Rozen, a journalist who report~ on national security and foreig n policy issues from Washington, D.C. (Mo,re) Reunion after the Sarajevo Siege. Photograph by Roger Richards, 1996. SEARCH Search this site: RECENT ARTICLES "Chalabi Sm~ckdown,-" The AmeriCan Prospect Online" May 201, 2004. ."y'e at L~ttle Feith,"_The American Prospect, May 18, 2004. J1m.~itI~:h!OO!tt~I 2002 torture mgmo the Justice Department Office of Legal Counsel prepared at Jdhft ~el5bftfl1tfe9Nbite!f~eS9~~.D. Cdmtb~d\Q~its!2r14R!t~q1dttbcgenmmt.tb.edf JtJbVkecOeiibetrluat1b:emepart~lsawnlaW~e~~at th@ff~Jet~$b€SWhbJ.~.sscfiltbf;)ewash;ngtoa &.H got ahold of it and P-9sted it'here.{note: .pdf IirN$iW~~l!mst~n,~me~iM;'tq~if Qm~~tB~I.~e\~teJa~S~~~slte~~uGhraib began alerting.senior US military officers in November 2003 to Mtiaa~EtheHWld9trerJ~J!§IttIaSEmsmaf1ilmit)Of mU~~§~iabSJtr~tS~¢ttfl.nGtl~rbegahe alet:l1itsg samlbaQJ1f9an;Utary officers in November 2003 to the abuse!, This contradicts what senior military cJ'nWirJjlli~ h9V~cs§\tH4k~~~dldnot learn of the abuse until January. June 13, 2004 Posted by Laura at 05_: 2? ~~ Here's a~ interesting February 2001.~ on the J'iltit90J.'3;n!OO4es to INC intelligence chief Aras Kareem. Here's an interesting February 2001 ~on the. pJA~Lig8,f~~~1hg tie~~~l~~IIgWNle ~Q~ger K~\Dn. Notice ttl~ aa¥e Q{ ~evBPIlf6rll{Rg 6$~J~~ber 11th. administration will revamp U.S. Iraq policy, Pentagon officials began meeting IntbisetafaJb~ittntbtalhiqf~OPEttatiBoslfor aetlni~a 0fn~mJiSJfa$lt:trG~uPs pcHfnWJAsntaberi~Natibe9a6ongetlrig... this week. with the chief of operations for t~rBfu~PeRarsfTr8q'i"imiQfaX~al-'6ups krfOWni<AsrMesfh~",rwa£?>Ya%;'CYnijtess. ! • intelligence. circles' tha~ his cousin, Ali A~rkaret~ -sosghbra~~, detained in cOll~dlifttttnia>j(1iJrigEP'aO'sljecalSeof t)is '·iii~rit:ii~irddl;lttrat·hi8I"(bmdrf~stJiweek ALL INFOIU·1ATION CONTAINED ,"d"'- ~:'B Y NOdAEI b ~ K . k ki HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED. SlaI1 mg y our R an y v'>D. Wlat ows DATE 07-29-2010 BY 0'1 uc bawlseb/1sg Home I About I Cqlumnists I 810g I Subscribe I Donate Standing By Your NRO and AEI by Karen K,viatko,vski by Karen Kwiatkowski GeSAVETHIS C!IS2JEMAIL THIS <!~PRINTTHIS eilMOSTPOPULAR Michael Rubin is moaning, lamenting and harmonizing about'how criticism of neoconservative war planning and occupation strategies in Iraq is part ofa vast allpowerful conspiracy. It would make a great country song. Rubin didn't say the conspiracy was great or right-wing. But he poignantly captures ~e pain and panic ofthe neoconservatives these days. Like a poor wife standing by her man, Michael Rubin sings Tammy Wynette. His article in the National Review Online is mostly.about me. Interestingly, in the fourth paragraph, he writes that he met me. He sure knows a lot about me, though! Well, Mike Rubin knows a lot about a lot ofthings. ---- ------ Page 1of3 According to his AEI C..V., he is an Iran and Iraq expert who spent two years with the Office ofSecretary ofDefe~seworking Iran and Iraq issues. He also advised Mr. Jerry Bremer and th.e Coalition Provisional Authority. Let me get this straight He was the advisor to the guy who invaded Iraq on false premises, and to the other guy who is running ,Iraq more·than a year later. If it were I, I'm not sure I'd include that information on my resume. Ofcourse, it's not his fault; he's just a consultant. When Rubin was part ofthe Office ofSpecial Plans, many ofus, especially in uniform, saw the pooch get prepped for screwing, and then the actual screwing of the pooch. It wasn't pretty. We saws guys like Rubin running around promoting a war because Saddam had a lot ofviable WMDs. I'm sure it wasn't Michael Rubin pushing that claim, and that these fantasy WMDs only existed in the minds ofthe OTHER Iraq war liber-strategists. Not Michael. We saw intelligence get watered down when it didn't prove the liber-strategists' preconceived_notions about Iraq, and we watched while Kool-A,id was added to the weak bits ofunsubstantiated data that seemed to. I'm sure RubiIi never drank that particular Kool-Aid. Although in his Tammy Wynette role, he may have served it up. We saw a guy named Doug Feith, a lobbyist for Israel in his law firm who espoused extremely pro-Likud views, be confirmed by the Congress as the Under Secretary for Defense Policy with his like-minded consultants. We watch as Feith then . focused his attention on developing a Middle East war/policy. We observ:ed as he made a huge mess of it. ~~IJ' le Z,lffM But ofcourse, Michael had nothing to do with that. He was just standing by his man. l.V~l - - -. '. e~\\)~~W':,'II'" .~"""\"'-~( - ~\L..rtft''L-: StlliidmgBy Your NRO·lind AEI byOnKwiatkowski 0 When Jon Stewart at the-Comedy. Chapnel cQffi!ll~~ts on-the Gi~t M~ss-0':'P9t~ia, he's not kidding. Somehow, I see a sweaty Michael Rubin ~ack in the kitchen .. wiping his hands on ~is stained apron. No, Mighael, the damned spot won't come out. Trust me. Rubin's NRO tirade thematically centers on the presumed "Kwiatkowski-LaRouchegrand- conspiracy-to-pick-on-neoconservatives-and-make- them-look-like-reallyfoolish- blunderers-by-getting-us-int9-an-u~ecessary-war~killing-more-than-750American- soldiers- and-suggesting-the horror!-that-some-neoconservatives-~re..; even-war-criminals.II His article is in key ways factually incorrect, wrong, and in some ways, a little bit stupid. But-smears usually are, aren't they? Some key mistakes include the old AEI charge that I have something to'do with LaRo~che, that I didn't know where the asp offices were loca~ed, that I left the Pentagon because I felt others had gotten promotions and I didn't, that I said L!!!!y.. Franklin used his wheelchair-bound wife as a cover· for galliyanting atounaihe_ worm: on secret missions,.analliat rliave a fringe ideology, among others. 'For the t'ecord, no on LaRouche, yes on the.location ofthe asp spaces, no on the promotion question (I never even stayed long enough to meet my first 0-6 board), no on Larry Franklin and his wife and secret missions, and I'm not sure on the nfringe171eology." Rubin never really explains what fringe id~ology he's talking about. I can only say with a high confidence that it isn't the same fringe ideology embraced by the National Review and the American Enterprise"Institute these days. When Mfcha~l Rubin says he knows something about sOplethil1g, it seems he really doesn't know much. The little he knows appears not to be supported by either facts or evidence, and is somewhat hope-based: Whether he is advising the Pentagon on Iraq and Iran, or,trying to smear me, Rubin gets it wrong, again and again. Like Tammy Wynette's h~roine, he's going onfaith,in and love for the neocon agenda, and loyalty to his neocon friends. Faith and love and loyalty are wonderful things, but Micha~l, dear, it's hard sometimes, isn't-it? All ~atabuse, and people giving you a har4 time, saying you made bad choices, all those reasons to leave but you just can't do" it. I think Tammy says it best: Sometimes it's hard to be a woman Givin' all your love to just on~ man You'll have bad times and he'll have good times Doin' things that ,you don't understand J3ut ifyou love him, you'll forgive him Even though he's hard to understand And ifyou love him, oh be proud ofhim 'Cause after all he's just a man May 19, 2004 -Page 2 of3 Karen Kwiatkowski [send her mail] is a retired USAF lieutenant colonel, who spent herfinal four anda halfyears i~ u.niform working at [he 'Pentqgon. She now lives with her SHlhdingBy Yo~r NRO and AEI by ranKwiatkowski 0 freedom-iovingfamily in the Shenandoah Valley, and writes_ a bi-w~ekly column on defense issues with a libertarian perspective for Copyright 0 2004 Karen Kwiatkowski Archives Back to Home·Page Page 3 of3 ~ -- . - ...... ~ - ~ -- --- ,....-~.,.. ?ods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran~ Intelligence Agencies Page 1of4 FA~ I I~telligence'l WoQAgencies IIran 11I11 IndJrI Search IJoinFAS t .' 't ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED Qods (Jerusalem) Force DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Iranian Revolutio~aryGuard Corps (IRGC - Pas4arane Inqilab) While the Constitution ofIran entrusts the military with guarding Iran's territorial integrity and political independence,. it gives the Revolutionary Guard [pasdaran] the responsibility ofguardi~gthe Revolution itself. Established under a decree issued by Khomeini on May 5, 1979, the Pasdaran was intended to guard the Revolution and to assist the ruling clerics in the day-to-day enforcement ofthe government's Islamic codes and morality. The Revolution also needed to rely on a force ofits own rather than borrowing the previous regime's tainted units. By 1986 the Pasdaran consisted of 350,000 personnel organized in battalion-size units that operated either independently or with units ofthe regular anned forces. In 1986 the Pasdaran acquired small naval and air elements. By 1996 the ground and naval forces were reported to number 100,000 and 20,000, respectively. Domestic Operations The Pasdaran has maintained an intelligence branch to monitor the regime's domestic adversaries and to participate in their arrests and trials. Khomeiili implied Pasdaran involvement in intelligence when he congratulated the Pasdaran on the arrest ofIranian communist Tudeh leaders. The Baseej (volunteers) come under the control ofthe ReYolutionary Guards. In 1995, up to 900,000 baseej were moQilized. The Baseej allegedly also monitor the activities of citizens, and harass or arrest women whose clothing does not cover the hair and all ofthe 1Jody except hands and face, or those who wear makeup. During the year ending in June 1995, they reportedly "notified 907,246 people,verbally and issued 370,079 written notices against 'social corruption' and arrested 86,190 people, and also broke up 542 'corrupt gangs', arresting their 2,618 members, -and seized 86,591 indecent videocassette_~ alld pQ9tqgraphs. http://fas.orglirp/world/iranlqods/ 6/15/04 Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Irani,an Revo~onary Guard Corps (IRGC - Pasdaran~ Intelligence Agencies Page 2 of4 the Ashura Brigades force W reportedly created in 1993 h!ler anti:'government riots e;upted iri various Iranian cities and it consists of 17,000 Isla~ic militia men and women. The Ashura Brigades are reportedly composed of elements ofthe Revolutionary Guards (Pasdaran) and the Baseej volunteer-militia In August 1994, some Pasdaran units, rushed to quell riots in the city of Ghazvin, 150 km. west ofTehran, reportedly refused orders from the Interior Minister to intervene in the clashes, which left more than 30 people dead, 400 wounded ~nd over 1,000 arrested. Subsequently, senior officers in the army, air force and the usually loyal Islamic Revolutionary Guard reportedly stated that they would no longer order thei.r troops into battle to quell civil disorder. A Pasdaran commander was among four senior army officers who are said to have sent a letter to the country's political leadership, warning the clerical rulers against "using the armed forces to crush civilian unrest and internal conflicts.II In a communique sent to Ayatollah Ali Khameini, stated that "the role ofthe country's armed forces is to defend its borders and to repel foreign enemies from its soil, not to control the internal situation or to strengthen one political faction above another." They· are said to have then recommended the use ofBaseej volunteers for this purpose. In a move believed to indicate a shift in the trust ofthe ruling clerics from the Pasdaran to the Baseej volunteer force, on 17 April 1995 Ayatollah Ali Khameini reportedly promoted a civilian, veterinary surgeon Hassan Firuzabadi, to the rank offull general, placing him above both Brigadier-General Mohsen Rezai, commander-in-chiefofthe Pasdaran and Brigadier General Ali Shahbazi ofthe regular armed forces. Foreign Operations The foreign operations by the Guardians, which also encompass the activities of Hizballah and Islamic Jihad - are usually carried out through the Committee on Foreign Intelligence Abroad and the Committee on Implementation of Actio~sAbroad. As with agents ofMinistry ofIntelligence, Pasdaran personnel operate through front companies and non-governmental organizations, employees or officials oftrading companies, banks, 'cultural centers or as representatives ofthe Foundation"ofthe Oppressed and Dispossessed (Bonyade-e- Mostafazan), or the·Martyrs 'Foundation. The Qods (Jerusalem) Force ofthe Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) is responsible for extraterritorial operations, including terrorist operations. A primary focus for the Qods Force is training Islamic fundamentalist terrorist groups. Currently, the Qods Force conducts training activities in Iran and in Sudan. The Qods Force is also responsible for gathering information required for targeting and attack planning. The Pasdaran has contacts with underground movements in the Gulfregion, and Pasdaran members are assigned to Iranian diplomatic missions, where, in the course ofroutine intelligence activities they monitor dissidents. Pasdaran influence has been particularly . http://fas.orglirp/worldliranlqods/ 6/15/04 --- ----- ?OdS (Jerusal~m) Force, ~ranian ReV~lutiona~ ?uard ~orps (IROC - pas~aran~n Intelligence Agencies Page 3 of4 Important In KuwaIt, BahrAdthe Umted Arab EmIrate~ The·largest branch ofPasdaran foreign operations consists ofapproximately 12,000 Arabic speaking Iranians, Afghans, Iraqis, Lebanese shi'ites and North Africans who trained in Iran or received training in Afghanistan during the Afghan war years. Presently these foreign operatives receive training in Iran, Sudan and Lebanon, and include the Hizballah ["Party ofAllah"] intelligence, logistics and operational units in Lebanon [Hizballah is primarily a·social and political rather than military organization]. The second largest Pasdaran foreign operations relates to the Kurds (particularly Iraqi Kurds), while the third largest relates to the Kashmiri's, the Balouchi's and the Afghans. The Pasdaran has also supported the establishment ofHizballah branches in Lebanon, Iraqi Kurdistan, Jordan and Palestine, and the Islamic Jihad in many other Moslem countries including Egypt~ Turkey, Chechnya and in Caucasia. Hizballah has been implicated in the counterfeiting ofU.S. dollars and European currencies, both to finance its operations and to disrupt Western economies by impairing international trade and tourism. The Office of Liberation Movements has established a Gulf Section tasked with forming a GulfBattalion as part ofthe Jerusalem Forces. In April 1995 a number of international organizations linked to· international terrorism --including the Japanese Red Army, the Armenian Secret Army, and the Kurdistan Workers' Party -- were reported to have met in Beirut with representatives ofthe Iraqi Da'wah Party, the Islamic Front for the Liberation ofBahrain, Hizballah, Iran's "Office ofLiberation Movements," and Iran's Guardians ofthe Revolution. Tehran's objective was to destabilize Arab Gulfstates by supporting fundamentalists with military, financial, and logistical support. Members of these and other organizations receive military training at a Guardians ofthe Revolution facility some 100 kilometers south ofTehran. A variety ofoftraining courses are qonducted at the facility for fundamentalists from· the Gulfstates, Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, and Lebanon, including naval operations, mines, and diving operations in a special camp near the Orontes River. Sources and Methods • SPECIALAND IRREGULAR~D FORCES_ in JRA1'1-_A C0UD:t!y Stu~y Library of Congress Federal Research Division • "ISLAMIC REPUBLIC" OF IRAN EXPORT OF REVOLUTION FLAG OF - -- - - - - FREEDOM ORGANIZATION OF IRAN (FFO) SPECIAL REPORT August 12, 1997 • Counterfe~t U.~._ Currency Abro~d:_ Issues a~d U.S. Deterrenc~ Eff,?rts (GAO Letter Report, 02/26/96, GAO/GGD-.96-11) • "Alleged Extremist Plans To Destabilize Gulf' FBIS-NES-95-092 : 10 Feb 1995 [Source: Paris ~-WAT~N AL-'ARABI, 10 Feb 95 pp 14-1.6.] --- 6/15/04 Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC - PasdaranlJlan Intelligence.Agencies Page 4 of4 . ,: <;;) ~ ..~ . • FAS I Int_elligence I.W~rld Ag~nci~s I Iran 11111 Inde~ ISear~h I Join FA~ http://www~fas. org/irp/world/iran/qodsl Created by John Pike Maintained by ~teyen __Aftergo_od Updated Friday, August 21, 1998 8:56:03 AM http://fas.orglirp/worldliranlqodsl 6/15/04 Iran Liberation ----~- - ----- - ALL INFORMATION CONTAIlmD HEREIN IS UNC~IFIED ~ 0 • ~ DATE 07-29-20llJ,;lY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsq r-' _-, t~PUblicationL ~~ Page 1 of5 No. 170 April 7, 2003 Tehran Poised to Attack Mojahedin, Sieze Iraqi Territory Contrary to the consecutive denials and reiterations that it does not intend to interfere in Iraq, the clerical regime is poised fully to take advantage of the developments in the region and attack the Mojahedin and capture parts of Iraqi territory. To this end, the People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran issued a statement on April 1, exposing parts of the activities of the regime which are as follows: 1. The regime has stationed a total of 46 brigades and an assortment of weapons, equipment and missiles in the border region. The following activities have been undertaken in the past 10 days: 2. Transferring the 3rd Brigade ofthe 21st Hamzeh Division from Marand to Chehel Zari (along the border region in Kermanshah Province); :..I.,r..i,il U" t.i..i.i..atfOn, ~.."..",- ,J1~"(11~! . .p.tevi~~sfJ~f~~ lVl1omen' ... ~ .... ~ I .... i!.!~;i~~I!~' ,'vfOus:15suei. ,. ... ........ ..,. ".' ~.. ~ • ..., .. tI' ,,!!qf1.&~~.~q I tievi issue .i!~~f~~~~~u~~ I 6/15/04 Iran Liberation " 3:.Transferring partQf the 28th · Sanandaj Diyision to the city of \, Mehran (a border town in Ilam Province); 4. Transferring part of the Guards Corps 10th Division to Mehran; 5. Transferring parts of the 16th Qazvin Armored Division to Sar-polZahab (in the border region in Kermanshah Province); 6. Transferring 1st and 2nd brigades of 81st Kermanshah Division from Kermanshah and IslaIlJ.-Abad to the border region and deploying five tank battalions along Qasr-e Shirin; 7. Transferring the 35th Commando Brigade from Kermanshah to Mehran and Gilan-e Gharb; 8. Transferring parts of the 55th Airborne Brigade from Shiraz to Sarpol- Zahab; 9. Transferring the 2nd Brigade of the 84th Division from Khorramabad to Bostan; 10. Transferring part of the 64th Orumieh Division to Abadan (south of Khuzistan Province, oPPQsite Basra); 11. Transferring the 45th Commando Brigade from Shushtar to Khorramshahr and Bostan; 12. Transferring the 2nd Brigade of the Revolutionary. Guards- 7th Valio Page 2 of5 6/15104 Iran Liberation, Division fromQehbahan to · Sousangerd (in the border region in ~ Khuzistan Province); 13. Transferring part of the 2nd Brigade of the Revolutionary Guards 4th Division from Ilam to Mehran; 14. Transferring part of the 3rd Brigade of the Revolutionary Guards 4th Division from Hamedan to Qasre Shirin; 15. Transferring parts of the intelligence and operations headquarters of the Revolutionary Guards Divisions from different provinces to· Qasr-e Shirin to assess the situation and order the operational forces of those divisions ifneeded; o Page 3 of5 16. Concentrating the Intelligence Ministry's terrorist groups and forces in the Qasr-e Shirin in order to infiltrate the Iraqi territory and carry out terrorist operational against the Mojahedin in Khanaqin, Jalawla, Baquba and Baghdad; 17. Transferring a part of the 64th AI-Hadid Missile Brigade of the Revolutionary Guards to Howeizeh (border region in Khuzistan Province) to carry out missile attacks with Fajr 3 and 5 missiles; 18. Transferring a part of the 65th Special Airborne Force from Tehran to. the so-called Abuzar in south of Sar-pol-Zahab. The probe and J;ecoI1J:lais~ance units of the brigade - - . http://www.iranncrfac.orgIPagesIPublicationslIL/IL170/pagesrrehran%20poised%20to%20attack%20mojahc... 6/15/04 Iran Liberation • so far carriePout several -. reconnaissance missions on Mojahedin bases in KhosraviKhaneqin and Sumar-Mandali axes. 19. Transferring ammunition and equipment inside Iraq by the Revolutionary Guards Fajr Base (belonging to the extra-territorial terrorist Qods Force) in Ahwaz, in Bostan, Shat-Ali, Howeizeh and Tala'ieh (border region in Khuzistan Province); ~o.. Transferring 40 truck-loads of ammunition from Kermanshah to Iraqi territory through Azgaleh to Maydan and Darbandikhan by the Revolutionary Guards Zafar Garrison; 21. Redeploying mercenaries of the 9th Badr Corps from Kermanshah to Marivan and Iraqi Kurdistan and from Dezful to Howeizeh as well as . helping groups of them to infiltrate the Iraqi territory in Mandali, Mehran and Howeizeh by the extraterritorial terrorist Qods (Jerusalem) Force. 22. According to the Qods Force's operational scheme, the 9th Badr Corps is planning, similar to 12 years ago, to pour into Basra, Nasseriyah and AI-Amara. Revolutionary Guards Brig. Gen. Ahmad Forouzandeh, in charge of the Iraqi Crisis Headquarters, is currently based in Ahwaz (Khuzistan Province); Page 4 of5 6/15/04 Iran Liberation .. ". 2~.. Commanders ofaQods Force, . • including its commander B~ig. Gen. \ Qassem Soleimani, his deputy Brig. Gen. Iraj Masjedi, Brig. Gen. Hamid Taghavi, Ramezan Garrison's commander of operations, and Brig. Gen. Obeidavi, Fajr Garrison's commander, are making the military and terrorist preparations in Iraqi territory. Occasionally, they use ambulances to enter Iraqi territory; 24. All of the so-called Ashura and Az-Zahra battalions of the Revolutionary Guards paramilitary Bassij forces across the country have been armed to confront the Mojahedin. The Revolutionary Guards Divisions have been put on alert across the country; 25. Eight warplanes in Hamedan's Nojeh air base, eight in Dezful's Vahdati air base, two in Bandar Abbas air base and two in Bushehr air base are on a state of readiness round-the-clock. They are armed' w,ith air-to-air missiles. 26. The clerical regime has so far stationed a total of 46 b~igades with an assortment of weapons, equipment and missiles in hopes of taking advantage of the Iraqi situation and attack the Mojahedin. o Page 5 of5 http://www.iranncrfac.orglPages/Publications/IL/IL170/pagesffehran%20poised%20to%20attack%20mojahc••• 6/15/04 ALL INFORMATION COlrTAINED HEREIN IS lnlCLASSIFIED ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 ~W/Sab/1Sg Document 4 of 24 Copyright 2004 The Conde Nast Publications, Inc. The New Yorker June 28, 2004 SECTION: FACfi Annals Of National Securityi Pg. 54 LENGTH: 5151 words HEADLINE: PLAN Bi As June 30th approaches, Israel looks to the Kurds. BYLINE: SEYMOUR M. HERSH Page 1 of5 P~!_nt ~indow I Close Window BODY: In July, 2003, two months after President Bush declared victory In Iraq, the war, far from winding down, reached a critical point. Israel, which had been -among the war's most enthusiastic supporters, began warning the Administration that the American-led occupation would face a heightened Insurgency-a campaign of bombings and assassinations-later that summer. Israeli Intelligence assets In Iraq were reporting that the Insurgents had the support of Iranian Intelligence operatives and other foreign fighters, who were crossing the unprotected border between Iran and Iraq at will. The Israelis urged the United States to seal the nlne-hundredmile- long border, at whatever cost. The border stayed open, however. liThe Administration wasn't Ignoring the Israeli Intelligence about Iran," Patrick Clawson, who Is the deputy director of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy and has close ties to the White House, explained. "There's no question that we took no steps last summer to c1ose_ the border, but our attitude was that it was more useful fC?r Iraqis to have contacts with ordinary Iranians coming across the border, and thousands were coming across every day':'for Instance, to make pilgrimages'" He added, "The questions we confronted were 'Is the trade-off worth It? Do we want to Isolate the Iraqis?' Our answer was that as long as the Iranians were not picking up guns and shooting at us, It was worth the price." Clawson said, liThe Israelis disagreed quite Vigorously with us last summer. Their concern was very straightforward-that the Iranians would create social and charity organizations In Iraq and use them to recruit people who would engage In armed attacks against Americans.n The warnings of Increased violence proved accurate. By early August, the insurgency against the occupation had exploded, with bombings In Baghdad, at the Jordanian Embassy and the United Nations headquarters, that killed forty-two people. A former Israeli Intelligence officer said that Israel's leadership had·concluded by then that the United States was unwllllng·to confront Irani In terms of salvaging the situation in Iraq" he said" "It doesn't add up. It's over. Not militarily-the United States cannot be defeated militarily In Iraq-but polltlcally." Flynt Leverett, a former C.I.A. analyst who until last year served on the National Security Council and Is now a fellow at the Saban Center for Middle East Polley, told me that late last summer lithe Administration had a chance to turn it around after It was clear that 'Mission Accomplished' n_a reference. to Bush's May.speech-nwas premature. The Bush people could have gone to their allies and got more boots on the ground. But the neocons were. dug in-'We're doing this on our own.'" Leverett went on, liThe President was only belatedly coming to the understanding that he had to either make a strategic change or, If he was going to Insist on unilateral control, get tougher and find the actual insurgency." The Administration then decided, Leverett said, to "deploy the Guantanamo model in Iraqll-to put aside its rules of Interrogation. That decision failed to stop the insurgency and eventually led to the scandal at the Abu Ghralb prison. In early November, the President received a grim assessment from the C.I.A.'s station chief in Baghdad, who filed a special field appraisal, known Internally as an Aardwolf" warning that the security situation in Iraq was nearing collapse. The document, as described by Knight-Ridder, said that "none:of the postwar Iraqi political Institutions and leaders have shown an ability to govern the country" or to hold elections and draft a constitution. A few days later, the Administration, rattled by the violence and the new intelligence, finally attempted to change Its go-It-alone polley, and set June 30th as the date for the handover of sovereignty to an Interim government, which would allow It to bring the United Nations Into the process. "November was one year before the Presidential election," a U.N. consultant who worked on Iraqi Issues told me. "They panicked and decided to share the blame with the U.N. and the Iraqis." A former Administration official who had supported the war completed a discouraging tour of Iraq late last fall. He visited Tel AViv afterward and found that the Israelis he. met with were equally discouraged. As they saw It, their warnings and advice had been Ignored, and the Amerlcan·'war against the. insurgency was continuing to founder•. "I spent hQurs. ~alklng to the. senior' m~m~ers. ~f o ~ Page 2 of5 tile Israeli political and Intelligence community," the former official recalled. "Their concern was IYoulre not going to get It right In ~faq, and shouldn't we be planning for the worst-~ase scenario and how to deal with It?' .. Pant Ehud Barak, the former Israeli Prime MinIster, who supported the Bush Admlnlstrationls Invasion of Iraq, took It upon himself at this point to privately warn Vice-President Dick Cheney that America had lost In.lraqj according to an American close to Barak, he said that Israel I'had learned that there's no way to win an occupation." The only Issue, Barak told Cheney, "was choosing the size of your humlllatlon.'1 Cheney did not re_spond to Barak's assessment. (Cheneyrs office declined to comment.) In a series of Interviews In Europe, the Middle East, and the United States, officIals told me that by the end of last year Israel had concluded that the Bush Administration would not be able to bring stability or democracy to Iraq, and that Israel needed other options. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's government decided, I was told, to minimize the damage that the war was causing to Israel's strategic position by expanding Its long-standing relationshfp with Iraq's Kurds and establishing a significant presence on the ground In the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Several officials depicted Sharon's decision, which involves a heavy financial commitment, as a potentially reckless move that could create even more chaos and violence as the Insurgency In Iraq continues to grow. Israeli Intelligence and military operatives are now quietly at work in Kurdistan, providing training for Kurdish commando units and, most Important In Israel's view, running covert operations inside Kurdish areas of Iran and Syria. Israel feels particularly threatened by Iran, whose position in, the region has been strengthened by the war. The Israeli operatives Include members of the Mossad, Israel's clandestine foreign-intelligence service, who work undercover In Kurdistan as businessmen and, In some cases, do not carry Israeli passports. Asked to comment, Mark Regev, the spok~sman for ~he Israeli Embassy In Washington, said, "The story Is simply untrue and the relevant governments know it's untrue," Kurdish officials declined to comment, as did a spokesman for the State Department. However, a senior C.I.A. official acknowledged in an interview last week that the Israelis were Indeed 'operatlng In Kurdistan. He told me that the Israelis felt that they had little choice: liThey think they have to be there.'1 Asked whether the Israelis had sought approval from Washington, the official laughed and said, 1100 you know anybody who can tell the Israelis what to do? They're always going to do what Is In their best interest." The C.I.A. official added that the Israeli presence was widely known In the American Intelligence community. The Israeli decision to seek a bigger foothold in Kurdistan-characterized by the former Israeli Intelligence officer as IIPlan BII-has also raised tensions between Israel and Turkey. It has provoked bitter statements from Turkish politicians and, In a major regional shift, a new alliance among Iran, .Syria, and Turkey, all of which have significant Kurdish minorities. In early June, Intel Brief, a privately circulated Intelligence newsletter produced by Vincent Cannistraro, a retired C.I.A. counterterrorism chief, and Philip Glraldl, who served as the C.I.A.·s deputy chief of base In Istanbul in the late nineteen-eighties, said: Turkish sources confidentially report tha~ the Turks are Increasingly concerned by the expanding Israeli presence In Kurdistan and alleged encouragement of Kurdish ambitions to create an independent state~ •.• The Turks note that the large Israeli Intelligence operations In Northern Iraq Incorporate anti-Syrian and anti-Iranian activity, InclUding support to Iranian and Syrian Kurds who are In opposition to their respective governments. In the years since the first Gulf War, Iraq's Kurds, aided by an internationally enforced no-fly zone and by a U.N. mandate providing them with a share of the country·~ 011 revenues, have managed to achieve a large measure of Independence In three northern Iraqi provinces. As far as most Kurds are concerned, however, historic IIKurdistan" extends well beyond Iraq's borders, encompassing parts of Iran, Syria, and Turkey. All three countries fear that Kurdistan, de_spite public pledges to the contrary, will declare Its Independence from the Interim Iraqi 90vernment if conditions don't improve after June 30th. Israeli Involvement In Kurdistan is not new. T.hroughout the ,nineteen-sixties and seventies, Israel actively supported a Kurdish rebellion against Iraq, as part of its strategic. policy of seeking alliances with non-Arabs In the Middle East. In 1975, the Kurds were betrayed by the United States, when Washington went along with a decision by the Shah of Iran to stop supporting Kurdish aspirations for autonomy In Iraq. Betrayal and violence became the_ norm in the next two decades. Inside Iraq, the Kurds were brutally repressed by Saddam Hussein, who used afrpower and chemical weapons against them. In 1984, the Kurdistan Workers Party, or P.K.K., Initiated a campaign of separatist Violence in Turkey that lasted fifteen yearsj more than thirty thousand people, most of them Kurds, were killed. The Turkish government ruthle_ssly crushed the. separatists, and eventually captured the P.K.K.'s leader; Abdullah Ocalan. Last month, the P.K.K., now known as the Kongra-Gel,. announced that it was ending a five-year unilateral ceasefire and would begin targeting Turkish citizens once again. The Iraqi Kurdish leadership was furious when, early this month, the United _States acceded to a U.N. resolution on the restoration of Iraqi sovereignty that did not affirm the interim constitution that granted the minority Kurds veto power In any permanent constitution. Kurdish leaders Immediately warned PreSident Bush in a letter that they would not participate in a new ShIIte-controlled government unless they were assured that their rights under the interim constitution were preserved. liThe people of Kurdistan will no longer accept second-class citizenship in Iraq,," the letter said, There are fears that the Kurds will move ~o seize the_ city of Kirkuk, together with the substantial oil reserves In the surrounding region. Klrkuk Is dominated by Arab Iraqis, many of whom were relocated there, beginning in the nineteen-seventies, as part of Saddam Husseinls campaign to "Arabi~~" the region" ~ut the Kurds consider Kirkuk and its oil part of their historic homeland. IIIf Klrkuk is threatened by the Kurds" the Sunnllnsurgents will move in there~ arong with the Turkoinen; and there will be a bloodbath," Print o o Page 3 of5 al) American military expert who is studying Iraq told me. "And, even if the Kurds do take Klrkuk, they can't transport the 011 out of tHe country, since all of the_ pipelines. run through ~he Sunnl-Arab heartland." A top German national-security official said In an interview that "an independent Kurdistan with sufficient 011 would have enormous consequences for Syria, Iran, and Turkey" and would lead to continuing Instability In the Middle East-no matter what the outcome In Iraq Is. There Is also a widespread belief" another senior German official said, that some elements Inside the Bush Administration-he referred specifically to the faction headed by Deputy .Secretary of Defense Paol Wolfowltz-would tolerate an Independent Kurdistan. This, the German argued, would be. a mistake. "It would be a new Israel-a pariah state In the middle of hostile nations.II A declaration of independence would trigger a Turkish response-and possibly a war-and also derail what has been an Important alliance for Israel. Turkey and Israel have become strong diplomatic and economic partners In the past decade. Thousands of Israelis travel to Turkey every year as ~ourists. Turkish opposition to the Iraq war has strained the relationship; stili, Turkey remains oriented toward the West and" despite the victory of an Islamic party In national elections in 2002, relatively secular. It Is now vying for acceptance In the European Union. In contrast" Turkey and Syria have been at odds for years,at times coming close to open confrontation, and Turkey and Iran have long been ,regional rivals. One area of tension between them Is the conflict between Turkey's pro-Western_stand and Jran·s rigid theocracy. But their mutual wariness of the Kurds has transcended these divisions. A European foreign minister, in a conversation last month, said that the "blowing Up" of Israel's alliance with Turkey would be a major setback for the region. He went on, "To avoid chaos, you need the neighbors to work as one common entlty.1I The Israelis, however, view the neighborhood, with the. exception of. Kurdistan, as hostile. Israel Is convinced that Iran Is on the verge of developing nuclear weapons, and that" with .Syria's help, it_ is planning to bolster Palestinian terrorism as Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip. Iraqi Shiite militia leaders like Moqtada al-Sadr, the former American Intelligence official said, ~re seen by the Israeli leadership as "stalking horses" for Iran-owing much of their success in defying.the American-led coalition to logistical and communications support and training prOVided by Iran. The former intelligence official said, "We began to see telltale signs of organizational training last summer. But the White House. didn't want to hear it: 'We canlt take on another problem right now. We can't afford to push Iran to the point where we've got to have a Showdown.~ II Last summer, according to a document I obtained, th~ Bush Administration directed the Marines to draft a detailed plan, called Operation Stuart, for the arrest and, if necessary,. assassination of .Sadr. But 'the operation was cancelled, the former Intelligence official told me, after it became clear tha~ Sadr had been "tipped ofr' about the plan•.Seven months later, after Sadr spent the winter building support for his movement, the American-led coalition ,Shut down his newspaper, provoking a crisis that Sadr survived with his status enhanced, thus insuring ~ha~ he will playa major, and unwelcome, role In the political and military machinations after June 30th. .' , "Israel's Immediate goal after June 3Qth Is to build up the Kurdish commando units to balance the .Shiite militias-especially those which would be hostile to the kind of order in southern Iraq that Israel would like to see," the former senior Intelligence official said. "Of course, If a fanatic Sunni Baathis~ militia took control-one as hostil~ to Israel as Saddam Hussein was-Israel would unleash the Kurds on It, too.II The Kurdish armed forces" known as the peshmerga, number an estimated seventy-five thousand troops, a total that far exceeds the known Sunni and .Shiite militias. The former Israeli Intelligence officer acknowledged that .slnce late. last year Israel has been training Kurdish commando units to operate In the same manner and with the_ same effectiveness as Israel's most secretive commando units, the Mlstaravlm. The Initial goal of the Israeli assistance to the Kurds, ~he former officer ,Said, was to allow them to do what American commando units had been unable to do-penetrate, gather Intelligenc~ on, and then kill off the leadership of the Shiite and Suno,l insurgencies In Iraq. (I was unable to learn whether any such mission had yet. taken place.) "The feeling was that this was a more effective way to get at the Insurgency," the former officer .sard. "But the growing Kurdish-Israeli relationst,ip began upsetting the Turks no end. Their Issue Is that the very same Kurdish commandos trained for Iraq could infiltrate and attack In Turkev." • The Kurdish-Israeli-collaboration inevitably expanded, the Israeli said. Some Israeli operatives have crossed the border Into Iran, accompanied by Kurdish commandos, to install sensors and other sensitive devices that primarily target suspected Iranian nuclear facilities. The former officer said, "Look" Israel has always supported the Kurds in a Machiavellian way-as balance against Saddam. It's Realpolitik." He added,. IIBy aligning with the Kurds, Israel gains eyes and ears in Iran, Iraq, and Syria." He went on, "What Israel was doing with the Kurds \yas not so unacceptabl~ In the. Bush Administration." Senior German officials told me, With ala(.ffi, that their Intelligence community also has evidence that Israel is using Its new leverage Inside Kurdistan, and within the Kurdi~h communities in Iran and .Syria, for Intelligence and operational purposes. Syrian and Lebanese officials believe that Israeli intelligence. played a role. in a series of violent protests In Syria in mid-March In which Syrian Kurdish dissidents and .Syrian troops clashed" leaving at least thirty peopl~ dead. (There are nearly two million Kurds living In Syria, which has a population of seventeen million.) Much of the fighting took place In cities along Syria's borders with Turkey and Kurdish-controlled Iraq. Michel ,Samaha" th~ Lebanese Minister of Information, told me that while the disturbances amounted to an uprising by the Kurds against the leadership of ~ashirAssad" ,the .Syrian President, his government had evidence that Israel was "preparing the Kurds to fight all around Iraq, In Syria" Turkey, and Iran., They're being programmed to do commando operations." The top German national-security official told me that h~ believes that the Bush Administration continually misread Iran••IThe Iranla~s waJlted~to k~ep America tied down In Iraq, and to keep it busy there" but t~ey didn't want chaos,1I he said. One of the . senior German officials told me, )-The critical question is 'What will the behavior of Iran be-if there is an Independent Kurdistan with _ o G Page 4 of5 close ties to Israel?' Iran does not want an Israeli land-based aircraft carrier"-that Is, a military stronghold-"on its border." Jfl Another senior European official said, liThe Iranians wouid do something positive In "the south of Iraq If they get'somethlng positive' In return, but Washington won't do it. The Bush, Administration won't ask the Iranians for help, and can't ask the Syrians. Who Is going to save the United States?" He added that, at the. start of the American Invasion of Iraq, s~veral top European officials had told their counterparts In Iran, ")'00 will be the wlnner~ In the region.II Proint Israel Is not alone in believing that Iran, despite Its protestations, is secretly hard at work on a nuclear bomb. Early this month, the International Atomic Energy Agency" which, is re_sponsible for monitoring nuclear,prollferation, issued Its fifth quarterly report In a row stating that Iran was continuing to misrepresent its into materials that could be used for the production of nuclear weapons. Much of the concern centers on an underground enrichment facility at Natanz, two hundred and fifty miles from the IranIraq border, which, during previous I.A.E.A., Inspections, was discovered to contain centrifuges showing traces of weapons-grade uranium. The huge complex, which is still under construction, i~ said to total nearly erght hundred thousand square feet, and It will be sheltered In a few months by a roof whose design allows it to be covered with sand. Once the work Is completed, the complex "will be blind to satellites". and the Iranians could add additional floors underground," an I.A.E.A. official told me. liThe question Is, will the Israelis hit Iran?1I Mohamed ElBaradel, the I.A.E.A. director, has repeatedly stat~d that his agency ha~ not IIseen concrete proof of a military program, so It's premature to make a judgment on that." David Albright" a former U.N. weapons inspector who is an expert on nuclear proliferation, buttre.ssed the I.A.f;.A. claim. "The United States has ,no concrete evidence of a nuclear-weapons program,II Albright told me. "It·S just an inference. There's,no smoking gun." (Last. Friday" at a meeting In Vienna, the I.A.E.A. passed a resolution that, while acknowledging some progress" complained that Iran had yet to be as open as It should be, and urgently called upon It to resolve a list of outstanding que_stions.) The I.A.E.A. official told me. that the. I.A.E.A. leadership has been privately warned by Foreign Ministry officials in Iran that they are "having a hard time getting Information" from th~ hard-line. religious and military leaders who run the country. liThe Iranian Foreign Ministry tells us, 'We're just diplomats" and we don't know whether we're getting the whole. story from our own people,' n the official said. He noted that the Bush Administration has repeatedly advised the I.A.E.A. that there are secret nuclear facilities In Iran that have not been declared. The Administration will not say more, apparently worried that the information could get back to Iran. Patrick Clawson, of the Institute for Near east Policy, provided another explanation for the reluctance of the Bush Admlnlstratlonto hand over specific intelligence. "If we wer~ to identify a site," ,he told me, "it's conceivable that It could be qUickly disassembled and the I.A.E.A. Inspectors would arrive"-international inspections often take weeks to organlze-"and find nothing." The American Intelligence community, already discredited because of its faulty reporting on Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, would be criticized anew. "It's much better," Clawson said, ,lito have the I.A.E.A. figure out' on its own that there's a site and then find evidence that there had been enriched material there." Clawson told me that Israel's overwh~lmingnational-security cOl'lcern must be Iran. Given that a presence In Kurdlstan would give Israel a way to monitor the. Iranian nuclear effort" he. said" "it would be. negligent for the Israelis not to be there. n At the moment, the former American .senior Intelligence official said, the Israelis' tie. to Kurdistan "would be. of greater value than their growing alliance with Turkey. 'We. love Turkey but got to keep the pressure on Iran..' "The former. Israeli Intelligence officer said, "The Kurds were the last surviving group clos~ to tl)e. United States with any say in Iraq. The only question was how to square It with Turkey." There may be no way to square. It with Turkey. Over breakfa~t in Ankara, a senior Turkish official explained, "Before the war, Israel was active in Kurdistan, and now it i~ active .agaln. This is very dangerous for us, and for them, too. We do not wa",t to see Iraq diVided, and we will not ignore it." Then, citing a popular Turkish proverb-"We will burn a blanket to kill a f1eall-he said, "We have told the Kurds, 'We are not afraid of you, but you ~hould be afraid of os." II (A Turkish diplomat I spoke to later was more direct: "We tell our Israeli and Kurdish friend~ that Turkey's good will lies in keeping Iraq together. We. will not support alternative solutions.") "If you end up with a divided Iraq, It will bring.more blood, tears, and pain to the Middle East, and you will be blamed," the senior Turkish official said. "From Me.xico to Russia, everybody will claim that the United States had a secret agenda In Iraq: you came there to break up Iraq. If Iraq Is diVided, America cannot explain this to the world." The official compared the situation to the breakup of Yugoslavia" bu~ added, "In the Balkans, you did not have oil." He said, "The lesson of Yugoslavia is that when you give one country Independence everybody will want it." If that happens, he said, "Kirkuk will be. the. Sarajevo of Iraq. If something happens there, It will be 'impossible. to contain the crisis." In Ankara, another senior Turkish official explained that his government had "openly shared its worries" about the Israeli military activities inside Kurdistan with the.Jsraeli Foreign Ministry. "They deny the training and the purchase of property and claim It's not official but done by private persons. ObViouslyI, our intelligence" community Is aware that it was not so. This polley Is not good for America, Iraq, or Israel and the Jews.i\ Turkey's Increasingly emphatic ,and public. complaints about Israel's missile attacks on the Hamas leadership In the Gaza Strip Is another factor In the growing tensions between the. allies. On May 26th, Turkey's Foreign Minister, Abdullah Gul, announced at a news conference in Ankara that the Turkish government was bringing its Ambassador in Israel home for consultations on how to revive the Middle East peace, He also told the Turkish pafliament that the government was planning to strengthen Its ties to the Palestinian Authority, and" rn conver~ations with, Middle. Eastern diplomats in the past month, he expressed grave concern about Israel. In one such .talk,.one diploma~ lold me, G~I d~scribed Israeli activities, and the. possibility of an Independent Kurdistan, as!nting us ~i~h a_c~oi~e that is not ,a real choice·b~tweeri su"rvival and alliance-;" - o PageS of5 \ A,thirdTurklsh official told me that. the Israelis were "talking to us I~ Qrder to appease our concern. They say, 'We aren't doing anything In Kurdistan to undermine. your interests. Don't worry.' "The officiai added, "If it goes out pUblicly what they've been doing, It will put your government and our government. in a difficul~ position. We can tolerate 'Kurdistan' if Iraq Is Intact, but nobody knows the future-not even th~ Americans." Pant A former White House official depict~d ~he Administration as eager-almost desperate-late this spring to Install an acceptable new Interim government in Iraq before President. BuSh~s declared June .30th deadline for the transfer of sovereignty. The,Administratlon turned to lakhdar Brahimi, the U,nited" Nations special envoy, to "put together something by June 30th-just something that could stand Upll through the Presidential election, th~ former official said. Brahlml was given the task of selecting, with Washington's public approval, the thirty-one. members of Iraq's ,interim government. Nevertheless" according to press reports, the choice of Iyad Allawl as Interim Prime Minister was a disappo.lotment to Br~hjmi. The White House has yet to deal with. AlIawi's past. His credentials as a neurologist,'and his involvement during the past two decades In anti-Saddam activities, as the founder of th~ British-based Iraqi National. Accord, have been widely reported. But his role as a Baath Party operative while Saddam struggled for control, in the nineteen-sixties and seventles-Saddam became President In 1979-ls much less well known. "Allawi helped Saddam get to power," an American intelligence officer told me. "He was a very effective operator and a true. believer." Reuel Marc, a former C.I.A. case officer who served In the Middle East, added, "Two facts stand out about Allawi. One" , to think of himself as a man of ideas; and, two, his strongest virtue Is that he's a thug.1I Early this year, one. of Allawi's former medical-school c1assmate.s, Dr. Haifa al-Azawl, published an essay In an Arable newspaper In London raising questions about his character and his.medical bona fides. ,She depicted Allawi as a "big husky man ••• who carried a gun on his belt and frequently brandished it, terrorizing the medical.students." Allawi's medical degree, she wrote, "was conferred upon him by the Baath party." Allawl moved to London in 197.1, ostensibly to continue his medical education; there he was In charge of the European operations of th~ Baath ,Party organization and the local activities of the Mukhabarat, Its intelligence agency, until 1975. "If you're asking me if Allawi has blood on his hands from his days in London, the answer is yes, he does," Vincent Cannlstraro, the former C.I.A. 'officer, said. "He was a paid Mukhabarat agent for the. Iraqis, and he was Involved In dirty stuff." Acabinet-level Middle East diplomat, who was rankled by the U.S. indiffer~nc~ to Allawi'spersonal history, told me early this month that Allawl was Involved With a Mukhabarat "hit team" ~hat sought out, and killed Baath Party dissenters throughout Europe. (Allawl's office did not respond to a request for comment.) At some. point, for reasons that are not. clear, Allawl fell from favor, and the Baathlsts organized a series of attempts on his life. The third attempt, by ,an axe-wielding ,assassin who broke into his home near London In 1978, resulted in a year-long hospital stay. ' . The Saban Center's Flynt Leverett said of the. transfer of sovereignty, "If it doesn't work, there is no faliback-nothlng.1I The former senior American intelligence officJal told me, similarly,. that "the. neocons .stlll think they can pull the rabbit out of the hat" In Iraq. "What's the plan? They sayI. "We don't need it. Democracy is .strong enough. We'll work it out.' " Middle East diplomats and former C.I.A. operatJve.s who now consult in Baghdad have told me that many wealthy Iraqi businessmen and their families have deserted Baghdad in recent weeks in anticipation of continued, and perhaps heightened, suicide attacks and terror bombings after June ,30th."We'U $~e. Christians" .Shiites, and Sunnis getting out," Michel Samaha, the Lebanese Minister of . Information, reported. "What the resistance is doing is targeting the'poor people who run the bureaucracy-those who can't afford to pay for private guards. A month agol, tri.ends of mine who are important landowners in Iraq came to Baghdad to do business. The cost of one day'S security was about ,twetve thousand dollars.'\ Whitley Bruner, a retired Intelligence officer who was a senior member of the C.I.A.·s task force on Iraq a decade ago, said that the new Interim government. in Iraq is urgently seeking ways to provide affordable security for second-tier officials-the men and women who make the government work., In early.June, two such officials-Kamal Jarrah, an Education Ministry official, and Bassam Sallh KUbba, who was serving as deputy foreign minister..were assassinated by unidentified gunmen outside their homes. Neither had hired private guards. Bruner, who returned from Baghdad earlier this month, said that he was now working to help organize Iraqi companies that could provide high-quality security that Iraqis could afford. "It's going to be. a hot summer," Bruner said. itA lot of people have decided to get to Lebanon, Jordan" or the Gulf and wait this one out." . . LOAD-DATE: June 28, 2004 ,- fMSNBC - And Now a Mole?0 , )~ MSN Home I My MSN I Hotmail I Shopping I Mon~y 'I People 8i Chat [f,Sign In.~·l Page 1 of7 Web Search: I ALL INFOR}lATION CONTAI1VED HEREIN IS UNCLASStFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/3ab/lsg I-~ '(..,(;.~ MSNBC J L!1J1J:dJJl~ News ' 8/30/2004 Print I Email I Alerts And Now a Mole? -In the Pentagon, a suspected spy allegedly passes secrets, to Israel Weather Local News Health Opinions Travel Multimedia Tech I Science Entertainment Sports Business News Newsweek Periscope National News campaign 2004 World News The War in Iraq Business Enterprise Tech & Sdence Health Olympics SocietY Entertainment TIp Sheet Columnists letters & live Talk International Ed. Multimedia Search Newsweek ...~ ~"",~ ... ...._~~f;;J·;.J.,:~~~=.,.:::JI,.....u_ __... -'t_ _ .Ii ;':r::~.. :,,'.~_A~... ...~ ...~tt Peterson I Getty Images •• jlt.. ~lot"" "'t...'t.~ A show of force: Iran dis$lays1!fs military might: .":i • "'-a\: ,& By Michael Isikoff And ~'~k1Hi»sei1'ii~if;'.:". I': ~ ?' ,"'I'~Iio.f~'--I~I"'o'\.'''~~~~",,'j1llt'''~~ Newsweek .~ ~'. ".' • , ' •~ • f:. f k..... "..: ~ .1; .... .....!:l. ... " ... •.. 'l.f·.}~'fi."~lI::H-'ilro~·_·l·,, .. .' . "'" ~~ ~ "..... Sept. 6 issue" It was~~¥~,~~,~~sni#o~t<;>~lun~h-onethat the FBI happened to be monitoring~ .Nearly a year-,and a half ago, agents were monitoring a conve]~ation between·~9jl.sraell Embassy official anq a lobbyi~t ~of~A:merlcan IsraetR~4~IJc_ Affairs Committee, or AIPAC, as"'"pai-rbf a 'probein~o possible Israeli spying. Suddenly, ~nd~%!~ff&\$nexp'~~~edlY~ in the description-of one intelligence offiCiC!r,.@..i)Olh.f!f Ameri~ap.:'l.l~alked In" to the lunc out of the blue. Agentjj~.t\first·dldn~e·kn6~Ytho the man was. They were stunned to...Qiscover he was LarrV,'.Franklin, a desk ..,... ~. .'.~. "'t, . " ~..:~ :...~:t- 't t tsf~'~li ~ t~~·:,~ .,,~~ . Il :;; http://www.msnbc.msn.comlidl58S3706/site/n~~~W~.~E??..·~~f~'" .......;4$~\~::,;~~~~ •.\.." ..:~ .oW • • ~ \.I¥, ,I .... _ ~ .. ~ ~ • \ 8/3012004- -- Page 4 of7 1 ••t..,~~,. "l'tl ~ .. '.;.''''.'.,,,,", I'" ".".."".,f't." · :¥;.}(" 6....~ ( \~·l ~ ~ , -i,'. :~, <:,1<1 ''iJ.Vv~, 't~,l . '''~. :;;' ..~,••~~ •._ 1":,,... ', Q ,f.~....)~• •,\, "t i , ~ ';l'~/l;. ••, •••~ :-It' :. 1Io Of f' ~M_j . " .: \<. ,.... • -the Pentagon's No. '3,:wa~a sometime c8~~tant'for'Likud, Israeli Prime Mi?is~er Ariel :~~~'~ ~~!!~ica) e~~-.Pffi~fars say they have no evidence that either Feith or Lutl had any knowledge of Franklin's dis~ussf~l}s:wfml~fb~~rsta:.qlt~\·:- " • I "· .,·~~«.~·t~:*'·:'''7 Franklin has also be~tt~fflirng"ttl~sb6je~r~~f a .separ:ate probe being conducted by t~~:{S~nate intellfgerj:~~~c;fm"1ittee. Part of that investiga,tion con£.ef;{~.~U~g~q ~~ro~~~ii~int~lIigenCe activities by Fei~h's staff. Among1t~~s,~¥lg\y'i~'~~)$~~>a ~er!es o~ meetings that Franklin and on~: ~~;H;~~?Q~l~~~)U~~~l~arold Rhode, had In Paris In late 2001 wI~h Mangfi~~~.t~~~~~91.(~~;~~~~~·ShadOWYIranian arms dealer l')1ade infar:n,Qys.\durmg tht;::~re.Q:,contra scandal of the 1980s. One purpose Of;..~~9~e meetings w:~s;t9.. explore a scheme for overthrowing the mlliiahs In Iran, thoCi9h'~'Rumsfeldlater said the plan was never sei{lf6~ry..considered :.!§bt~~o far, there Is no evidence that the. Ghqr~~9Jta~~~~ta~~~v;e_.related to the espionage probe. ~~Q~~~~~1s? case suggest that the' political damage ~9~~~tt.C1!Jg ;~h~.:P~n~s~~n may prove to be l1)ore serJQus than fh~~C!~,.rhage to nation~J~~curity.. ~:\):'" ~/' - ~ , r . With Michael Hirsh and.,;,Da'hie/rKlal"dman/fnXW"ashington -and Dan ~ .~,..,~ f'r"Il/: ''''''" ....,"r.. .• Ephron in .Jerusalem '.9~';~~'~', /.::,f,.~:;.~.g ...,,;; ~ . ~f:.".~ '~\", ... ·ri·: ,\ " II .," . © 2004 Newsweek i»~~':;~i\.:.l\,.+, ~),')'~~~J': I , '.'111 ......,~ .... ! "''',,''' .1.. . ";' tW~l' " "r M ,L. ~'!~' ,1- a-PRINT THiSARncL~i!.~'·~-_.. I§-E~~i~~His "A'RTICLe ••_----_.._--~~.'.- ·__w._ '-'-1r"--- ._.. ~_._- _.- . "' ....,~ 1 J~ . ,~ .. '.ti j m!iMORE FROM NEWSy;1'@jfNATtONACN"E'v.1~~U' I I . ....t~C!t.~.:J~.:!r·t~·~~~·'"" ,Ne~t~~_ The Ro~~~~~~~~~o~v~,;:d;~~~~~ ,It ... -f~"" . "-, , • 'l. ~~of..~ ..;. h\~ ~' 1 ~' ..... ~,',;.~,. r~-(X" '. ~ .":II.. " ~ • And Now a Mole?i :;(~~~jrI' ,. ~ ":{-~t"1.1"" • The Road to'ResoWe~~~ , , • ,\..., -.,1,"0. • 'rve L.earned to BeiPa'tient' d'. H .-. ,:.,~-,/),;, 'r'~~' (11" .~ ~ 'UI 4"'U1' I> .,.. , •• • The Reluctant Camp'a~gnEii? :":/~t~~lq~~::~~ +,,~~ ~ .... _ "I..t \. ... , ~ ~,,' f • • In the Driver's Se~p' ~~ ..;, ~ ','....:.~ I;.. ~., .. .. .. •• ,,, 'to. I .... ' •. t-' • Th~ Man in the M~~q!!~j, f ;'r~.~ Jw ,,;, a ' , ~t" >': I,. j, t l"\, J. I • Star Power 'f. ;'J"'~ . • ,," _ :t , • .;t..... , • " : ••:. • Newsweek Natlonal~~~~s Section Front· ...; 'j"-,! ..... R.,.-,; '.~l'" ' .. : ..-: .:Jt ,; t, , .... _........ M"-_ - -_...... - .. -- -. -- 'tf...,.;-, ~ - .. -. -- -..... t::'-- "''7- .':.'1'"....,.... ';I'..... t - ....., .............~;.y ~~~~~~~~ '. - . ~SNBC .. And Now a Mole? <:> f , \\flYW. Ii aa rctz. to Di Last update - Q1:57 29/08120Q~ http://www.ha8r~tz~cqIDlhaser¥obje~iSipageslPrintArtlcl. .. ALL INFORMATION C~INED HEPEIN IS UlJCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 UG baw/sab/1sg . "'. ....... Order was out - no ~pying on U.S., says former Mossad chief By "t1IJ~ ~\l't"(t~Gide~n Alan and Nathan Guttman A fonner head·ofthe Mossad and military secretary to former defense minister and p~e minister Yitzhak Rabin says an unequivocal order tQ the in~~lligence Community prohibits illegal activity in the U.S. and operating a person to collect infonnation. "I hope the infotl11ation is false and thete are no gro~ds for suspic"io.n," rviKDanny Yatom (Labor), who was Mossad chief from 1996 fof ayear and Ii half, stUd. " Accord~g to Yatom, in spite ofthe prohibition, the U.S. !l~~~!~tqtt~o~; ~pCi=~!~HY !h~' !tt!eHigen~ ~ntm~.ityl ~~9~ ~tr~~g suspicions of Israel being involved in intelligence-gathering activities. Th~ tUn ~Xt~nto.(d.l~ sqJpi~io~ WQ$ ~y~led ill J9?7 wh~ VIS! media p!lbJisl!eQ repQrts QfFDJ i)\v~tJgl\tlQ»s Qtt9 a)legatioflS tl);tt ~ Mossad agent was involved in running an intelligence agent within the admiriistnltioii. As a result, tHen-CIA chiefGeorge Tenet asked Danny Yatom for cbirifications in both a phone call and in writing. A letter that Yatom ~nt to' Tenet containirigclariftcations di~ not Satisfy the Americans, and Yatom had to fly to Washington tor a meeting with Tenet. When it eventually became clear that the alleg~tionwas false, Tenet wrote Yatom a·letter ofapology• It subaequelltly tum6d out that thQ fBI, which listens in Oil all home and office p1)one calls oflSraelj djplomats, bad ihtercepted a cal' between two Mossad officiais stationed in the U.S., Yoram Hassel, head ofdie Mossad miSsion, ~d anotlier individual, involved in the workings ofTevel, an intelligence unit responsible for liaison with the CIA and other ~tel1igence organizationS. The two spoke in code and mentioned the word "mega... Unaware that "mega" was th~.Mos~'s c,ode word for the CIA, the U.S. thought mega was an agent run by the Mossad. Cf.ta!nnan ofthe Knc;sset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee MK Yuval Steinitz told Haaretz yesterday, "I am certain !hat this story is groundless. This is certainly not a case ofPollard II.~'· Steinitz sai~ that ~ sj!1~ ~e P~II~4 !lfffl!r, J~~l ~~ J!~t 9~~F!t~ ~p'j~ ~'!!lS~ tIl~ U.~:, and that there were gooCi relations in the area ofintelligence between ls.rael, the u.S., and other Western countries against terror - and no need to resort to spying. ' "I would be very surprised jf in the flnal analysis it turned out that there is any basis to this story," Steinitz said."fAt most, W.s possibl~ that certain people may have said things t~ey were not authorized to say, but I ~ say with certainty that evt?Jl ifsomeone passed i' oft 'rri~t ~~.. '/# ~~ .'Q~ f- ...... #, " '". ,infotm~~orfabout.WinteHouSe poli~y. on Ute Irania4 isSue, th~ ~as iio~ '~~n~, ~ ~,:" ~~~sf .~f ~~eJ or <?~.!f:te ~~!~ative 9!~y oJtlcJ~~ figure iri Israel:~' MK,Ehud.Yatoni ~ikud) a member ofthe sub-coiittnittee for,the .s~peI:vision.ot:~ecret'services said yester~ay, "It is inC9nceivable t!lat lsrael~ which enjoys an excellent intelligence relationship with'its idly, the U.S:,-w~ul~ sPY'on the American·Defense DePartment.~ " ~ccO~~gt9 Yatom; ifthe,FBI has d~~vered.'some~ing, he hoped it 'would turn oUt to be an ulptec~~ initiative on the part bfa U.S. official.. The Israeli Embassy in Washington cat~gorically denied accusations ofan Isra~li molein the·P~ntagon. '!The \.I.s.. is ISl1lo'·s most a~prec~died~allY," etiiti~sy s~dltesmiiii DaVid Segal said yesterday. .,iWehave so~d a on~ini woridtiB rei~ionsi:!,ip at aU ieveis and in no way woul4 Israel do anything ~o Impair this rel~~onship" Segal said. lhasenlObjectsipagesIPrin~cleEn.jhtml?itemt-!0=4704.10 26£.2 ............. Haaretz ~ ~ews http://www.haarefz.comlJiasenlpages!AtticleNew"s.jlitri}I?:... E.>ALL INFOPnTION CONI'AlNED 0 HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED I . . DATE 07-29-2010 BY' 60324 uc baW<Sab/1sg ~.IHpmepage Search sIte I m News Updates Tue., Augu4it 31, 2Q04.EluI14, 576<t Israel Tim~ J)f);~1 (OMT+3) Tiffqfi F29t! • oppression or radical (slC!.m? Israel and world Jewry: Are ties at. breaking point? Ma~e Your Point debates Truth or Bias: Israel In the media What you think When the truth comes out, it will be quite evident that these charges are nothing but politically motivated. ~ -Iew§, w.e h@v~ we ~~n il~d Qf ~\lpj loyabt!m ~I~ ~Q beginn!nO of ~!.: ~~!1W" ~~. Wl!y ~~, ~~ ~~~ ~i!d ~*n~ twO ~y"ti1~ ~t 9n~ conside.. home .. ~specfany.W11en by.alarge majority. both of theSe CO~tries share the same values and interests? Seth Cohen, Miam!, United States 0;America 1here is a~lutely ~o danger of ba!=fdasf! against American Jews~ This s~ndal makes AIPAC and the Ukud look slimy. The bigger question is: When will Israel become poli,Deslry and ~conomically Jnd~pendent of the U.S.? II is beco~ing IncreaSingly cles! that tlie current conjOined·twin lilatlonship between the two is a one-way street that offers no benefits for the U.S. Michelle Ruth, San Francisco, United States ofAmerica If the allegations are proven, the affair could do untold hann to Israel's relations with WQ3l1ingtqn. Qut even if the allegetic)Os are baseless. as Israel and AlPAO maintain, the ctII$~ "breilthel nf:W lifil il1to tfl, a3ertiQn that lfiraeli and nQt Americari intereats led tQ the war in Iraq," wrote Haaretz Correspondent Nathan Gutbnan. lilt revives the old charge that Israel is not an ally but a treacherous country, and the old saw that American JewS have a 'divided loyally' problem in their preference for Israen overAmerican interests." The probe of Pentagon desk officer Larry Franklin also recalls a nadir in Israel's relaHons with its closest ally, the case of naval analyst Jonathan Pallai'd, jailed since the 1980$ for spying for Israel. Do charges of "dual loyalty" or divided allegiance endanger American Jews? What of the contentions that neo-conservatlve Jews an~ the Rro-Israellobby exercise undue influence over American paJicymaklng? Will the issue have a bearing on the.p~idential elections? . Will tbe Pentagon spy charges harm U.S. Jewry' and Israel? WftalQver the ~Ipabirity of 1~l1el .. a,nd there is eVQry ~a$on fqr th~ Ume beirig t9ljelieve the government's prqtestatlons of Innocence .. lobbylpg groups like AIPAC shou~ be scruUn~ed. 1l1ey form avirtual "fOUrth branch- of government that can easily abuse their Influence. I would like to see some of the layers of the onion peeled away so that A1PAC's actual Influence over Congress 800 the .administration can be determined. They have disproportionate Influence on our policies toward Israel and Palestine. and their bl~~nt pro.ukud views are neither balanced nor beneficial to the U.S. or Israers long-term securit}'•. David Ehrens, NewBedford, United States ofAmerica Click here to ' . m~k~ YQur PQin~' .'~ Hdlff«ZT9S«YQS the II(;tt ro «1, \ The headlines are explosive~ The FBI suspects comments torconlDnt andlohD1h. Ii Pftptagon analyst has passed classified information to Israel via the AJPAC lobbying group_ Another Israeli medal ByVoss, Sarld G~I(I ~tiU donn't get it By Avraham Tal Needid: Agreat soul By Vael Esteron Slim chances of dl~n9agem~n~ Br Danny Rubinstein Editorial &0r:»-Eds Show the proof editorial Making a mountain into a molehill By Aklva Eldar •Related Unks 1r Analvsis: A cord wind blowing from the CIA JZe'e" §S!if! Or Analysis~ Biting the feeding hand I Yossi Merman .. Analysis: 'Oualloyaltv' charge returns to haunt American Jews I Nathan ~ Or Analysis~ Undercurrents of ,susp!ci0!l' Alu! Benr:' .. AnalYsis: The Franklin affair will damage Israel's image I AlufBenn ' 1··of6 _. n 8/30/2004-5:47 PM •1Q ,~ ThIS scandal won' hurt Israel unless Israel sticks too,closely to AIPAC. ii' Peter Ross, Los Angeles. United States ofAmerica . http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/pages/ArticleNews.jhtml?... O· Iwortc;~ Qn CapitQlHili fQf five yePnt. AIPAC is aespfsed lOOre fof jJus~liig ~emb~rs of c;ongress at'C!und. 00 you think that all these resolutions of $Upport indicate that Congress cares about Ismel? They don'- They just indicate how easily Congress can be intimidated. e, • o 'Haaretz - News •q " 9 'L'" w My boss was Jewish and cared deeply about Israel. He despises AIPAC for using Israel for its own ends. I called him today to ask how he feels about the ~py ~11.d;lI: tf~ ~id tflat !lmaybe noyI tsra!!



    tis¥till un.4~"tpfla that ~IP~Q hJJris them badlY up here. You can't win friends or keep friends through intimidation. Uml~1 ia at GrAlt any ofAii'llttica but I WOuld ltewr trust AIPAC and, you knoW ~at. I'd.guess t1!at !JQQ of the 435 H9use me~bers feel the sar:ne '!iay I do. ~t is the most unpopUlar lobby in town. This scandal won't hurt Israel unless Israel slicks too dosely to AIPAC. It should throw them to the wolves." Peter Ross, Los Angel.. United Ststes ofAmerica The Lebanon withdrawal If anything waws ever mentioned about a fraction of U.S. espionage activities, Mr. Franklin's sneakel}' would pale to nonexistence. Gllma Ramirez, Canu/el, Israel If the allegation is true. and even if it is false, it will raise the canard ofdual loyalty. AIPAe. may los~ ii~ t~ e~empt ~tatU$, ilild the U.S. CQogress may ~vofd the organization. It's troubling that Palestinian groups in the U.S. could laurich a ~~S~Qqp9P !\Ilt ~!i~ ~~~p th!; i~~\1e ~liY~. 11l~ '~it ~~Id contend tfiit since fUndS WUf8 cut for Arab organlZ.aUO~f lik~ for Israel or its 'pro" lobby. Ricardo Arias, Houston, United States ofAmerica With both major Al11erf~n.political parties st~n9 to outdo o~e another in slavish devotion to Israel. I cannot see Utat this affair is memly something sQll'lttUJing ctlQked \fA by mllepl}ten~ trvipg tQ lfl1~r ih~ BUIll administration•. J~" IIC1tfo,;lgI(:; Edgewiferi FI;, tinned stat. ofAriicmm The publication of the affair might serve the U.S. administration in appeasing voters ~!fii~ 6y lh8 Close ie!8tioiiSf!ip 68tween lfii l!.S. ana Ii"!,!. It may elJso be trying lc) atten~ ita failure to aChieve progress In the IsraeliIPalestinian conflict. and hence find a pretext to distance itselffrom Sharon, who isn't rewarding It at a time when It could use a boost. whether there is any merit.fn the anegations, either of these tactics will harm. U.S.-Israel relations.. The timing of the allegations and the paucitY. of findings revealed so far appear to be a calculated move to counter this administration"s reorganization efforts of tI!~ Vjl(ioq~ (nte!lig,"ce gptp,rjng ;lgftflcjes. In the process, allegiances of Jewisll office holders rriay be qiJestioned. I. Gat, Los Angeles, Unlteil StSfes ofAmerica It ~pp~", th~t !h~ -"fl!ir- i! m91lJ f'fI1"Y f!I![1 fgct, !~ t~ timf}i~g gf t~ r~,~,S! 9! t~~! inf9nn~~lon is ~1gf\1y !~,p~ ~!'~ p'01!~~11y !,,!qpv~!~~. Am~~?n Jews ha~G n~thln9 to filar: there a.r~ no targets on th~l~ baCkS, nO.Whlsp6.fS Of traitor when they leave the roam. Haaretz feeds Into this paranoia by asking this fool~ Qutl$tIQrI. lion $/gurw; Miami. lIaiti:d State# ofAmerica The 'new antl-Sem.itlsm' Je'Wisli e'idiemlsm: HOwiealthe threat? Tho West Bank separation·'-nce Contrary to the popUlar and ii: UnfQrtpnately. ttl, Iflternts of misinfonned belief that Jewish lobbies the U.S. and Israel don't always and neo-conservative Jews in the coincide. ". Pe!"fagon -c;ontrQl f9!elgn P.O~g': q!tf¥! Jail PieterVerhey, Huizen, The U.S. in the Middle East, the facts tell a Nethellands' different st0'Y~ ItJS the CI1s~s.l~ the ..' .• . • non~emocratic Arab wol1d. Islamic terrorism. as well as rampant anti~emitlc incitement agafnsi Israel and Jews. Thai forces the u.s. to be invoived there in Wf~ fp Y4llch it st~'Il·t \y@!!l tCJ ~~ illVQ!v~4 t91!egin yAtI1~ Before 9111. th~ B~h gov~rnmen~ aim~ at coQ~ntrating on dOm~UC affairs and it was Bin Laden who basically took control of the U.S. agenda for the Middle East. And had the Palestinians radically renounced all violent struggle 8/30/2004 ?:47 PM "~9thI~g ~!I ~!1g! flI' nllltl~nshfp ~.l\YCS friends. They need each other ~il~ i~~!! ~!l99~~4l!j ~P.tb WhOwant to huttthl ,reiationship wlii find thai they. ~aI'-l:iiio:c.ldilW til"Ir fieadS toDie ".'c' 9 ••, ... ,. .. " ". Haaretz - News ,__ 30f6 http://wWw.ha~e~.comlhasen/pagesAlrticle~ews.jhtm1?... O~J . - against Israel and chosen the path of non-violent resistance, a final seWement could have been reached already long ago. The Arabs might want to lobby in the U.S. for such non-violent struggle and take Martin lUther King aOd Gt1andi as their heroes and martyrs, instead of suicidal terrorists. As long .as this doesn't. happen, Israel might need some spies around to know the true agenda of countries like Iran that develop nudearWMO and support antJ.lsrael terrorists groups. Unfortunately, the interests of the U.S. ancflsrael don't always coincide. Jan P/eter Vedle}', Hulzen, The Netherlands After thousands of years, the woltd Is stiD persecuting Jews. albeit disguised in different ways. The way the Unitect Nations view Israeli actions in the OcCupied Territories as compared to how they view Palestinian suicide bOl11.bers is a prime example. I just cannot fathom why the UNwillingly condemn legitimate Israeli actions against Palestinian militants but only give Palestinians a light slap on' ,their wrists with regard to PalestlnJan suicide bombers who wantonly blow up innocent Israeli women, Children, old folk and men. It seems that even the U.S. media has Joined in this madness with reg~rd to the • Lany Franklin affair. The FBI has not even conduded their investigations and we already see the U.S. media portraying Israel as the culprit. I would like to appeal to all to wait for the official condusion before making your judgement. Please note that it is also election season in U.S. now ~nd some unscrupulous American pofitlcal supporters might want to lea~ some bias~d news to boost their hidden agenda. Gabriel Ho, Singapore, Singapore For all Intents and purposes, Israel has secured effective control over.U.S. ,foreign policy in the Middle East. through various sophisticated means, iQduding AIPAC's lobbying. as well as placfng at the top decision.making echelonS right..wing Zionists who view Israers Interests· from a"Ukud perspective, of course - as far more relevant than American interests, when the two do not converge. . 0 • . The Franklin affair has the potential of announcing the begiooing of the end of this unquestionable control Israel has enjoyed for many years nOW. OmarBarghoutl, Acre, ~srael ' . °w..e are living with this -dualloyalism • ~n ute tiJl1e·1llj~11\ what an{l.~",ites, out of fresh accusations or smearS auain~~ ~ ~~'h fioyre in PC?Ii~~. revert to. The difference is that Jews no longer feei the need to defend their 1000ltY'tQ A"!f:lica 3nd ttteir s:arq !o.r J~rAg,: Np~ino Yrl'! ett'~rigft \h9 relationitiip betWeen me tWO friends. Batya Dagan, Los Angeles. They need each other and they'lIIm ujl!~ ~I:f~ of Ml+ric]f each other and scamiats ~nCQ~ by .,' people who want to hurt the relationship will find that they are knocking their rieads to'the wall. . Batya Dagan, Los A!'gcles, United States ofAmerica If its tn.te. to bite the hand that is feeding us shows arrogance and contempt for our friends, as well as the rest of the world. This is why the resentment to rsrael' is justified and not juSt another case of anti-Semitism, as many Jews would have' it. When I was young I saw Israel as morally right but now 1m not so sure. ~on,!ie Wolman, Toronto, canada- ' Of COUISG it will badly harm the relations Israel has with the USA. Worse, ail the allegations of the Arab World that the U.S. is govemed by the "Zionist Lobby" WIll be proven correct. to their satisfaction. 00 Jews of the dlaspora and Israel needs this? . , 0 ,ClaUde Myriam Hasson. Sao Paulo, Brazil The damage has been done by Israel. They denied the Jonathan Pollard story for 13 years. They still deny their involvement in the NeW Zealand Passport story. The Sharon government and the rest of their group are not the friend of 'Unit~.States but an open enemy, and very soon it will be proved before the November eledions. , . 8/30/2004<5:47 PM' -Haaretz - News .. o http://www.haar~tz.comlhasen/pag~s/ArticleNews.jhtml?..~ OJ 4.of~ Sal Azam, Chicago, United states ofAmerica To love America and care for Israel's security is not dual loyalty. Afew people made some mistakes. that does not represent all of Americas Jews. Gabriel G, San Francisco, United States 01America Ped1aps history and the events ofWW2 have convinced some Jews that their fate can never again rest in tIM; hands of the -Goyim- but it would be very • careless of Israel to saaific:e the good will ofthe American people by treating them With arrogance. presuming that Israel knows whars best for both of them. Dan McAllnden, Los Angeles, United States ofAmerica From the timing atone one can jtt From the timing alone one can conclude this Is a political ploy either of conClude thIS Is a Political plot the CIA - which has a weakened eitherofthe CIA or a Democrat U connection to Israel according to AI Stein, Mendocino. United Haaretz today- or much more likely to States ofAmerica the Oe!"Qqat who ~s the anony-mous . _• 0 0 • SQurce ofthe leak. There are aWhole bunch Qf Americans who never got oYer letting Jews into their countly dubs who now and again dabble in the latest fann ofJew6iitfng YmiCii iiiW lakes tfi8 fomi of lYing 860m JdWiifi spies; AI Stein, Mendocino, United States ofAmerica 75% ofAmerican Jews are reported to be voting for sen. Kelly In the upcoming election, the AIPAC so leaning towards the Ukud. hardly represent American Jewry and should take this blame and not share it with people they do NOT represent. Johanes Franzen, Stockholm, Sweden If the spy case against Franklin is true. all it does is serve ~o reinforce the opinions of the Arabs. who suspect the Jews ofdesiring world dominion. the antJ.Semites. who claim the Jews control the government. and the mainstream. who distrust the Jews but choose to hide it when it's unpopular.,The Arabs already believe Israel perpetrated 9-11. Iraq, and many other horrors. The spy case Is simply'fodder for analready·loaded cannon, pointed at the Jews for3ooo years. Jorr:lan Hirsch, Dallas, United States ofAmerica The so-called ·spy affair" should be reported more carefully In the media. Joumalist should reassess their responsibility in reporting such matters. Mr. Franklin Is still innocent until proven guilty, At this point It appears to be a matter of inappropriate handling of classified documents a charge that even sandy Berger has to face. Unfortunately. the damage has been done and it fuels the hate-propaganda of all those believing In the •Jewish-Zionist" world conspiracy. Bernd Wollschlaeger, Miami, United States ofAmerica The spy story was invented to blame the Iraq war on Jews. just as Jews have always been blamed throughout history for major problems and mistakes made by Gentiles. We were blamed for the black plague. Gen:.nany's loss in World War I. we are blamed for the Arab world's InCC!mpetence and cruelty, and now we are being blamed for the war in Iraq. The result will harm U.S. Jews. Within the next few hundred years discrimination and violence against Jews In America wil increase drastfcally. It will get to the point where every U.S. JewIs either dead or In Israel. BISayetta, San Francisco, United States ofAmerica It is time for Israel to divest itself of Its ~i I' Is tlpte for Israel to d,,1 with ,,~t~_'!Stlip- ~~lpAg. A:lPAC .. ItseIf· theu.s:fJO!cin",~ tao '..~ ~ _ a rogue operation dedicated to the government notthrough AlPAC, aOQtaDditAlfU!1U ofAIPAC. It ii not '!falem ~ ~omm~~ .1!n~, @ .... p~l~el. It Is pro-AIP~C ....~1I~ve ~8 ~e!1.nDw, da'!Qe~us. ., U. that the neo~nservative AIPAC types Art Rabinowitz. Brooklyn, United ~t th~ Q~p'a(trnefll Qf QQf@(lt!8 g~'lg ~f!~~ ~J Afrlen~ !nfC)iIp~qqn tq A~~MI !li1~ If!i!~PAC tooK it to impi"d18 1M Idraelii oftfieir iJflpdrtahdd, I do not tielieVe fiiraal wail runnlnq this operation. Ehud Y!I!.Om is right. So Is Shara~s~. Israel Is Innocent but the power mangers at AIPAC and the wannangers at ~elthis operation are guilty as sin. I hope AIPAC Is this anjj we American Jews can 8/30/2004 5:47 PM Haaretz - News :,.. ~~ :" .. .50f6 O· replace it With a truly pro-Israel opeiation. one that Is not on a powertrfp. I just hope that AIPAC's shenanigans do not hurt Israel. As Rabin suggested in 1992. it Is time for Israel to deal with the U.S. government to government not through AIPAC. which Is both outmoded and. as we see now, dangerous. Arl Rabinowitz, Brooklyn, United States ofAmerica On the contrary. the Pentagon spy scandal will greatly benefit U.S. Jews and Israel. By drawing attention to AIPAC, the organization will be exposed as the pompous, propagandistic fraud Ulat it is. Thus. U.S. Jews will be more likely to think rationally and humanely about the Israel-Palestinian conflict. They Will listen more closely to the uplifting message of Jewish peace and justice groups. Israel. with dIminished U.S. support for its outrageous and Immoral conduct: will also benefit. The greatest gift the world can give to Israel is to Insist that the nation bring peace and justice to Palestinians. First step: End the OCQIpation and bring all the sewers home. David Howard, Olal, California, United States ofAmerica There is somethIng smelly about the -franklinlAIPAC" affair. Govem~ents and their security agencies by rule do not go pubrlC in matters of ·sples· until they have been nailed and indicted. So far this reeks ofa malicious leak or of capital ineptitude of the FBI. or bothl ~ Egon Lazarus, MORAGA, United States ofAmerica The point about the American spies is good. and so is the point about this incident being set up to blame the Iraq mess on Israel. Wake up people and smell the coffeell think I speak for. lots of people in Canada. the U.S., and Israel when I say that Israel had nothing to do with the war on Iraq. Was it Israel who told Saddam to act like a crazy dictator? It wasn't Israel who told Saddam to fire scuds at Israel, nor to kill Iraqis. No. This spy business is to rehash the theory that Israel set up the war on Iraq. The fact Ulat Israel actuaRy sent spies to bring this upon themselves seems utterly stupid. It is appalling to think that any right minded human being would think otherwlsel Tyrone Nimerowskl, Winnipeg, ClInada Larry Franklin should be viewed as innocent unless found guilty in a court of law. but even if he's convicted of espionage, that wouldn't have a big anti-Jewish backlash In Amedea. MostAmericans now consider Amerlean Jews part ofthe national mainstream. . IfAmedcan Jews' special ties to Israel is -dual loyally,· what about the 30 million or so American Christian Zionists? They are Israel·s strongest bastion of support in America. Yes, most politically consdous Americans befl8V8 by nowthat the Iraq warwas mastenninded by neo-conservatives to ernninate a blUer enemy of Israel. But again. I don't see that spawning much IIf..feellng among Americans against Jews or Israel because of their deep loyalty toward the" Jewish state. What the Israelis may need to wony about is the war's disastrous effect of America. their only real ally In the worfd. The Iraqi quagmire is dramatically • exposing the limits ofAmerica's power and eroding Its dout In the Middle East and the wodd. And it's happening when Israel sbuggles to extricate itselffrom its own quagmire In Gam and the West Bank. Mus""aMalik, Cheverly, Md., United States ofAmerica Nobody in the White House is going to say anything negative about Israel right now. Bush needs some Jewish votes in florida and Ohio, and November's election wall dictate poSey until November. This issue will die quietly and quickly. Paul Mann, Chicago, United States ofAmerica The "macho· attitude which permeates all Israeli soc.iety. does not make this a farfetched possibility. The InvincibUity trait runs high and cORUpts one and an. On an optimist point this may tum to be nothing but a political smoke screen by the GOP to fend off ifs supposedly pro-Israel stand. On a pessimist view. nothing is too stupid to put it beyond any level of Israel's govemment. To advance Israel's advantage (supposedly) then any risk Is worthwhile. Ness/m Dayan, Ashdod, I~I - It is amply clear that Israel and its powerful lobby In Washington were behInd the American invasion and OCQIpation of Iraq last year. Now Israelis trying to get ' the US to invade Iran and is using Jewish Americans to get the job done. Israelis should stop thinking that America plays the role ofmonkey and Israel the organ glinder 8/30/2004 5:47 PM l1ttp://.W\VW.ha~e~'.com/llaseiiJpa:ge~ AJticl~Ne~s.jhiinl? i.~ e'· g: , . ·Kl}aJld SulelmaiJ: :ieniialem, ~sraei: " ... ..... ,Haaretz,-'~ews: This charge smells of political, ,....Why woul~ ~9 ~llealt this tOt ,diversion. Why would the FBlle'ak this' the press before ~rresUng to the press beforearresting Franklin if Franklin Ifthey have kept the they I!~v~ ~eP,t tf!e ~r !ornJ, . year long In~gatl~n quiet _,~ inv~ation quiet before nOW? ,before noW?, ~ ~" Perria~because the U.S.' had a major Usa S~, Michigan. United ~ . defeat in Iraq this week; the economic States of A;,ITI8rica numbers are bleak and the , ~~!'l~frti9M.b~~~ qi, ~us!, ~!PPlllgn @f1~ the §W!tl qo~t ads ~re.beComing clelater•• ~. •• ~ . LIiiii simtItld, ~ICI!lgln, unltdll~ofAmDrit:S During the Pollard affair. Rabin said that he caught"two Americans. spying'In. Olmona and they were politely sent out of the country. So Why this hullabaloo, •when ~e did not even !,oa~ythin9? . .' , richard cohen, U'!1ted Ki~gdom. I highly doubt Israel wOuld risk JeopardiZing relations with the U.S. If it turns out that indeed therewas aspy I doubt relations wOuld be h!lrm~: first because it was not as if an enemy was spYing; and the informatlon on' Iran Is something, Israel should MOW. without having to spy for its surviVal. AlSO relations wiD remain wann bec8use th8 interests. hopes values and destinies of both ·coun~ are completely interwOven. . • , '.' . -. D Vi~nlkov, NY,. United States'ofAm,eric. This is obViously'Part of an eloit ~o blame the'iraq war mess on Israel ahead of the U.s. elections: But AIPAC'stiould knoW better than'to'maintain lobbying • •Contact With bureauaatS in the Department of Defense.1he solution Is to prevent these types of scurrilous charges frOm occurring In the first place as there Isno shortage of people willing to·use these types of Inddents for their own political motives. Contacts of this nature should be between government officials on both sides.'ine' like anY'other independent nation has a foreign ImniCniosntrgyraensds.a d.efe-ns-e,rtme_nt.with-lia-ison.of,ficers fo.r'this. Le. t.AIPAC. lobby 'Henl)' Cittoj1e, ~NeV! Yolk, United S~tes olAmeric.a If this turns outto'be trUe. this is one'of the dumbest things Israel could have done.,HoWon earth could they-haVe"thought thafthis'was a good idea?, • Jackie, HB"a~ Israel' . - - c...... - ........... -... -~ - .................. -.........--- -- 8/30/20'045:47.PM ..rnnt .... 1 ,\ .... o http://www.haaretz.comlhasenlobjectslI QINFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS TlNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg i 0(3 JQi . , - _ "~L A*'- =- ..4=:-*-13 1 0( 4 J( _C:=1C2 Last update· 21:14 30/0812004 Shalom: Mol~ affair is exaggerated 'media nonsense' ByNathan Guttman, Haaretz Correspondent, Haaretz Service and Agencies " Officials confirmed Monday that a senior Israeli diplomat in Washington met several times'with Larry Franklin, a Pentagon analyst being inv~tigated by the FBI on suspicion he passed classified information on Iran to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. However, Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom· 4enying allegations of~spionage• said such meetings are commonplace and the two governments routinely share secrets. "Israel and the United SUites have intimate ties ... arid the infomiation Heing exchanged is milch more classified than any conversation that may have taken place," Shalom told ajoin~ news conference with his German counterpart, Joschka Fischer., • .The Israeli diplomat was identified as Naor Oilon, head ofthe political departm~t at Israel's embassy in Was~ington, and a specialist on n~clear weapons proliferatioll, ~rael says I~ and its nuclear.~bitions pose the greatest threat to the Jewish state. Shalom did not mention GilOD by name, but when asked about contacts between Oilon and Franklin did not deny they had taken place. Astatement issued after the weekly cabinet meeting said that tlin discussing the Larry Franklin affair, he [Shalom] note4 that Foreign Ministry checks have shown that the entire Israeli Embassy acted accordin$ to procedures.tI Shalom said Monday that Israel already receives all'the classified information it needs from the U.S. governnient through shared intelligence. He called the Franklin affair "media-nonsense" that has been taken out ofall proportion, Army Radio reported. "There is no troth whatsoever in the claims that 8/ \ .rnnt .: .' "\ 2of3 o!liasenlobjects/I (;l Israel spi~d or in any way acted against our great friend and aUy, the United States," Shalom told reporters in Jemsalem. "I think the ties between Israel and the United States are intimate. The cooperation and l~vels ofinformation are so close, so intimate, that the information that is exchanged is much mo~ classified that any conversation or. another," he said. The pro-Israel'AIPAC lobby denied serving as a conduit for documents from the analyst connected to U.S. Defens~ Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's office. Newsweek magazine reported on Sunday that the FBI began investigating Franklin after tailing Gilon, the minister ofpolitical affairs at the Israeli embassy in Washington, who met an AIPAC representative for lunch.~Franklinreportedly approached their table and engaged in a warm conversation with them. However, Shalom said any meetings Franklin might have hel4Jwith pro-Israeli officials were simply part ofdiplomatic work, acc~rding to~ Army Radio. IIAmerican embassy offi9ials meet regularly with Israeli goverJ1t11~~t officials," said Shalom. lilt's an accepted thing." The magazine also said Franklin was once posted at the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv when he served in the U.S. Air Force Reserve. Accordirlg to the report, Federal Bureau of Investigation counter~intelligence agents were following Franklin when they saw him attempt to pass a classified policy document on Iran to an unnamed surveillance target. Th~ U.S. adplinistration believes that the FBI will refrain from c~g Franklin with espionage, American media saidSunday. The FBI apparently lacks any evidence thattl!e_ Pentagon data analyst was operated by either Israel or-AlPAC. Franklin, an analyst in the Pentagon's Near East and South Asia Bureau; could be charged with mishandling a classified document. However, the FBI has yet to make an official pronouncement on whether Franklin will be arrest~ an~ what charges he might face. Nevertheless, investigators are .broadening their 8/ .., , ..... / "Th~_ ~an is not a ~py~ he's ~'idio~~' an official. ~ familiar ~ith the investigation told the paper. ~ .. ' ~ .... http://vijlJI.',;'.~aareti,coinihasenlObj~tS/i, , 'li'Q," '. . tiro,be and inteii.:i~g figures at !, '; D.ep~..ent, the State Dep~ent an~ o\u.tsl~e"1. ,i thf~slrlitiOti. \ ' ..., . , The investig~tio~ currently, cen~rs 'Qn f ~mgl~ ~l ,doc'!W~nt ~I~ting t~ adi~c~ssion held~~,~~D1~r administration offic;ials, about U.S. poli~y~on -Ii 111m. Fr8rlk1in is s~speCted of~anding ~~ , document· which was classified'· to AIPAC, 1; whioh conveyed the document orits co'iite1itSJto ' I~me!i gov~metit repre8entatlyes. J ,: .' The ~s Angeles Times reported Sup~y that Franklin may have'conveyed tlie,claSsified:. info~atipn jDnocently, not realizing he w~ ~reaking the"law. ~ .. .. 'I ·--... -l'~nt :: _ _ _ w .. #: ~, ; ;.'. , .... . "J,. Jha~enfobJectalpagesIPrintA~cfeEn.Jhtml?lteinN0=470~86 cJ~se~ndow ---- ......... -- ............. -.... -.: _..- - ..... - - ..... ;~ ......- foot ft .. o www.haaretz.eom . http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/objecis/I ALL INFOPMA<;;tN CONTAINED HEPLIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baTff/sabJlsg lof3 Last update - 01 :5630/08/2004 Analyst at center of $py flap called naive; ardently pro-Isra~1 By Nathan Guttman WASHINGTON -~Frimklin, the Pentagon apalyst slJ.spect~d of.pas~iQg cl~ssified material about Iran to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, has never hidden his unequivooal support ofIsrael. Colleagues from the Near East and South Asia desk at the Defense Department said yes1et~y that his sympathy for Israel was overt and publio • he didn't refrain from praising Israel and he held aggressive vi~ws about several Arab governritents, primarily the ayatollahs' regime in Iran and Saddam Hussein's diotatorship in Iraq. "Everyone knew he was a friend ofIsrael, but he didn't go about it iQ any unusual way,II a Pentagon coworker said. "He was always aocessible to everyone." Franklin's resume describes his ourrent positiQn, whioh h~ h~ held since 2001, as: "Offioe ofthe Secretary ofDefense, Polioy, Near East/South Asia, Iran d~sk an~lyst, Office ofSpecial Plans Iraq. Focus Projeots: Hizb611ah, Islam, Saudi Arabi~." But the., official resume reveals Qnly a few details about the man at the oenter ofthe affair. Franklin, a religious Catholic in his late 50s, lives in Kearneysville, West Virgini~, a 90-minute drive from the Pentagon. Butliving in the distant suburb assured a high quality of life for Franklint his wife Patrioia and their five children, some ofwhom ate college-age. . Franklin has a doctorate in East Asian studies from St. John's Vniversity, a C~tholic Ulliversity in New York City, and speaks Farsi, Arabio, Frepch, Spanish, Russian and Chinese (in ,., 8/ .rnnt .20f3 http://wWw.haaretz.comlhas~rilobjects/I o Q ~dditio~ to English). Oh top ofhis work ~t th~ Pentagon, Franklin teaches history at Shepherd UniversitymW~st Virginia. In conversations about Franklin with his coJleagues, one' ofthe words that com~s up again and again is IInaive.." He is described as an ideologue who believes wholeheartedly in the neo-conservative approach. "Everything by him is black and white," said someone who has worked with Franklin iJ1 the P~lltagon. "He is a very nice person, very conservative, not at all arrogant," said the colleague, adding that one of the reaso~s he was ~rought intQ_ th~ Near East and South Asia desk was his political beliefs. Franklin's political opinions are similar to those ofhis bosses - Douglas Feith, undersecretary of defense, and William Luti, the depu~ undersecretary ofdefense responsible for Near EJ\Stem and South Asian affairs. Like them, Franklin supports the policy ofacting to bring democracy to Arab regimes and,build up pro-American allies in the Middle East. But those who have worked with Frankljn also say he was a bit extreme in his work patterns, attitude and behavior. They occasionally referred to him ~ "Planet Larry">as a way of expressing the extent to which he "lives in a world ofhis own," colleagues said. People who have worked with Franklin believe that it was his ~demartc naivete that got him in trouble, saying Franklin was not aware ofthe severity ofhis activities, and so did not try to hide or mask them. Franklin visited Israel eight times while he served in the U.S. Air Force and wo~ked at the Pen~gon. Most ofbis visits. appear to have Deen related to his reserve duty service as an officer dealing with international c~ntacts. Accord~ng to his resume. Franklili served as a reserve air forCe colonel between 1997 and 2004. worl~ing with Ute p.S. military attache in Tel Aviv. Beforehand he was involved in analyzing counter-intelligen~ in the air force. Had the current accusations not come to light, Franklin's job at the Pentagon would have 8/ .rnnt ~ .~; http://www;haare~~~9m1hasen/objects/l o 'Q depen~~d on the presid~~tial e1t!ctiQD.s, hi$ _,?6wQr~e!"8 ~ai~. I(:pemocra~i6_ candidate John Kerry wins the next electiQn, colleagues said, it's doubtful that F~in will move up'.due to his \veil-known political views. . "He was considered a little s~ge even for the neo-cons," a coworker said. "They're probably saying to themselves - oh, tarry again." '" __ ..=.... _........ ,,;;;- .__.. _=::=£.z:::: __ ., _. __u..- __ ._ ... lhasenlobjects/pagesiPrintArtlcleEn.jhtml?itemNo=470856 close wln,dow .' 8/ -- ...-.... 'l1aaretz - israel News - Mak1ng a mountain into a molehill http://www.haaretz.comlhasenJsp: · 0 ALL IIIFOrolATION COIITAINED' Q HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg I Hqmepage Sear~h site l B SrndbJe·rnai @*S81d resplIIse l'ofS News Updates Mon" August 30,2004 Blull3, 5764 Israel Time: 02:19 (GMT+3) ·Print Edition M$klng a News mountain into a Business molehill Editorial & Op~Ed By Aklva Eldar Features It now looks by all Sports ~ccounts like t.,arry Art & Leisure F~anklin w~II, at w~rst, be Top Articles BOQks tried for mishandling Letters tlen~itive rnateri~l. hi other Chutzpah: words, he'll be charged Class 101 Food & Wine with leakinQinformation to Sarah Tourism th~ p-to·lsr~u~llobby Augerbraun Real Estate AIPAC. "Sensitive" data of knew she this sort, or of an even wasn't In Cartoon more s~nsitlve nature, i~ Florida Friday Magazine routinely conveyed during anymofe meetings between when standIng Week's End Anieri~n officials and In line at h~r Anglo File Israeli diplomats under the local W~ Bank- fence ruling bright lights .of upscale supermarket, Disengagement plan 'resta~rant th h rt f aman tried to S In e e~ 0 cut in front of Arab snapshots Washington, D.C. h. ere "Ire'aII' zed Shopping service T.he real problem I had two - threatening options," Pre~l~u! ~~~~Ions fsraei-U.s. recalls the , Select tI 'relations and the former " .,- Jewl"sh Hebrew ~ teaQfier. "l IBm community does co~ld hav~ J I nQt reside in. this either yelled at small·frY from th~ him or just _ Pentagon and the ign9r~d It." .. cll;lssifiQatiofl By Daphna ThIS Day mHaaretz grade of the Berman Today's Papers leaked document, but An . ra~her in the $uspicipn of Map ofIsrael something fishy at the top. expiration Useful Numbers The murky waters ofthis date In..depth affair will provide ample In a few . About Haaretz ~shlng grou;'d~ ~or poiltlcal ~~~~~~~hen Tech Support rivals and conspiracy magazines list ,8/ l1aaretz - Israel News - MakIng a mountain mto a molehill o; Q Paper in PDF fonnat p~Jfs. First they'll land the great Headlin~ N~wsbox Franklin's boss, -m,9yle hits of ~ Undersecretary of Defense 2004, not only ~ fQr P6lipy Q6uglas Feith, !tSpi~erman ~:' and then they'll hook the . ~~d ~hrek 2 entire group of ~dl star ~t ~he neoconservatives of which top o! thehst. •.... So will one he IS .one of the leaders. documentary. That IS th~ gr~up?f. B Uri Klein Israel's friends, fncll)dmg Y many Jews, that pushed Pr~siden\ Bush to go to war in Iraq. The bet!t fQrm of defense being off~nse, spokesp~ople for the Isr~eli gQv~rnJ1lent Insinuated that anti-Israel elements are behind the affair; R~p'yblic;an representative~ 'point to "Democratic agents" among $en~or FBI Officials who want to spoil things for Bush on the eve of his party's convention. 2,ofS They may Qe right. But you don't need Franklin and the classified rranian qoc~nient to draw fire at the conspiracy to take over Iraq. As members of think t~r1ks several yearE~ago, Feith and his friends volunteered an open dO"QlJmerit'in which they laid bare their Israeli-American plot to change the face of ~he entire Middle East. In 1996, a conservative Isra~n-American research institute invited Feith and 9thers, Including Riohard Perle who headed an advisqry panel to the Pentagon known as the Special Offers Advertisement StUdy In Israel Get your BA In Israel In English. IDe Herzl.!va. Israel Travel Center Just one click • hundreds of super dealst 8/ t;taareti...;'~srae! News~ M~g'~ ~O~!ain m(il-'a·m61~Jti~l : - ., . , . Q' '~ttp:l/wwjl.Jt~~~:coinll:tasetVspi; O· ~l Def$l1se p(~)licy I3Qardi to puftog~ttier ~:strateglc· manual, for tlJeincoming p.rim~ minister Benjamin NeJahyahu; F~ith: is t~sponsi~l~ for ~he folloWing pa~graph f"'o~ ,that document: "Israal.can sh~pe its _~tra~eg,c ~ 'environment:"in .~o~p'9r~tio~ with Turkey and-Jord@n.,by, '!'eakel1ing, ~o~taining. and evan rqJling b~c~~. ~yr.i~. r~is effort can focus.on r~.m6vi!1g Saddam Hussein .frQm power-hi-Iraq - an important Israeli ', ~tra~egic"objecti~Ei in its own right ~-as ~ means'of f~iling Sy~i~'s region'sf" ,am~itions:" ' rhe ~ocument.gqes on to ,state that "Jordan has ch~llerig~d'$Yri~'s/'r~gional ambition.s recently by . suggesting the restor.a~iori of the Hashemit~~ ... Sirt~,e :(r~qts .fu~ure 'could ~ffect:tl1e ~trategio balance. ; in the Middle East profou'ndly, :it'woiild be :4"derstancJ~ple .JtiatIsra~1 lias'an interest in ,supportina t~e Hashemites in,their efforts-to redefine Iraq/!" ,.,. -' :~ixfy~ars i~ter, ""e,mbers of that sa~e "grQup _ - supported.the, half-baked idea's priric~ H~assah as:lraq'~ ruler. . If.'anyonewas lookfng:to, ~se_~Fr~nk!ira tg s091< Fe.itti, . - -, ·s(- .'4 .- Haare~ - Israel News - Making a mountain into a molehill o Feith and his friends promised in that document that l$ra~1i sup,pqrt for the missile plan would assist efforts to relocate the U.S. .embassy in Isra~1 from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Ttiat initiative._sponsored by the RepltbUcan presidential candidate Bob Dole, was the brainchild of the neoconservatives ~nd their friends at AIPAC. It utterly contravened the view held by president Bill·GUntan and prime minister Yitzhak ~abin that initiatives of • that sort QQ not help ~uild trust between Israel and the Palestinians. Perhaps 40f5 8/ !< Ha.aretz .. israel News .. Making a mountain into amol~hil1 '; \~,;I htql:/l.viWW:haaretz.comlhase~sp; o -5 of5 th~tJs the strongest-proof of all that the neoconservatives and Jewish IQbbylsts do not "serve two masters. Th.ey serVe themselves, and that's t~e trouble. Ii Top Subscribe to Haaretz Plint Edition HomeINewsl Businessl Editorial &Op-EdI,FeatureiISportsI~ooksl,CartoonISite rulesl C Copyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved 8/ - Yaboo! News - Top Ofiicials Queried in Israel Ptobe o Yahool My Yahool Mail l!HOOtNews'fIIm New User? Sign UP. Vallool News Mon,Aug 30, 2004 Search All News .!news?ttilpJ o '~Mbl _ News Home .. Help ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN I~ UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Personalize News Home Page . J ..of4 News Home Top Stories •u.s. NatiOnal Business World Entertainment SPO~B Technology Politics Science Health Oddly Enough Op/Ed Local Comics News Photos , . lYIost Popular Weather IAudloNldeo Full Coverage White House· AP Cabinet & State Top Officials Q~eri~d in ApA880CIated Israel probe .Press Mon ~~~2:08eAdd White House - AP Ca~inet p& State to My Yahopi PMET By CURTANDERSON, Associate"d Press Writer WASHINGTON - High-ranking officials at the Pentagon (~ .. web sites) and State Department have been inteiviE),wed or briefed by Fal (~ews .. web sites) agents investiQating a Def~nse Department arialy~t suspected of passing to Isra~lclassitie~ Bush administratiQn mate~ials on Iran. . Among those briefed by the FBI ! ; was Douglas J. Feith, the Pentagon uenderse-cretary for pblicy·who is a superior of the analyst under --.......... investigation, said governm~nt AP Photo official~ familiar with the sessions. 8/ " Yahoo! News .. Top OtIJcials Querjed'in ~srael ~robe~ o ," 0' There"was no immediate indication that the criminal investigatiqn'"has widened b~yond the single an~lyst. identified previously by senior law enfoi-gement officials as Larry Franklin. . Franklin. who has not responded to telephone messages seeking .comment. work$ in al1 office dealing the.Middle East affairs and has access to clas$ified government information. The investigation focuses on whath~r Franklin Opinion & edltorla~s passed classi~ed U.S. material on Iran to the American Israel 'Public Affairs Committee. the • ~:king almh~~n~ain inti.uantiallsraeli lobby"jng o~ganizatiori in In 0 a rna e I a . " '. .' . H tz (A 30 2004) Washington! and whether anYQne In that group aara ug, •forwarded the.information on to Israeli officials. • Israeli Mole in the AIPAC and ,~raal have·strenuou~IY d~nied the Pentagon at' allegations. AIJazeerah,lnfo (Aug 30, • . • 2004) 'J~raeh offiC;lals ,did confirm Monday that a senior Israeli in Washington has met with Feature Articles Franklin. Those offlcif:)ls. alsQ $~eaking on • Spy probe tests pondition of anqnymity, identified tne diplpmat US-Israel ties at as·Naor ~ilOn. head of the Israeli Embassy's Christian Science p~litical department. . Monitor (Aug 30, 2Q04) Gilon tqld the Isr~eli newspap~r Maariv he • Analyst at center of did nothing wrong ~l:It was concerned that he spy flap called naive. may no longer be able to work in Washington ardently pro-Israel at becaiJs~ of the investigation. Haaretz(Aug 30, 2004) "Now, people will be scared to talk with me," Re~ated 'Web SI~e8 Gilon a story published Monday. • Top Officials Queried in Israel Probe AP via Yahool News (Au~ 30, 2004) • Shalom: Franklin affair is 'media nonsense' at Jerusalem Post ' (registration req'd) (Aug 30,2004) .. FuU .Coverage, Th~ offiQi~J$ !?pok~ Monday on More about conditio"n pf anonyr:nity Qeca~se t~e prob~ is Espionage & ongoing.' " Intelligence The Fa, ~gents briefed Feith Qn ~\Jnday in his Related News Stories office at tl1Q pentagon·and als~ as~eq . 'q~estions, the 6f{ici$ls $~iQ. AI$o r~Q~ntly • Israel, Iran Trade briefec;l by the FBI wa$ Deputy Defens~ Threats As FBI Secretary Paul Wolfowitz .they said Investigates Spying at "., The Washington Post Others at State and Defense have been· (reg. req'd) (Aug 30," Interviewed or briefed over the course of the ?904) . probe, but tt}e officials declined to provide ~ny other names. .2.of4 _..... _ - 8/ x anoo! l'1eWS - lOp UInclats \.luep.ea InJs~el .Probe o • National Security Archive • Crvptome • FBI's Electronic Reading Room SloryTools Prev~ Story: GOP lauds Bush As Strong Wartime leader (AP) Next Story: GI Testifies Against Woman in Iraq Abuse (AP) BEmail 1>POStlRead aPrint StOry Msgs Slory Ratings: Would you recpmmend this story? 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ALL nrForotGN CONTAINED HEP-EIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabJ1sg 1of3. Analysis I A ~old wind blowing from the CIA By Befo~ fonner U.S. Central Intelligence Agency head George Tenet retired, he made stinging comments on various occasions to Israeli officials in the intelligence communityJ especially the MossadJsaying Israel had a spy in America. The acellSaUon was rejected out ofhand - Tenet was even lOUdly challenged tQ eateh any such agent and expose him publicly. The exchange ofremarks was pass~d on to IsrnelJ evokilig siliPdse at tHe politl~l ievel over ~e accusations. . Qq Fti4ay I,ljght the: Am~rt~ J!l~~~a ~v~~~ ~!! ;tA ~lJv~t!gatj(m was proceeding into a suspected Pentagon mole who was transmitting !~tmltiQt\ to MPAC (t~~ Ameri~ lSnlet P-bbUq Aftllittl CQJtY1).j~) ~d 119m tb~~ to ISA~Il\bQut the \\il:lJt~ HQ!JS4iS war plans for Iraq. Aperson named Larry Franklin was mentiQrtecIr who works in the offICe ofundersecreiary ofdefense Douglas Feith. Between La1Ty Franklin and Doug Feith there are at least three levels ofbureaucratie ~ierarchy. . AlPAt insisted last night that it heard Franklin's name ror the first time on Fridll-Y when investigators Cjme to them. They also said that AIPAC provided the autborities with documents and information that investigators had requested orasked about. In any ease, it is difficult to imagine that an organization like j\IPAC, considered professional and very experiencedJwould get itself involved in maintaining a mole in the American security establishment. The timing ofthe affair's exposure is connected with the U.S. election campaign and the struggle against the group ofneoconservatives in the administratioriJwho are accused ofleading President Bush to war with·Iraq. While j\IPAC claims it never heard ofLarry Franklin, he is known to the ism~1i int~lIigence community. H~ has. appeared more than puce at meetings with ISfaeli iiitelllgelice!, especially with military (iUelligeiice, mostiy in a group setting. . Israel has noticed that relations between the CIA and the Mossad had begun to cool. Senior Israeli and American officials say the chill may have a number ofcauses. One mighi have been the leaking ofsecret 8/30/2004 5:41 PM~ And Now a Mole? UNCLASSIFIED - ~OUO Newsweek Sept~mber 6, 2004 e· ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAIloJED HEREIN IS lTNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg 10f2 And Now a Mole? III ti,e Pentagon, a suspected spy allegedly passes secrets aboutIran to Israel By Michael Isikoff and Mark Hosenball . It was just a. Washington lunch-one·that the FBI happened to be monitqring. Nearly a year and a half ago, agents were monitoring a conve~sation between an Israeli Embassy 9fficialand a lobbyist for American Israel Public Aff3:irs Committee, or AlPAC, as part of a probe into possible Israeli spying. Suddenly, and quite unexpectedly, in the description ofon~ jntelligence official, another American-' Itwalked inuto the lunch out ofthe blue. Agents at first didn't know who the man was. They were stunned to discover he was Larry Franklin, a desk officer with the Near East and South Asia office at the Pentag°rt· Franklin soon became a ~ubject ofthe FBI investigation as well. Now he may ~ace cpar~es, accuse.d of divulging to Israel classified infonnation on U.S. government plans regarding Iran, officials say. While some U.S. officials warned against exaggerated accusations ofspying, one adl)'linistration source described the case as the ~ost significant Israeli espionage investigation in Washington since Jonathan· Pollard, ~n America~ who was imprisoned for life ,in 1987 for passing U.S. Navy secrets to the Israeli~. The FBI and Justice Department are still reviewing the evidence, but one intellige~ce source believes Franklin may be arrested shortly.. The probe itself amounts to another ep:1barrassing problem for Donala Rumsfeld, the beleaguered Defense secretary. It come~ during ~ week in which violenc~ flared up ag~in in Iraq arid a Pentagon investigation indirectly blained Rumsfeld for poor oversight in the Abu Ghraib prisoner-~~use scandal. In. a statement, the Defense Department said it Ithas been cooperating with the Department ofJustice on this matter for an extended period oftime." At first'blush, officials close to the investigation say, Franklin seemed an ~likely suspect: he was • described as a midlevel policy "wonk" with a doctorate who had toiled for. some time on Mideast affairs. Yet he had previously worked at the,Defense I~te1l1gence Agency, and there was at least one other ~pect to his background that caught ,the FBI's attention: although-Franklih was not Jewish, he was an Army reservist who did his reserve duty at the ,U.S. Embassy in rei Aviv. FBI counterintelligence agents began,tracking him, and at one point watched him allegedly attempt to pass a classified U.S. policy document on IraIl to one ofthe surveillance targets, according to a U.S. intelligence official. But his alleged confedera~e was "too sma~, II the official said, and re~sed to take it. ,Instead, he asked Franklin to brief him on its contents-and-Franklin allegedly obliged. Franklin also passed informati9n gleaned from more highly classified documents, the official said. Ifthe correct, Franklin's motive appears to have been ideological rather than financial. There i~ no evidence that money changed hands. ufor wl!atever reason, the guy hates Iran passionately," the 9fficial said, referring to the Iranian govermrient. . 813112004 1:30 PM And Now a Mole? .". bIlp'JIWWWodi"O/adminlEARLYBIRDI0408301s20040830316062.btml NEWSWE~KIS efforts to reach Franklin or a lawyer representing him were unsuccessful. But a close friend, MicliaerLedeen ofthe American Enterprise Institute, said he believes the charges against Franklin are "nonsensical.II Officials say that Franklin began cooperating about a month ago, after he was confronted by the FBI. At the time, these officials say, Franklin acknowledged meetings with the Israeli contact. Law-enforcement officials say they have no evidence that anyone above Franklin at the Pentagon had any knowledge of his activities. Israeli officials, meanwhile, bristled at the suggestion ofespionage. Ephraim Sneh, a member of Parliament and a retired general who has been monitoring the development ofnukes in Iran for years, said that Israel would be crazy to spy on its best friend. JlSince Pollard, we avoid any intelligence activity on U.S. soil,II Sneh said in an interview. "I know the policy; I've been in this business for years. We avoid anything that even smells like intelligence-gathering in the U.S.II Another Israeli official contended that the Israelis had no cause to steal secrets because anything important on Iran is already exchanged between the CIA and the Mossad, Israelis spy agency. In a statement, AlPAC denied that any ofits employees received information "they believed was secret or classified,II and said it was cooperating. U.S. investigators would not reveal w~at kind of information Franklin was allegedly trying to divulge to Israel. But for months the administration has been debating what to do about IraI\'S clerical regime as well as its alleged program to build nuclear weapo~-a subject ofkeen interest to the Israelis, who have quietly warned Washington that they will not permit Tehran to gain nuclear capability. . Franklin was known to be one ofa tightly knit group ofpro-Israel hawks in the Pentagon associated with his immediate superior, William Luti, the hard-charging and impassioned protege offormer flouse speaker Newt Gingrich. As deputy assistant secretary of Defense for Near East aff~irs, Luti was a key player in planning the Iraq war. He, in tum, works in the office ofUnder Secretary Douglas Feith, a career lawyer who, before he became the Pentagon's No.3, was a sometime consultant for Likud, Israeli prime Minister Ariel Sharon's political party. Officials say they have no evidence that either Feith or Luti had any' knowledge ofFranklin's discussions with the Israelis. Franklin has also been among the subjects ofa separate probe being conducted by the Senate intelligence committee. Part ofthat investigation concerns alleged "rogue" intelligeJ!.ce activities by Feith's staff: Among these activities was a series ofmeetings that Franklin and one ofhis colleagues, Harold Rhode, had in Paris in late 2001 with Manucher Ghorbanifar, the shadowy Iranian arms dealer made infamous during the Iran-contra scandal ofthe 1980s. One purpose ofthose meetings was to explore a scheme for overthrowing the mullahs in Iran, though Rumsfeld later said the plan was never seriously considered. But so far, there is no evidence that the Ghorbanifar contacts are related to the espionage probe. And officials famili~ with the ~ase suggest that the political damage to Bush and the Pentagon may prove to be more serious than the d~age to national security. - With Michael Hirsh and Daniel Klaidman in Washington and Dan Ephron in Jerusalem f· 2of2 8/3112004 1:30PM ~~I Looking Deep Into Qefense Office , "I UNCLAS~IFIED.. FOUO Philadelphia Inquirer August 29, 2004 o hUp:l/wwW.dia.~/admWEAiu,YBIRD10408301s20Q4083031S93I.h~1 ALL FBI INFOrot&TION CONTAlNED HEREIN IS TJNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 FBJ, Looking Deep Into Defense Office Aprobe goes beyond wlletller a ":lidlevel analyst gave an Iran policy docum.ent to !s.r~el, sources said. . By Warren P. Strobel, Inquirer Washington Bureau· WASHINGTON - An FBI irivestigation into the handling ofclassified material by Pentagon civilians'is broader than previously reported and goes well beyond allegations that a single m~dlevel analyst gaye a top-secret Iran policy document to Israel; three ~ource.s familiar with the investigation said yesterday. The probe; more than two,years old, also ha~ fo~used on othe~ Pentagon civilians, the sources, who have, firsthand knowledge ofthe subj~ct, said on c~ndition ofanonyinity. ~n additi<;>n, one said, FBI investigators in recent week~·have condQcted interviews to detelJllin~ whether Pentagon officials gaye cl~sified u.s. intelligence to a leading Iraqi exile grQup, the Iraqi National. Congress, which'may,have in tum passed it to Ira!!. The exile group's leader, Ahmed Chalabi,.has de.nied his group was involved in any wrongd<?ing. The link,.ifany, between the two.invest~gations rem~ins unclear. But they both center on the office o"fUndersecretary ofDefense Douglas Feith,.the Pentagon's No.3 official. " - Feith's office, which overse~s policy matters, has been th~ source ofnumerous cOl;ltroversies "in the. last three years. His office had:close'ties to Chalabi' and was responsible Ior postwar Iraq planning that·the adm~nistration has acknowled.ged was inadequate. Before the war, Feith and his aides pushed the now-discredited th~ory that Iraqi lead~r Saddam Hussel~ ,was in league with al-Qaeda. No pne is have been,chargeq with any Wrongdoing in the investigations. Offici~ls said the investig~tions coulg result in cqarges ofmishandling classified informa~ion, rather than tJ1e more seri~us ch~rge ofespionage. The I~raeli gQvemment strenuously denied yesterday-that it had'spfed on ~e United States, its main benefactor on the global scene. ' The American Israel Public Affairs Committee; the powerful pro-Israel lobby that top offici~ls said was suspected ofs~rving as ,a c9~du~t to Israel for the midlevel analyst, also h~ denied any wrongdoing. The sources indicated that the analyst being investigated is Larry Franklin, who w~rks for Feith's deputy, Willia~ Lilti. frank!Jp~ s.~ry~~ ~~ ~!!' i~portant, alb~itl.o~-prp~le~ ~dvis"e~ on ~ran issues to ~eith and . - ... -- 8131120041~~O.PM FBI Looking Deep Into Defense Office o http://www.di..OIadminlEARLYBIRD10408301s200408303IS93I.htm1 20f2 Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz. Franklin, a former Defense Intelligence Agency analyst who lives in West Virginia, could not be reached for comment yesterday. Investigators are said to be looking at whether Franklin acted with authorization from his superiors, one official said. Two sources disclosed yesterday that the information believed to have been passed to Israel was the draft ofa top-secret presidential order on Iran policy known as a National Security Presidential Directive. Because ofdisagreements over Iran policy among President Bush's advisers, the document is not believed to have been'completed. Having a draft ofthe document - which some Pentagon officials may have believed was.insufficiently tough toward Iran - would have allowed Israel to influence U.S. policy as it was being made. Iran is among Israel's main security concerns. Two or three staffmembers ofthe pro-Israel lobby have been interviewed in the case. Inaprepared statement, the lobby said any allegation ofcriminal conduct was "false and baseless.II It is cooperating fully with investigators, the statement said. Israeli officials insisted they stopped spying on the United States after the exposUre ofJonathan Pollard, who was arrested in 1985 and sentenced to life in prison for spy'ing for Israel. White Hou~e spokesman Scott McClellan would not discuss the investigation. I1Qbviously any time there is an allegation ofthis nature, it's a serious matter," he said while traveling with the President in Ohio. Other sources said the FBI investigation was more wide-ranging than initial news reports suggested. , They said it had involved interviews ofcup-ent and former officials at the White House, Pentagon and State Department. Investigators have also asked about the security practices ofseveral other Defense D~partment civilians, they said. 813112004 I:30 PM Pentagon Spy Flap Isn't Open-And-Shut Case .; ~ - 0 UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Lqs Angeles Times Augu'st 29, 2004 hUp:/lwww.dia.(5V/adminiEARLYBiRD~~s2004083031S922.hlml • "'~ .4~' , •••. ~~~~;'~3f~~~:~'ijfe~~iiitMi~:ii&i~i¥~.( -;:...!-'#:.' ~t..~.!...:';__~2~-::lU..~~~:.;.~"::~ t •• , .. ',~~~......-:.. ~.,..:±-~_ PIA Home IWhat'$ New IProducts by Typ~ IProdUcts_by Region I~IIDili! ALL FBI INFO~HATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS T~iCLASSIFIED DATE'07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg iIII !, lof4 Pentagon Spy Flap Isn't Open-And-Shut Case u.s. and Israel often sl,are data, officials say. But tl,e latter I,as rile4frlelldly nations befor~' . By Laura King and,Tyler Marshall, Times Staff Writers JERUSALEM - Not just in espionage thrillers,but in real life as well, it can be difficult ~o tell trusted .friend from double-crossing spy. That's especially tru~ Qetween close- allies such as Israel and the United States, in a world where g~vernmentofficials, lobbyists, diplomats, Jhink-tank analysts and !ntelligepce veterans fr~m both sides o~en move in overlapping political ~nd social circles - a pattern that can blur the line between cordially informal exchanges ofinformation and espionage. · After U.S. authorities disclosed that a Pentagon analyst specializing in Iranian affair~ is under -investigation for possibly spying for Israel, the government ofPrime Minister Ariel Sharon flatly denied that it had illicitly acquired any classified American material. r But cases such as these are not always ~pen and: shut. Longtime observers ofthe intelligence scene note that the U.S. and Israel often share sensitive data, particularly when one has assets the other lacks. For example., the ranks ofIsrael's diplomatic and intelligence corps are:h~neycoinbed.with native Arabic spea~ers, many ofthem Jews whose families emigrated from elsewhere in the Middle East. They are i~ many cases far better equipped than their relatively sparse U.S. counterparts to carry out sophisticated analyses ofpolitical and military developments in the region, and the fruits of such labors are routinely handed over to America. Before and during the war in Iraq, Israel and the United States engaged in intensive sharing of inte~ligence- some ofwhich turn~d out to be tainted, military and inte~ligence officials on both si~es have said. Among Arne~jcan Jews, the subject ofIsraeli spying is fraught with tension because offears.ofbeing tarred as a "fifth'column" that pu~ Israel's interests'ahead ofAmerica's. ~ome act~vi~ts for Jewish and Isra~li causes believe that it took-years to recover from the damage done by the case ofU.S. naval intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard, who was convicted ofspying for Israel and sentenced in 1987 to l.ife in prison. In t~~ current case, such concerns are investigators' s~spicions that the American Israel .Public Aff~if§ Committee, the foremost lobby group in Washingto~ for Israeli causes, may have served as a conduit for infonnat!on improperly passed to the Israeli'government. AlPAC has denied any wrongdoing. 813112004 "1:3.0 PM P..e.ntago-n Spy Flap Isn't Open-And-ShutCase 0. ~ " 2of4 http://www.dia.iO/adminlEARLYBlRDlO4OilJ0Is2904083031S922.html " .For.Israel,.part ofthe. problem w~~n confronted.wit~:a spy scandal like this is that in the past, its, protestations of innocence sometimes proved Jess:than. creaible: In recent years, under the watches ofseveral prime ministers, Israel has antagonized a string offriendly nations, inclpding Switzerland, Cyprus, Jordan an4.Canada, either by using their soil as a staging ground for spy activity or by having' ~ossad age~ts pass themselves offas these ~ountries' riationals. .. ' Israel ~uffered one ofits.·worst cases of "blowback" -.espio~ageparlance for unanticipated and highly unwelcome consequences - when Mossad agents tri~d, ineptly, t~ assassinate Hamas le~der Khaled' Meshaal in Jordan in 1997 by injecting him in th~. ear with poison. To retrieve its disgraced agents, Israel wasJorced to free Hamas leader Sheik Ahmed Yassin, who returned to the Gaza Strip in triumph and was a driving force behi~d the campaign ofPalestinian suicide bo~bings until he was ass~sinated by Israel in March. .Authorities in New Zealand were infuriated last spring when two Isra~lis were caught trying to fraudulently procure aNew Zealand p~spoi1. Prosecutors s~id a disabled New Zealand man waS unwittingly used as the phony passport ~pplicant. . Israel ha~, not acknowledged that its nationals were spies, but New ~aland says there is little room for doubt. Bungles suc~ as these have done much to dent the.Mossad's image a~ a skilled and subtle practi~ioner of the art ofespionage, and high~profile errors nave pro~pted ,calls in Is~el to rein in the spymasterS: In the aftermath ofthe Pollar~ case, Israel made ~trenuous pledge~ to refrain from spying on the United States. Senior diplomatic sources apd analysts interviewed Satw:day expressed doubt that Israel WQuld have'dsked involving ~tself in such an operation at thi~ j\Ulcture. "Isr,ael is not spying on American soil, full stop, in the sense that it's not trying to locate potential agerits, it's n9t approaching them, it's not $em, it's not running the~, and it's not paying mo~ey for information," said Yossi ~elman, an author Who special~zes in ~srael's intelligence community. "And it very much depend~ on the extent and detail ofthe information involved," Melman added. ~IIf someone at the Pentagon actually passed a confidential document directly to Israel, it would-be very, very· se~ous, but ifsomeone si~ply tell~ a third partY, 'Well, it seems the American thinking on this subject is such ~d such: then it's·all much more murky." In Washington, the reports ofthe FaI inv.estigation al$o raised. questions aliout why Israel might be willing to risk a major-spy scandal involving its closest ally. After all, Sharon's government can open doors even at the highest ~eve!s oJ~e Bush acJ1lJinistra~iQn, Washington-based diplomats and Middle East experts noted. "It would be kind ofreckless for Israel to dO.this c<?nsidering the access they have within this administration," said William B. Quandt, a Middle East specialis~ at ~e Uniyersity ofVirginia who served under President Carter. But others noted ~hat the inves~igation comes at ~ time oftensions bet;wee~ ~e two allies on an issue vita~ to Israelis security: Iran's nuclear weapons capabi)ities. Israeli !p.telligence estimates have . cpnsistently concluded that Tehr~n is'much closer to building a nuclear weapon than Washington 813112004 1:30 PM ' Y:"7n Spy Flap Isn' Open-And-Shut Case0 - http://www.diatrladminJEARLYBIRDt0408301s2004083031S922.b1m1 \. 30f4 believes. Earlier this year, senior Israeli officials predicted that Iran could gain nuclear weapons capa~ility by next year, and some hinted that Israel would be prepared to attack facilities at the Iranian portofBushehr if Tehran achieved that capacity. Iran has threatened Israel as well. "Ifthe Zionist entity attacks us, we are capable ofstriking its nuclear reactors,It Iranian news reports quoted Gen. Yedalla Jawani, a senior commander in the Revolutionary Guard, as saying recently. AU.S. inteiligence estimate this year suggested that Iran was still several years away from building a nuclear bomb. "Some Israelis have recently adjusted to a prediction oftwo to three years, but they have~taken a much more alarmist position on this [than the U.S.] ·all along," said Joseph Cirincione, senior associate and director ofthe nonproliferation'program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Pea~e in Washington. "There are ~learly differences." . Understanding details ofthe U.S. assessment ofIran's nuclear program·or gaining inside knowledge of how America might reac~ to a possible Israeli preemptive military strike against Iranian nuclear facilities would be extremely valuable for the Jewis~ state, regional experts say. The subject ofthe FBI's investigation is believed to have dealt with Iran pdlicy in a part ofth~ Pentagon that has had considerable influen~e on U.S. policy in the region. Almost no one in the Israeli leadership echelon believes that intelligence-gathering,in and of i~elfis necessarily a hostile act, even when conducted in friendly countries., Part ofany diplomat's job is to read the newspapers, talk t~ politicians 'and policymakers, visit military and industrial installations when invited to do so - and report back. "All over the world, in the embassies ofany country, you have people with job titles like cultural attache or agricultural liaison, and in reality, they gather infonnation ofuse to their home country's intelligence apparatus," said a former Israeli diplomat, speaking on condition of anonymity. "Everyone does it.tI Israel has dozens ofmilitary and military intelligence officials, and at least two ranking Mossad agents, as part ofits overt operations in the United States. The Mossad has a liaison to the CIA, who also ~cts on behalfofIsrael's domestic security agency, the Shin Bet, in dealings with the FBI. Because Israelis such a melting pot, with immigrants from all over the world, it has many citizens who hold dual mitionality. When smart, multilingual young Israelis holding foreign passports are ready tQ enter the job market, they sometimes find themselves approached -- albeit discreetly - by Mossad rec~iters. Separately, the Mossad is known to seek out foreign Jews to serve informally as volunteer tipsters, known in Hebrew as sayanim, or Ithelpers.1t Whatever its outcome, the spy flap comes at an awkward time for both Sharon and President Bush. The Israeli prime mipister is on far friendlier terms these days with Washington than he is with members of his own party and has no wish to jeopardize that. And in an election season, no U.S. leader would court a public spat with Israel. Bush has lately gone far out ofhis way to support Sharon. 813112004 1:30PM Pentagon Spy, Flap Isn't O~n·Aii(l·Sliut Case - http://www.dia.ic.~oY/admintEARLYBlRD/04"0830/s200408303IS922.html ,~ ~ - - " 0 .O' -.' .' -:- ., . " - . .. - .Four mOl)ths ~gQ;·h~ r~v.~r.se4 'c!~c!4~~'.~.fl)~~'. ~?liCYJ9, s~uppg~ ~~ t~e ,prime nii~i~tet~siplan to"eve!1tualiy ~ex large Jewish settle~ent blocs in:the'W~st Bank'in e.xc~uingefor Israel relinquishing settlements'in the Gaza_Str~p., Washingt~l} also~ ~efrahied from publ~<; criticism this month ~fJsrael's:i~s~iitg of.~enders.t9 b~ild nearly 2, in.the We,st Bank, even though lo~g.;.sta~ding U.S. policy expli~itly <?pposes settlement -. e~pan~io!1. ",_ . King reported.!ro1!'"Jerusalem, andMarshallfrom Wa,shington. r--- 4of4 - --- ..- ....... ~ .......... - - -- ... - - - .. ~ ....... oI-..~ _...d. ....-._"••'050 813112004 1:30 PM UNCLASSIFIED .. FOUO washingto1'~:Post August 29, 2004 Pg. 1- . .~ 'r~" • "~'''(I·~$r!~'ls·'1....~'''Z':\" ..~:ti~~i''''''''Iii~;;'''-:-{l1J:~:~f'''~,iIll'1. _.~~~ ~i~:ii.~~~~~~~~:~D~f'!!S8; t~ntg9n~'i~m~5:!I PIA HOme I¥'hat'? New IProdu~ts by Type l rfoduets bY ReSioD I~'11:k!R . ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sq lof4 Analyst. Who Is Target QfProb~ Went-To Israel By Thomas E. Ricks and Robin Wrigh~ Washington Post StaffiWriters . The FB~ investigation into whether classified inforination was passeq to the IsraelLgov:ernment is focused on a P,entagon:analyst.~ho has served as an Air Force reservist in Israel, and tne.probe'has ~e~n broadened'in recent days to in~lude interviews at the State and Defense departments and.with Middle ~astem affairs speci~lists outside government, officials and <?thers familiar with the inquiry said yesterday. At the cent¢'r ofthe inve.stigation, sources said, is Lawrence A. Franklin, a career analyst at the befe~se Intelligence Agency who speciali;zes in Iran and lias served in the Air Force Reserve, rising to colon~l. Early in the Bush administration, Franklin moved from the DIA to the Pentagon's policy branch headed bY'Undersecr~tary'Douglas 1. Feith, where he continued his work on Iranian affairs. . . Officials ~d colleagues said yesterday that Frankl~n had-traveled to Israel, including during ~uty in the, Air Force- Reserve, where he served as a specialis~ in foreign P9lifical-inilitary affairs. He may have been based at the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv on-those tours, satd a former co-worl:<er at the DIA, but.was ~ever perinanently assigned there. Messages'left at Franklin's Pentagon office were 1).ot returned yesterday, and'nobody answered'the door at his house in'West Virginia..No one has been charged in the case. i FBI officials have been quietly investigating for months wh~ther Franklin gave classi~ed, information -which ~fficials said included a draft ofa presidential d~rective on U.S. policies toward Iran -- to two Israeli lobbyists here who are alleged to have. pass~d it on to the Israeli gov:~rnment. Officials said it was not yet clear whether the probe would become an espionage case or perhaps would result in lesse~ charges such-as improper rele~e ofclassifi~dinformation or mishandling of government docu~ents. On !r~day, Pentagon officials said Franldin was not in a position to have significant influence over. U.S., policy. liThe Defense'pepartmenthas been cooperating with'the Department ofJ~tice for an extended period oftime," .a Pentagori statement said., "It is the DOD's understan4ing that the investigation wi~hin DOD is very limited in-its scope." At the Pen~gon and elsewJter~ in··WashiQ.gton yesterday, people touche~;by the 'case sai~ they were bafiled by aspects of it.. . Colleagues said they were stunned to hear Franklin was suspected ofgiving secret information to a foreign government. And for~~gn POlicy specialists said they were skeptical that the pro-Israel group unger FBI scrutiny, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, would jeopardize its work wit!) qlassified documents from a midlevel bureaucrat when it could ruid qut ~lmost anything it wanted to by ~allin~ top offici~ls in the BU'sh administration. 8/31/2004 1:30 PM ." Analyst Who Is Target OfProbe WentTo Israel . -. ~ () . O' 20f4 liThe whole thing makes no sense to me;II said Dennis Ross, speciar'envoy on the Arab-Israeli peace process in the first Bush administration a~d the Clinton presidency. "The Israelis have. access to all sorts ofpeople. They have access in Congress and in the administratipn. They have people who talk about these things," said Ross, ~ow a seniQr fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's office issued a statement yesterday saying Israel was not involved in the matter and conducts no espionage in the United States. AlPAC has strongly denied any wrongdoing and said it is "cooperating fullyll with the probe. ~ The FBI investigation was touch~d off months ago when a series ofe-mails was brought to investigators' attention, said a U.S. official familiar with the case. The investigation move4 into Jrlgh'gear in re~ent days, another official said. On Friday, Justice Department officials briefed some Pentagon officials about the state ofthe inquiry. "1 think they are at the end oftheir investigation and beginning to briefpeople in the chain ofcommand, partly to make sure that the acts weren't authorized,II one official said. Pentagon co-workers expresse~ shock at the news. IIIt's totally astonishing to all of us who knew him," said a Defense Department co-worker who asked not to be identified because ofthe investigation. "He is a career guy, a mild-mannered professional. No one would think ofhim as ev~l or devious." Franklin works in the office ofWilliam 1. Luti, deputy undersecretary ofdefense for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs. For years a bureaucratic backwater, the office has been in the thick ofthe action since 2001 because it fonnulates Pentagon policy on Iraq. It played a centralt'ole as the U.S. military prepared for the spring 2003 invasion and"since then as the Pentagon has overseen the occupation. Luti's office is part ofthe policy operation Ul1der Feith. Feith has been a controversial figure in U.S.-Israeli affairs since the mid-l990s, "Yhen he was part ofa study group ofAmerican conservatives, then out of government, who urged Israel's then prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, to abandon the Oslo peace accords and reject the basis for them .- that Israel should give up land in exchange for peace.. More recently, Feith has been a target ofcriticism from Democrats who claim that two offices in his branch -- the Office ofSpecial Plans, headed by Luti; and the Counteperrorism Evaluation-Group _. sought to manipulate intelligence to improve the Bush administration's case for war against Iraq. House and Senate intelligence·committee investigators found no evidence for allegations that the Pentagon offices tried to bypass the Clt\ or had a major impact on the prewar debate. But in the Senate panel's report on prewar intelligence, three Democratic senators -- John D. Rockefeller IV (W.Va.), Carl M. Levin (Mich.), and Richard 1. Durbin (III.) .- specifically criticized Feith's operation. . In Kearneysville, W.Va., about 80 miles from the Pentagon, neighbors ofthe Franklins interviewed yesterday said they did not know the family well. Though nobody answered the door, voices were heard i~ the house, which had a "God Bless Our Troops" sticker and an American flag i~ the window. People who know Franklin from different phases ofhis life offered contrasting accounts of his political views. AU.S. governm~nt official familiar with the investigation said Franklin was very outwardly supportive 813112004 1:30 PM Analyst Who Is Target OfProbe Went To Israel http://www.dia..~V/adminlEARL YBIRD/040830/s2004083 03 IS928.html .. ~ () ~ ofIsrael, for example. But a fo~er co-worker at the DIA disputed that characterization, saying that h~ did not recall In years ofworking with him any strong political statements about Israel or anYthing else. Franklin, he said, was a solid, competent analyst specializing in Iranian political affairs, especially the views oftop leaders and the course ofopposition movements. . In February 2000, Franklin wrote an op-ed piece for the Wall Street Journal's European editiop. that was sharply cri~ical ofIranian President Mohammad Khatami, arguing that the leader was launching a "chann offensive" that was simply a "ruse" to make the Iranian government look better to Westerners while it continued to abuse human rights. Details ofFranklin's Air Force service, and especially his time in Israel, could not be learned yesterday. Aspokesman for the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv declined to comment. In Israel yesterday, Sharon's Qffice issued a statement. ItIsrael does not engage in intelligence activities in the U.S. We deny all these reports,1t the stateme~t said, according to the Associated Press. That followed a strong statement Friday by the Israeli Embassy· in Washington denYing any wrongdoing. One Israeli of(icial familiar with the situation said yesterday that his government had checked·lIevery organ here" to make sure that no part ofgovernment was involved. "We checked everythiJ}g possible, and there's absolutely nothing. It's a non-event, from the Israeli point ofview. Someone leaked this to [hurt] . . . the president, AIPAC and ~e Jews on the eve ofthe R~publican convention,1t he speculated. He added that Israel would not have been involved in such activities, "because we have a trauma here in Israel. It's called Pollard.It That was a reference to the case in which a U.S. Navy intelligence analyst, Jonathan J. Pollard, admitted in 1987 to selling state secrets to Israel. Pollard was life in prison, and Israeli officials have said since then they do not conduct espionage against the Uriited States. At AIPAC, spokesman Josh Block said the organization had no comment yesterday beyond its Friday statement that the organization and its employees denied any wrongdoing and were cooperating with the government. Aformer A~AC employee also said he was baffled by the news ofthe FBI investigation. "I have a hard time figuring out what this is about,II he said. If the Israelis or their supporters want to know about deliberations in the Bush administration, he,said, "all they have to'do is take people to lunch.II Others in Washington, however~ maintained that Israel does present a problem for the United States in certain aspects ofintelligence, such as sensitive defense technologies and Iran policy. - Israel sees Iran as the single biggest threat to its existence, and so closely monitors all possible mov~s in Washington's Ira~ian pol~cy -- especially as the Bush administration presses Tehran to disclose more about the state ofits nuciear program.. One former State Department officer recalled being told that U.S. government experts considered the countries whose spying mo~t thr~~tened the United States were Russia, South Korea and Israel.. III also know from my time in Jerusalem that official U.S. visitors to Israel were warned about the counterintelligence threat from Israel:' he said. Taking a slightly different view, others speculated that the very closeness ofthe relationship between the United States and Israeli governments -- and especially the'tight connections between ~he Israelis and Feith's policy office -- may have led officials to become sloppy about rules barring release ofsensitive 30f4 813112004 1:30 PM Analyst Who Is Target OfProbC Went To Israel .:;,; . ~ "I '-J ,information. 40f4 Staffwriters John Ward Anaerson in Jerusalem, 'Dan Eggen, Ami!. f?. Paley, Steven Ginsberg pndJerry Markon. in Washington a~nd staffresearcher Madonna Lebling ~ontributed to,this report.. 8/3 112004 1:30 PM' !teport On Iran KeyTo Spying Inquiry ,.~ ·0 UNCLASSIFIED - fOUO Los Angeles Times Aug~st 29, 2004 Pg.l hUp11www.di"O'adm!JVEARLYaIRDI0408301s2004083Q3 IS93~.htrill , _ .... to ~" i?{f(~ --:-:£~~~1.""'~'!5\~~~~~t.,;:;-rlii·~t~~·ii~:~·":rt~·'?~A(·~~~~~DJ' . •,,~t' .'.! ~t:~.;':,~~~.;' ';_{-'~~~:!';"';J',*~UeAense, e.u.irtence; gency;~ - A-".,~A:-..~1..~~~"~~=+= l~:S-lJ·l oi,'"&lH "."-0',.,, t. . PIA Home JWharsNmIProducts by Type I Pr~ilCiS by Region',~, &JR. ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Report On Iran KeY,To Spying Inquiry Investigators are looking closely at Pentagon'policy analyst Larry Franklin's relations/lips Wi~/l advocl;ltes for IsraeL By Mark Mazzetti and Richard B. Schmitt, Times StaffWriters ·WASHINGTON - The man at the center ofan FBI investigation into possible Israeli espionage in Washington is a career Pentagon employee, a colonel in the Air Force reserves and a national security ~nalyst who at the end ofthe Cold War taught himself Fa~si' and refashio't:led himselfas a!1 expert on Iran, officials said Saturday. T!le FBI is trying to detennine whether he is also aspy. U.S. officials ~onfinned Saturday that the target ofthe investig~tion was Larry'Franklint the Pentagon's top Iran policy analyst and a confidant ofDeputy.Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz and Douglas J. Feith, whot as undersecretary for policy, was t~e Pentagon's t~ird-r~n.king official. The FBI is trying to ascertain whether Franklin turned' over a draft presidential direc~ive Qn policy toward Iran last year to two people affiliated with·the Washington..bas~d American Israel Public Affairs Committee, which may have given the information to Israel. Officials are concerned because the-directive was still being debated by U;S.· policymakers at the time, possibly putting the ISll\eli government in a position to influence the final document, officials said. U.S. policy toward Iran is vital to I~~ael, which is gravely concerned' about the expandi~g nu~lear capability of th~ country run by Shiit~ MuslJm clerics. Tne probe, which is being handled by the FBI's counter- espioQage ~ivisiont might not result in .espiopage charges against Franklin. Instead, the Pentagon analyst could be charged with lesser offenses such as i,mproper discl9sure or mishandling ofclassified information. Or he could be exonerated. A U.S. official with knowledge ofthe case expressed doubts Saturday that Franklin's alleged actions rose to the level ofespionage. Insteadt he said it was more.likely that Franklin, who maintaiI].S close ties with Israeli officials, passe~ documents to Israel without knowing the seriousness of.his actions. "Frqm everything I've seen, the guy's not a sPY,"·the official said. liThe guy's an idiot" Acc9rding to the official, th~ closeness ofthe U.S. relationship with Israel means that top officials ofthe two nations often share sensitive infonnation. Nevertheless, Fratiklin should have knoWn what 'i~fonnation was and, p.~~i~~ib.1e t(J ~e_shared, he said. . 10f3 ..... - ..... 8/3112004 1:30 ~M Report On Iran Key To Spying Inquiry -0 o 1 " ; ~ "We knew this guy had the relationship for a while, and he shareCl some stuffb~yond what he should·be sharing," the official said. . Franklin did not respond to phone messages Saturday seeking comment. Sources said that Franklin, a longtime official with the Defense Intelligence Agency, three years ago joined the Pentagon's Office ofNear East and South Asian Affairs, the group charged with developing the Pentagon's policy for the Middle ~ast. The office is run by William J. Luti, who in turn reports to Feith. Since joining Luti's office, Franklin has been the Pentagon's leading Iran policy analyst, ajob that took on greater importance after President Bush included Iran in his "axis ofevil" and his appointees at the Pentagon advocated a hard line toward Iran. As a member ofthe Air Force reserves, Franklin is assigned to a DIA reserve unit based in Washington. . APentagon statement released Friday characterized Frankli~ as a "desk officer" with no significant influence on U.S. policy. Yet some who have worked with him offer a different picture, saying he was very influential in high-level Pentagon policy debates.. "You're not talking about someone toiling away in the bowels ofthe U.S. government," said a former Pentagon official who worked fOf Feith until last year and spoke on condition ofanonymity. "Franklin was t!Ie. go-to guy on Iran issues for Wolfowitz and Feith.1t In addition, the former official characterized Franklin as an ideological ally ofWolfowitz, Feith and Luti. The three men were among the Bush administration's leading advocates ofwar with Iraq, and the Middle East policy office and the Office ofSpecial Plans, both ofwhich reported to Luti, produced analyses bolstering the U.S. case against Iraqi dictator Saddam Hus~ein. "Their analysis wasn't whether we should invade Iraq, but whether we should do it on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday," the fonner official said. FBI investigators fear that Franklin - given his influential position and high-level security clearance-. may ,h. ave been in a position to compromise government information,about Iraq and the U.S. war effort"'\ .. .. Sometime after the Sept. 11 terrorist attac~s, Franklin took a secret trip to,Rome with Harold Rhode, anot~er civilian official jn the Pentagon, to meet with Iranian dissiden~ who reportedly promised to provide information to'them 'that would aid the U.S.-declared war on terrorism. One ofthe dissidents the pair spoke to was Manucher GhorbaIiifar, an arms dealer and former Iranian spy who was a central figure in the Iran-Contra scandal ofthe 1980s. The White House blessed the trip. Yet when news ofthe meeting ieaked two years later, officials said they had not known that Ghorbanifaf would be among the dissidents Franklin and Rhode met. According to Def~nse Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, th~t meeting and a subsequent one between Rhode and Ghorbanifar "went nowhere.II 20f3 813112004 1:30PM Report On Iran Key To Spying Inquiry htqi:l/WwYioCliaO/adminIEARLYBJRDi040~0Is2~O~03JS933.h1ml. , ... Michael Ledeent a, scholar at,the American-Enterprise I~s~i~te in Wasllington Who specializes in Mideast ,affairs, arranged the contacts betw~en the Pentagon' officials and the Irariian dissidents, wh~ch he said led to American lives being saved in Afghanistan~ Asked' Saturda~ for ~omment on th~ investigation, Ledeen ~aid he expected the FBI probe to yield nothing incriminating abqu~ Franklin, whom Ledee'n has known for years. "1 don'fbelieveLarry Franklin would ever do anythiIJg improper with class.ified'inf0l'll':ation," said Leqeen, who worked as a consultant to the Nation~l Security Council and the State and Defense • depart~ents during the adritinistrati~n ofRo~ald Reag~. -. L~deen ~aid the information Franklin was suspected oftransferring was well knowniamong foreign policy observers. 'f!1e U.S= h~d not developed a co4erent Iran policy, he said, and th~divergent views of various administration officials were publi~ly known and available. "There is no Americ~n policy on Iran," L~deen s~id. "What is,he telling them? What can there possibly be that is classified about-American po~icy on Iran that.we do not know about from the publ~c debate?" Franklin and Rl!ode also have clos'e ties with Iraqi politic!an Ahmad Chalabi, whose Iraqi National Congress was the dissident org~nization most favored by Pentagon officials during atisseiI)'s rule. Chalabi met ofteri. with top. officials at the Pentagon and Vice President Dick Cheney's office to a4vocate regime change in ~raq'. Chalabi himself has been investigated by American officials in connection with the transmission ofU.S. secrets to Iran. It is unclear whether the investigations into Franklin and Chalabi ~re connected. -. ~ 30f3 -- - .... - .. .k ...... __ ~13JiiOO4 I:30 PM . Sharansky': Pentagon-CIA Rivalry Led To Spy Charge .. ;.. ' 0', UNCLASSIFIED .. FOUO!DihlEARLYBIRD/040830/s200408303is913.html ,0 Jerusalem Post August 30, 2004 ALL FBI INFORMATION COlrfAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY' 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg • lof2 Sharansky: Pentagon-CIA Rivalry ,Led To Spy Charge By Associated Press Allegations of I~raeli'spying in the United States are false and may be th~ result ofintemal conflicts Pentagon and ~he CIA, Diaspora.Affairs minister Natan Sharansky said Sunday, but analysts. admitted that even so, damage has been done to cmcial'ties between the two countries. American officials said S.aturday that the'FBI has spent more than a year investigating whether a Pentagon analys~ funneled highly classified material to Israel.. The material described White House policy tow~d Iran. 'srael says I~n .. and its nuclear ambitions pose the greatest single threat to.the Jewis~ state. Sharansky, the frrst Israeli Cabinet minister to spe8k in public about the matter, told Canadian Broadcasting Corp. television that Israel enforces a ban on spying in the United States. "I hope it's all a mistak~ or misun4erstanding ofsome kind, maybe a rlvaJry between different bodies," he said, singling out "the P~ntagon and the CIA." SharansIcY said the ban ori e~pionage in the 'United states dates to the scandal over Jonathan Pollard, an American Jew caught spying for Isr!1el in 1985. Sharansky, who belongs to P.rime Minister A~el Sharon's ruling Likud Party, said he pas "personal experience" with the ban, but he did not elaborate. "There are absolutely no attempts to involve any member ofthe Jewish community and any general Ameri~an citiz~ns to sPY fQr Israel against the United States:' he.said. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's office issued a denial late SatUrday, saying "Israel does not engage in intelligence activitie~ in the U.S.II The scandal dominated Israeli news media on Sunday. In numerous interviews, both current and former Israeli intelligence officials said it was pighly unlikely t~at Israel would have to spy on the.U.S. government. Legislator Ehud Yatom, chairman ofthe parliamentary su6committee on covert intelligence, said he expected the allegations to be quickly withdrawn. "I imagine that within a few days the United States will come oqt wi~ an'announcement that Israel has no connection whatsoever with t~e supposed spy and his activities," he told Israel Radio. ,... Uii Arad~ a former senior offlcial in the Mossad spy agency, said the allegations were-leaked to hurt tile pro-Israel lobby in Washington. ~ 813112004 I:31 PM • ;Sh;,a'r.a.nsk:y: Pentagon-C'IA R.ivalry LedTo,Spy0Charge ·'40SjO/s2004083031S913.html.. !-- ~They was repofle~, they pointed out- in which office, (franklin) worked,II Arad told Israel Radio. "They pointe~ at people like"Doug Feith or other defense officials who have long been under attack within the Arileri~an bureaucracy.II • 20f2 ... ~1~004'1:31'PM Sharansk:CIA Rivalry Led To,Spy Charge ;;,'.. '. 0 Spy Probe Tests US-Israel Ti~ ... UNCLASSIFIED .. FOUO o http://w\l-wodia.C:f/admin/EARJ.YBIRDI0408301s20040~303IS937ohtml .. Christian ScIence fylonitor August 30, 2004 Spy Probe Tests US-Israel Ties ALL ,FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg .' lof2 At issue: wlietller a Pentagon analystpassed secrets to an Israeli lobby group, l;lnd wlletller tI,at group passed ti,e material to-Israel. By Faye Bowers, Staffwriter ofThe Christian Science Monitor VIASHINGTON_.The n~scent spy' probe unfolding in .t~e nation's capital could end up complicatJng ties: between the US,and Israel ~~ a'critical time in the war on terror for the Bush administration - and raise new questiq~s a1?out how closely the two allies should cooperate on sensitiv~ iss~es. Word l~aked over the weekend that for more than ayear the FBI has been i~vestigating aPentagon official for possibly pr<?viding Israel classified information - inclu~ng a draft ofa presidential directiye on US policies toward Iran - ilirough an Israeli lobby in Washington, the American Is~el Public Afff!irs 'Committee (AIPAC). ·Whether true or not; the' revelations couid sour relations between the US and one ofits closest aliies in the war on terror. iJte two co~ntries have lOng shareq. intelligence - the US passes Israel information to help prevent attacks on its homeland and Israel'shares intelligence.from a stable ofnative Arab speakers who operate in parts ofthe world the US can't. ~ Moreover, at a time when !he uS is the sole superpQwer, wielding enormous influence, particularly in a~eas like the ·Middle East, experts say it is not unusual for friendly allies to go one step further and spy o~ Washington. The problem is, as p~rhaps happened in this case, when ~he snooping goes beyond acceptable bounds. .. -. "Ifthey are found-to be spying on us, it wouldn't be a shock," says Jim Walsh; ~ intemation~l security expert at Harva;rd University's John F. Kennedy School ofGovernment. "But.the closer the friendship,. and the morese~itive the info,Onation, the more likely it is to'leave an impression on the personal relationships. People will feel betrayed, particularly,government.leaders.'! The, Pentagon official identified as bei~g at the c~nter o.fthe'probe is.Lawrence Fra~lin, an Iran spe~ialist, at the Defense In~elligence Agency and a former colonel in the Air Force Reserves. Reports indicate that·Mr. Fr~lin is being investigated for allegedly passing on sensitive, papet:s abou~ US pol~cy !ow~rd Iran to AlPAC, which then supposedly handed them on to the Israeli government. Franklin works in tht; office ofWilliam Luti, who reports to Douglas Feith. Mr.--Feith and the policy branch he heads at the Pentagon have been under scmtiriy becau~e ofthe role they played in. forlnulating the Penjagon's Iraq war strategy. . Franklin hasn't been available fo~ comment. So~e people-who know him have said they thip}{ the accusations are groundless. T~e;P~ntagon released a statement saying it is' fully ~ooperating with the fBI investigation, ,which it insists, is "li~ited in scope." The Israelis, fo~ their· part, are -vehemently de~:riitg complicity in any espionage,..actjvity~ 1~!sr8:.t?! do~s notengagt? in intelligence activit~e~ in the US," I$raeli ......... - --- -- - 8131120041:31 PM ...Spy ProbeTestsUS-Israel Ties o hUp:lIwww.di..CSV/adminlEARLYBIRD10408301s200408303IS937.html 20f2 -Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said in a statement. - - . AlPAC, too, proclaims innocence. IIAny allegation of crimJnal conduct by AlPAC or our employees is false and baseless,II a statement says. StilJ, now that the probe has become public, speculation will contiriue until a conclusion,is reached. And whether Israel is guilty or not, there wil~ be residual damage to the relationship, experts say. For one thing, it reminds people ofthe time Israel was caught spying on the US once before. In 1987, a US Navy intelligence analyst, Jonathan Pollard, ~mitted to selling state secrets to the Israelis. "I think this will 'escort us for many years to come,1I says ,Danny Yatom, a fonner chiefofthe Mossad, Israel's foreign intelligence ann. IIThere was one attempt made by Pollard, and since then there is still an assessment that Israel will try again whenever it is l?ushed into a comer.." In ~ddition, experts say the relationship,between the US and Israel has become so lax - because'ofthe cozy ties between the two countries at the moment - that there was bound to be this sort ofproblem. "The Israelis have always had more access tnan other friendly countries," says Patrick Lang, fonner head of Middle East intelligence at the Defense, Intelligence Agency. tiThe liaison relationships between the Israeli and American services are highl)' developed, codifie4, and have functioned for many years.II In this climate, he says, it is easy to share information without checking the rulebook, which can lead to problems. Indeed, some experts say the' level ofsharing will provoke other questions, even ifthe incident turns out not to be serious. "Why does this guy thjnk he should share this type ofinfonnation? asks Mr. Walsh. IIIfthis is just standard operating procedure, then it does raise serious policy issues." It is still not clear whether'the cl.1arge~ Will be serious (possibly espionage), or something more mundane (mishandling ofdocuments), or whether there will be charges at all. FBI officials reportedly were tipped to a potential problem months ago by ai series of email exchanges. The investigation recently ratcheted up to the point where Justice Department officials have begun briefing Pentagon officials. - Josh Mitnick contributedfrom .Tel Av(". 8131120041:31 PM \Israel Denies Spying Against U.s. • : ;r UNCLASSIFIED - FOUQ New York Times August 29, 2004 Israel Denies Spying Against U.S. By Steven Erlanger ALL" FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS T~iCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg. lof2' JERUSALEM, Aug. 28 - News that the F.B.1. has Deen investigating a Pentag9rl official on suspicion of" passing secrets to Israel has caused a diplomatic scramble here, with officials rushing'to deny spying on' Washington and to assure the United States of its friendship. Administration officials say the Pentagon official, who has been identified in some news reports but who could not be reached for comment early Saturday, works in the office ofDouglas J. F~ith, the under secretary ofdefense for policy. Officials who have been briefed about the inquiry say the official'is suspected qfpassing a classified policy draft on Iran to th~ American Israel PubJic Affairs Committee, a pro-.Israellobby group, which in tum is thought to have prQvided the information to Israeli intelligence. Publicly, the Israeli government, through its spokesmen here and in Washington, have called the allegations wrong and outrageous, as has Aipac, the lobbying group. "The United States is Israel's most cherished friend and ally,"said David Siegel, the Israeli Embassy spokesm~n. "We have,a strong ongoing relationship at all levels, and in no way would Israel do anYthing to impair this relationship." Aipac called the allegations ltbaseless and false." After the hugely emoarrassing spying scandal of 1985, when Jonathan Pollard, an American intelligen~e analyst, was arrested and convicted ofspying for Israel, the Israeli government made a firm decision to stop· all <;landestine spying in the United States, Yuval Steinitz, the chairman ofthe foreign and defense cqmmittee i~ P~liament, said Saturday. Mr. Steinitz is chairman ofthe most powerful committee in Parliament, with oversight ofall Israeli m~litary and intelligence agencies, and is chairman ofthe subcommittee on in~elligence. He says he has access to as much secret information as Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. "This was a'firm deCIsion," Mr. Steinitz said, nand I'm 100 confident - not 99 percent, but 100 percent - that Israel is not spying in the United States. We have n!-l agents there and we are not gathering intelligence there, unlike prob~bly every other country in the world, including some ofAmerica's best friends in Europe." Mr. Sharon's office emphasized the same point on Saturday, issuing a statement saying: "Israel has no connection to this matter. The Bnited States is Israel's greatest ally. Israel is no~ engaged in intelligence' activities in the l!nited States and denies reports to the contrary." - -.... -... - 813112004 1:3rPM Israel Den~es Spying Against U.S.. o· Mr. St.einitz in particular cpnsiders Iran a nuclear s~perpower i~ the m~ng, working on weapons that can hit Europe, as well as Israel, and he urg~d 'Washington and Europe to deal with Iran Itbefor~ it is too late." . Still, reports ofthe F.B.I. investigation caused a furor here. And officials went to pains on Saturday to. say that despite the importance ofsuch iQ.telligence, Israel oqly works openly in America, including diplomatic conversations and relationships with a full range of sources, from ~he White HoUse ~d Congress to Aipac, which has its own sources. "America is the great exception," on~ official said. Mr. Steinitz said, "People leak so~etimes when they shouldn't, that goes on everywhere;butthat's a different matter.II \ While Israel has representatiyes bfthe Mossad, its intelligence agency, and military intel1~gen~e in Washington, they are attache~ to the embas~y and their presence is known to American, officials said. Yossi Melman, an intelligence and terrorism e~pert w~th the Israeli daily Haaretz, said Saturday tliat since the case ofMr. 'Pollard, who remains in prison in the United States, "I know there has been a decision not to run any operations on American ~oil or to recruit Americans to spy for IsraeI.'• , Mossad, he said; is uhder'inst~ctio'ns to direct contact even with officials from Aipac, "and I know that Israel is very, very sens~tive about having ev~n open contacts with Jewish members ofthe administration, because ofthe ramifications ofPollard" and the concern that Isr~el would be accused of playing on any duall~yalty that an A~erican Jew mig4t feel. This is.a case ofan American accused ofp~sing inform~tionto an American organiz~tion, Mr. Melman .said. "While Aipac is pro-Israel, and maintains contacts with ~he ~sraeli Embassy and shares ana!ysis, it does not deal withIsraeli intelligence services," he said. IIIf Aipac passed on a secret document, that would be a sensitive matter for Israel. But ifAipac said, 'It's oUr understanding that the Americans in Doug Feith's office are thinking this and that,''s 4ifferent," he said. . But the lines are often har4 to draw, especially with an"issue as sensitive as the one involving Iran, ~hich is considered by American and Israeli offic~~s to be working on ilucle~r weaponry even though it has said its program is only to ge~erate electricity - in a sens~,'preseIiting a publicly ambiguous stance, much as does Israel, which has developed nuclear weapons ,as a deterrent but refuses to discuss the matter. Iran is also interesting to Israel, although less so to $e United Sb!tes, for the ~nancial and military support it provides Hezbollah, the militaht ~nti~Israel group based in Lebanon and active in the West Bank. For Mr. Steinitz, a hawk with Likud, Iran js a clear and present danger for $e entire West. lithe Iran nuclear program is so ambitious that after pr9ducing a first bomb, they could produ~e 20 bombs a year,II he said. "This isn't North Korea or Iraq or ~yen P~istan. Iran will soon become a glob~l power with ~ntercontinental missiles that will threaten Europe and NATO, with disastrous political results for Israel, the moderate Arab world and the United States,II he said. But the problem ofJran is global, he said., lilt's liP to t4e.Americans and Europeans to'solve Iran, not little Israel.II - . -- 2Qf2 813112004 1:31 PM Officials Worry About Effects OrSpy Accusations ;. It, • 0 UNCLASSIFIED· FOUO Washington Times August 30, 2004 Pg.17 hUp:llwwwodi"O/adminlEARLY0!RDf0408301s200408303160S9.html " .. >.,;:J~ ,~.:~~/ ·:~~fJSP\~i;J:-;1'r'!~;"~""~~t~"""""'n·~~~A1P.)'~:5a~ -.' : l.ff\t~ht1~m..~~~..;w1u,=!~~ns~.m1 e Jgen~;~ency~~ '\Jr. to" l.~ "": _\,. .. ~ ;""\1l",:,~...::-.~=---~~~~ _l>:_ _,~ illlJ. • ..........,..............~. ,h' . ~~.. PIA Home IWha(s New IProdUctS by TiDe IProdUcts by RcgiOQ I~1lliJJ! ALL FBI INFORMATION C01JTAII~D HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 -Officials Worry A~out Effects OfSpy Accus~tions , Hope Pentagon reports arefound to be a 'misunderstanding' By Abraham'Rabin~vich; The Washington Time~ "~ JERUSALEM - Israeli officials yesterday said reports that a Pentagon analyst passed classified infonnation to Israel seriously could damage the nation's image in America, even as t~ey denied any role . in such an operation. . "There is no doubt that these publications are damaging, [and] even though they are false, they are d~~ging," said Natan Sharansky, who as minister for diaspora affairs is responsible for tlie effects of anti-Semitism on Jews worldwide. American officials saidthi~ weekend that the FBI has spent more than a year investigating whether a PeQtagon analyst funneled highly classified material to Israel concerning U.S. policy toward Iran. . " Bo~h-Israel and toe United S~tes are wQrried that Iran'~ nuclear-energy program is a front for an effort to develop J;luclear weapons. "I hope [the investigation] is all a mistake or misunderstanding ofsome kind," Mr. Sharansky told the Canadian Broadcasting Corp; Mentioning tithe Pentagon and the CIA" specifically, Mr. Sharansky suggested that the probe ~ight have resulted from "a rival!}' between different bodies." Former Mossad chie(Danny Yatom saic\ the Israeli government laid down strict guidelines to prohibit espionage against its major ally after the arrest in 1985 ofIsraeli spy Jonathan Pollard. Pollard, a former-official in U.S. Naval In~el1igence, "is serving a life sentence iri the United Sta~es. Although the two countries have very close defense and political ties, the American intelligence community has·been sensitive to the possibility oflsraeJi iI!telligenc~ penetration ever sin~e Pollard's arrest. With the issu~ dominating Israeli public-affairs show~ yesterday, Mr. Yatom pointed out that Israeli and American officials and acad~mics have.hundreds offormal and informal meetings every year. "It could be that someone [in the United States] innocently did something that is forbidden by American law. But there was no mopilization ofagents by Israel'or"instructions given to them about what ~o look . for, as with Pollard," he said. ,. 813112004 I:31 PM •O~:ial~ Worry About Bffects OfSpy ACCUS8<5 bttp:llwww.dia.(jV/adminlBARLYBIRDI0488301s200408303160S9.hlml -, 20f2 Mr. Yatom·said he hoped the lat~st episode would prpve to be no more serious than "an unnecessary initiative on the part ofan American offiCial.II Another former senior Mossad"official, Uzi Arad, said he had met with the Pentagon analyst n~ed in press reports as the suspect, Larry Franklin, along with other Pentagon officials as part ofhis ongoing contacts in the United States. . "Our two countries have open relations," he said. "Collegial relations. It's clear that wb,en we get together we don't talk about the Olympics.II Nevertheless, the investigation provides ammunition to tho~e who charge that Israel has undue influence in the United States and that it influenced Washington to undertake the war in lraq- a charge dismissed as absurd by both the Bush administration and Israel. The episode also has renewed concerns about conflicted loyalties among American Jews, which were brought to the fore by the Pollard affair. Although Mr. Franklin is not Jewish, the purported mole is suspected ofhaving passed on secrets regarding American policy on Iran to two members ofthe pro-Israeli lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, who in tum passed them on to an Israeli official. Senior Jewish officials in the Bush administration - including Mr. Franklin's boss, Undersecretary of Defense Douglas J. Feith-"also have been accused ofpromoting the war with Iraq as a way to help Israel. Mr. Arad seemed to suggest in an interview with Israeli radio that the press reports were.deliberately leaked to hurt Israel's supporters in Washington. "They pointed out in which office [Mr. Franklin] worked,It he said. "They pointed at people like Doug Feith or other defense officials who have long been under attack withiri the American bureaucracy." .. Infonna~ion·Passing Inquhy Could ~pand UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 USA Today August 30, 2004 P~.13 Information-Pa,ssing Inquiry Could Expand u.s. secrets may I,ave gone to Israel By Toni Locy and Barb~a Sla~in, USA Today WASJ1INGTON - Ah investigation into wheth~r a midlevel Pentagon an~lyst passed information about .U.S. policy on hanto pro-Israe. lobbyists could expa~d into a·brqader inquiry into whether more U.S. .secrets were shared with Israel, two federal law enforcement offici~l~,s~id Sunday. Pentagon analyst Lawrence Franklin is suspected ofhaving given either an internal administration document oran oral summary ofits contents to the American Israel P~blic Affairs Commi~ee (AWAC), said the officials, who have knowledge ofthe case but asked not to be named because the investigation is ongoing.-One official said charges as serious as espionage c~uld be filed soon. Th~ other official said the FBI hopes Franklin will cooperate. 'Ifhe does, he may face a lesser charge. such as mishandling classified documen~. Spokesmen for AlPAC ~nd the Israeli gov~rnnlent have denie~ the n~tion, first reported Friday by CBS News, that Franklin shared the. contents ofa draft U.S~ policy document on Iran ,with AlPAC members who then passed t,he information to israel. . "Any allegation of criminal conduct by.AIPAC or our employees is false at:ld baseless,II the organization said in ~ statement on its Web site; "Neither.AIPAC nor any ofits employees has violated any laws or . rules, nor'has AlPAf; or its employees'ever received information they believed was secret or classified." Much about the,case is puzzling..The dQcument Franklin is suspected of having shared, an internal statement on U..S. policy on Iran, :was nevetpublished because ofdifferences within the Bus~ administration about how to deal with that country. ' Israel, which fears Iran is c~ose to developing ~uclear weapons, has myriad w~ys of finding out and influencing U.S. policy, as does AIPAC, a half-century old organization considered. the niost influential foreign affai~ the Vn~ted States. . "AIPAC doesn't need to d~al with midlevel people I~ke this guy," says Dennis Ross ofthe Washington Institute for Near ~ast Policy,.a think ta~ whose trustees include AlPAC members. "Why create a risk by dealing with someone who is not at the policy level? it doesn't.add up to me at all.II The investigation is taking place in an"atmosphere ofpolitica! recriminations .in Washington focused on so-called neoconservatives - strong supporte~ ofls~el who lobbied for the U.S. invasion ofIraq and downplayed the difficulties U.S. fo~ces would face there. the Frariklih investigation'comes as aseparateJnq~iry ~oo~s.into w~o leaked information about U.S. .. ...:. _ _ _ l'" • _ . - - 813112004 I:36 p.~ • .." .. ." 11' - • l • ..' .~ "'I"'~"''' ~ ,. ~nfonri~tJon.P8ssing In~uirY C~uld Ex~d .; ioo, ,; rp.~t~i04sg( spyi~g <?~.~~,!n,t~ ~hmad C~~la~i, ~n ~raqi'eolJ~!ci~n,who,was, 0!1c~ favored~by the. , neoconservatives ~ a-likely lead~r ofihe new ~riq. One"ofthe'lawenforceirient officials said '~there ~ay, be.some cro~soveri' betwe~n the two inves~igations, but only be~ause the information in,.both dea!s with· I~. .- Fr~linis ~n Air Force re~~rvi~t wh~ served in'Israel and also worked for the De~ense'Jn~elligence Agency, the Pentagon's in~hous~"intelljgence organization~ An Iran analy~t,.Franklin works'f<?r Dougl~, Fei~h, undersec~etary ofpefense for pplicy. Before becoming the P~n~g9n's N,o. 3 official, Feith was a private attorney in Wash~ngton ,who. represented Israeli companies.-Ih'J996, a sfJ1dy for an ~srael·based insti~te that advocat~d'overthrowing Iraqi leader Sad~a~·aussein as a means,of-weakening anotherl~sraeli enemy, SYria. , Franklin, who lives in West Virginia, could not be reached for comment. ~of2 -_ l~ ~ ....... ". ... --.-w.. ...... __ * ~ - ..... - - ...... 813112004 1.:36 PM FBI's Pentaoon Probe Is Another Burden For Rumsfeld ..... 0 "0 ~ ... UNCLASSIFIED· FOyO Wall Street Journal ( August 29, 2004 btrp:llwwlN.dia.Q/adminIEARLYBIRD10408301e20040~03IS867.~1 ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAI~mD 'HEREIN IS U]JCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg ,I lof2 FBI's Pentagon Probe .Is, Ano·ther Bur(len For Rumsfeld Dow Jones Newswires WASHINGTON(AP)·-The FBI investigation into whether·a Peritagon analyst passed classified information to Israel is yet another political weight on Defense Secretary Donald H,. Rumsfeld, still fending off criticism ove~ the Iraq war and prisoner abuse. It is not clear whether the investigation will result in charges ofespionage at the Pentagon. At the least, the pro~ complicates Rumsfeld's position as congressionatc9Jn.mittees that oversee the Qefense Depart~ent prepare for more hearings on the abuse scandal. Rumsfeld has no~ commented publicly o~ the FBI's investigation. Whil.e the FBI has spent more than,a year on the case, it only became p~blic Friday. Officials~ speaking on condition ofanonymi~,say the inyestigation is foc:used on Lawren~e A. ~ranklin, an analyst of Iranian affairs who works in a policy office headed by pouglas J. Feith, the undersecretary, for policy. Feith ~as been Democrats ofsee~ing to manipulate help make the case for going to'-war in Iraq. Congressional investigati9ns hav~ found no eVidence ofthat. " - Th~ New York Times reported on its.Intemet site in a storY for Monday's editions that government officials say.Franklin had been coopeiatiJig with federal agents for several weeks and was'preparing to Jead them to contacts inside the Israeli gov~rnment when work ofthe investigation, first reported by CBS News, was leaked late last week. The Israeli gove~ent has denied spying o~ the United States. 'Efforts to reach Fr~lin by telephone have been unsuccessful. Local law eriforcement officers have kept reporters and photograpqers away from his secluded home in rural West Virginia, about a 90-minute commute from Washington. The Washington Post reported Sunday that $e FBI investigation has broadened to include interviews with individuals at the State and Def~nse departments as well as MideaSt affairs specialists outside the government. Israeli officials predi,cted ~hat the allega~ion it got secret information on White HoUse policy toward Iran f~om the Pentagon analyst would prove false. Vincent Cannistraro, a retired CIA officer and former director ofWhite House intelligence progfams ~uring the Reagan administration, ~aid Sunday, "It's another scandal for the Pentagon," with the potential in this case ofgoing beY9nd the singl~ individual under investigation. Larry Di Rita, Rumsfeld's chiefspokesman, said ~unday·that the Penqtgon is sticking"by its initial s~atement Friday.that it imderstands the investigation is limited in scope. He said it would be lnapprC?pria.te for him or RUlQ.sfeld to comment further because it is an active investigation. 8131120041:36 PM FBI's Pentagon Probe Is Another Burden For Rumsfeld --. () http11www.dia.~/adminlEARLYBIRDI0408301c200408303.~861.html .. • As for the possible political implications for Rumsfelrl at the height ofapresidential election campaign, Di Rita said, "I would not try to predict how the political season will affect,this." Early in his tenure at the Pentagon, Rumsfeld spoke out publicly against the unauthorized release of classified information. He undertook a special investigation when some elements ofPentagon planning for war in Iraq leaked to the news me4ia in 2002. In his 3 1/2 years as secretary, Rumsfeld has had a sometimes rocky relationship with Congress. When the administration began a global fight against terrorism in response to the attac"s ofSept. iI, 2001, ~is stock rose quickly and he gain~d popularity for his tough approach. But as the insurgency in Iraq took hol~ in the summer of2003 and the casualty toll for American troops mounted - more than 950 have be~n killed - Rumsfeld became a target ofcriticism on Capitol Hill. ATime magazine poll released Saturday said.39% ofthose surveyed approve ofthe job Rumsfeld has done and 37% disapprove., They were split on whether President Bush should replace Rumsfeld : 49% said Rumsfeld should go and 48% preferred that he stay. Rumsfeld, 72, took much political heat when the Abu Ghraib prisoner scandal came to light in April with photographs of U.S. soldiers abusing and sexually.humiliating Iraqi prisoners. Two official investigations found that the highest levels ofthe Defense Department shared blame for management lapses that may have contributed to the problems at Abu Ghraib. ~ut those reviews found no evidence to sugg~st that Rumsfeld.ordered, encouraged or condoned any abuse of iraqis. To the suggestion that Rumsfeld resign over the abuse scandal, former Defense Secretary James Schlesinger said last week that such a development would be a "boon to all of America's enemies.II Schlesinger headed an in~ependent panel that looked into the abuse. Asecond panelist, former DefeQse Secretary'Harold Brown, agreed that Rumsfeld acted appropriately. "lfthe head ofa department had to resign every time anyone'down below did something wrong, it would be a ver;. empty Cabinet table" Brown said. That was just days before news broke ofthe FBI investigation at the Pentagon. 20f2 8131/2004 1:36 PM UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO New York Times August 30, 2004 hltp:lfivww.di"O'V/admin!EARLYB1RD10408301c2OOi083pi15889.html )I. • ,. • ..' >·...~." ••·~n..-"':~..."'~'!t. ....:v:"':~~.i{,:I~ .•<-'t':,»_~'~~~_. .,. 1.• Iv- -\~t'..":".'tl:!~r-f1{:'~~') ,: t-?:1)~rense~lritentgence·l~genwJ. .!-;:.. :.;~ 't"'~'1,~:~..'!:m'th'\r~ ••~~""":"~· ·~~""""""-,,'t r' «t' PIA Home IWhat's New IProdUcts.,. Type IProductS6y Region I~Illim ALL FBI INFORHATiO~ CONTAINED HERE IN IS mirC LA:::!'S I FlED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/~ab/1sg OfficialsSaY'J;lubliei.ty Derailed Secrets Inquiry 'By David Johnston and ~ric'Schmitt WASHINGTON, Aug; 29 - The Pentagon official under suspicion ofturning over classified information to Israel began cQoperating with federal ~gents several weeks ago anq was preparing to lead the authorities to cohtacts inside the Israeli government when the case became publicly known last week, govert1ll1ent officials said Sunday. The disclosure ofthe inquiry late on Friday by CBS News revealed what had been for nearly a year a covert national security investigation conducted by the F.B.I., acc~rdi~g to the' offjcials, who said tha~ news reports about the inquiry compromiseQ important investigative steps;like the effort to follow the trall ba~k to the Israelis. As a result, several areas.ofthe case remain murky, the officials said. One main uncertainty is the legal status ofLawrence A. Franklin, the lower-level Pentagon policy analyst who the authorities believe passed the Israelis a draft presidential policy directive related to Iran. No arrest in the case is believed to be ,imminent, in part because prosecutors ~ave not yet clearly established whether Mr. Franklin broke the law. But the officials said there was evidence that he turned the classified material over to officials at the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, a pro-Israel lobbying group. Officials ofthe group are thought to have then passed the information to Israeli intelligence. The lobbying group and Israel have denied that they engaged in any wrongdoi~g. Efforts to.reach Mr. 'Franklin or his lawyer have not be~n successful. Reporters who went to ~r. Franklin's residence in West Virginia on Sunday were.asked by a local sheriff not to approac4 the house. Friends ofMr.. Franklin's, like Michael Ledeen ofthe American Enterprise institute, said the accusations against him were baseless. As the overall outline ofthe case emerged more clearly, doubts about ~ome aspects ofit seemed to stand out in sharper relief. Investigators, the officials said, may never fully utiderstap.d the role oftwo officials for the lobbying group who-they believe were in contact with Mr. Franklin. ~or are they likely to be able to completely determine wliether Israel regarded the entire matter as a formal intelligence operation or as a casual retationspip that Mr. Franklin himselfmay not h~ve fully understood. Investigators do not know, for example, whether Israeli intelligence officers tttasked" intermediaries at t~e group to seek specific information for Mr. Franklin to obtain, which would make the case more serious. Officials said some investigators speculated that Israeli officials might have passively accepted whatever classified material that officials for the lobbying group happened to get from Mr. Franklin. Moreover, Mr. Franklin appears to be an unlikely candidate for intelligence. wor~. Al~hough he ,was involved with Middle East policy, a defense official said Sunday.that he had no impact on U~ited States poli~y and few dealings with senior Pentagon offi~ial~, including the deputy defense secretary, Paril D. lof3 - ....... - -- --.,.. - - - 8/3112004 1:37 PM -- ~~.Cial~Say P~blicity Deraile~ Secrets InQUi\"-'" ,- .. .. All I( \ ....... Wolfowitz. - ....~. hllp:llwww.di~"/adminiEARJ. YBnID!0403301~3031Sil89.hlmI ... .. 20f3 At one point in !he run-up to the Iraq war in early 2003, Mr. Er~lin was, brought in to help arrang<? meetings between Mr. Wolfow~tz and-Shiite and Sunni clerics across,the United States, a defense official said. But he was never regarded as an influential figure., "He was at the bottom. of the food c~ain, at the grunt level,~l a senior defense pfficial said. Another defense official sa~d 'Mr. Franklin "had a ~ertain expertise and ha4,access to things, but he wasn't a policy .maker.~' ' Still, as a desk offic~r, especi~ly one ~ith a background at the Defense Intelligence, Agency, Mr. Franklin would have had top-secret security clearance. That would have, given him access to mos.t ofthe nation's most-sensitive intelligence about Iran, including that relating to its ·nuclear.,progr~,Pen~gon officials s~id. He would also have had a~cess to diplomatip cables and'drafts.of~onfidentia1documents about the administration's policies toward Iran., 'While the facts ofthe c~e remained unclear and contradictory, tqe inquiry has stirred.deeply emotiona~ respoJlses. On Sunday, in an event held on the eve ofthe Republican National Convention, Bernice Manocherian, the p~esident 0'£the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, described the ~llegations against her group as·"outrageous, as well as ba~eless.1I In a speech in New YQrk to' Jewish Republicans, Ms. Manoche,rian said, "We Will not allow innuendo or ..false allegations against Aip~c to distract us from our central }llission." The event was sponsored by the group, along with the Republican-Jewish Coalition and the United 'Jewish Comm~ities~ Even so, officia.1s who 'discussed the case on Sunday, including·three,who have been briefed on it recently, said ifbegan as a highly confidential inquiry into what coun~erintelligence agents from the Fede~atBureau ofInvestigation ,regarded as a serious allegatio~ ofpossible spying that appeared to go well beyond the extensive iiifonnation-sharing relationship that exists between the United States and Israel. 'f.he F.B.1. obtained warrantS from a special federal court for surveillance un~er the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and for months kepttabs on Mr. Franklin. In an article on its Web site 6n Sunday, Newsweek magazine reported that the bureau first learned ofMr.. Franklin when agents observed him walking into a lunch in Washington b~tw~en a lobbyist for the American Israeli group.and an Israeli embassy official. ' American officials would not comment on the report. Israeli officials said Sunday that the lobbying group's main point ofcontact in-Washington was·Naqr Oilon, who is described in a biography on the Israe,li E~bassy's Web site as the minister ofpolitical affairs. Israeli officials said Mr. Gilon had no involvement in intelligence.matt~rs. Efforts to reach him on SUnday were notsuccessful. Mr. Fra,nklin began cooperating with agents this month in an arra~gement that fs still not completely understood. He agreed to help the authorities monitor his meetings with his contacts at the lobbying group. It is not clear whether the authorities in exc;,hange'agreed'to grant him any form ofleniency. Current and former defense officials said this weekend that Mr. Franklin worked for the Defense Intelligence' Agency for most ofhis career in the government until 200i, when he was detailed to the Penta.gon's policy office, headed by.Do~glas J. feith, the under secretary ofdefense for policy. Mr. 813112Q04 1:37 PM .Officials Say Publicity Derailed S~ts InquiryO w ~ T http://www.dia.~.Q.adminlEARLYB}RD10408301e200408303IS889.html 30r3 Franklin is one 9f.aboutl,SOO people who·~ork for Mr. Feith. When he..transferred to the Pentagon policy office, Mr. Franklin was assigned to the Northern Gulf directorate to work on issues related to Iran. After the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, that office was expan~ed and renamed.the Office ofSpecial Plans, and did most ofthe policy work on Iraq in the run-up to the war. Mr. Franklin was a part ofthat office but continued to work on Iran. In his job, Mr. Franklin is one oftwo Iran desk officers in the Pentagon's Near Eastern and South Asian Bureau, one ofsix regional policy sections. The Nell! Eastern office is supervised by William J. Luti, a deputy under secretary ofdefense, who also ovefSaw the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans, which conducted some early policy work for the 2003 invasion ofIraq. According to former colleagues, Mr. Franklin was originally a.Soviet specialist at the D.nA. who the agency's Mlddle,East division in the early 1990's. He learned Farsi and became an Iran analyst, developing extensive contacts within the community ofIranians who opposed the Tehran . government. ' "He was very close to the anti-Iranian dis,sidents," one former colleague said. "He was a good analyst of the Iranian political s~ene, but he was also someone who would go offon his own.II RichardA. Oppel Jr. contributed reportingjrom West Virginiajor this article, and Steven Erlangerfrom Jerusalem. . 813112004 1:37PM .. .. UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO , Washington Post August 31, 2004 Pg.3 ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UlJCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-Z010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg .~.. , lof3 FBI Interviews Senior Defense Officials I~ Probe Of A~~lyst Investigators Looking·At Contacts Witl' Israelis By Brad~ey Graham and Dan Eggen, Washington Post ~taffWriters The FBI has interviewed several senior Pentagon officials -in recent days in connection With an investigation of a Defense Department analyst who is suspected ofproviding classified 40cuments to Israel but has been cooperating with investigators for several weeks, government officials said yesterday. Douglas J.Feith, undersecretary for policy, and Peter Rodman, assistant secretary for international security affairs" are among those who met with FBI agents on Sunday an4 Monday abou~ the case, which has·focused on contacts between a lower-level Pentagon analyst, Lawrenc~ A. Franklin, land the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AlPAC), officials said. . . Higher-11lnking government officials 'have also been,briefe4 about the FBI investigatiQn lin recent days, incl~ding Secretary of.State Colin L. Powell. State Department spokesman Richard Boufher·said Powell was briefed over the weekend during a telephone call ~y James B. Comey, ~e deputy a~orney general, and told his senior a~des at a meeting yesterday to "coQperate in any way with any reque~ts that might come from the investigators.II I U.S. gov.ernment oftjcials familiar with-the Pentagon interviews, who declined to be ide~tified-b~cause ofthe senSitive nature ofthe case, characterized them as an attempt by FBI investigato~ to determipe whether Franklin received authorizatioQ. from any superior to engage in the actions that 1~vestigators ar~ probil!g. The FBI has been forced to accelerate its investigation since the case broke int<jl public view through media reports Friday. Franklin is s~pected ofhaving passed classifieg information -- including a draft presid~ntial directive on U.S. policy toward Iran -- to AlPAC, the major Israeli lobbying group in Was~ington, Whicp in tum may 'have passed it to Israel. AlPAC and Israel have denied the al!egations. Law enforcement officials said yest~rday that federal prosecutors in Alexandria were ~l~ser to filing charges in the case an~ th_atFranklin -- who has been cooperating with FBI agen~ fr0!U Ithe' Washington field office -- could be among those arrested. It was not clear whether Franklin would agree -- or be allo:wed ,-- to plead guilty to. a lesser charge ~n exchange for cooperation. ' lilt appears they're wrapping this thing up, and so they were checking with the chain ofqommand to make' sure no one had authorized hi~ to do any ofthis," said one official, who spoke on the c~ndition he not ~e identified further. Franklin, who has ~ot responded to repeated requests for comment at his office andhonie, first came to the il~enti~n ofthe FBI mqre than a year ago, when he showed up at a lunch between art Israeli diplomat 813112004 i:37 PM ..F~lll!terviews Se~ior Defense 9fficials In Pro.,....,-Analyst ~ ~ and an ~IPAC ()ffici~lthat-was being monitored by FBI.counte~intelligence agents, two law enforcement officials said yesterday. Law enforcement and defense officials have declined to say what that original investigation was about, 'and whethe~ it continues apart from the Franklin probe or has been abandoned. One law enforcement official who has been briefed on the Franklin case said it is part .of a broader FBI inquiry, but the official declined to elaborate. Defense officials familiar with the case empha,sized yesterday that the number ofthose at the Pen~gon approached by the FBI should not be taken as a sign that the'investigation was widening. They characterized the meetings as part interview, part briefing session, used by FBI authorities not only to gain information for their probe but also to brief senior defense officials about the status ofthe case, which c~e as a surprise to many at the Pentagon. The list ofthose interviewed: over the past several days runs from William J. Luti, who heads the section on Near East and South Asian affairs where Franklin is assigned as,a desk officer on Iran, through Rodman and Feith. All told the FBI that they did not give Franklin perniission to giv~ AlPAC or the Israelis any ofthe material at issue, officials said. At the Pentagon, before Friday~ disciosure, only D~fense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, Qeputy Defense Secretary'PauID. Wolfowitz and department lawyers had been informed ofthe investig~tion, which has been underway for more than a year, officials said. "The FBI is focused on one suspect," one officHl1 said. "The briefings and interviews that they're doing have been a routine part oftheir probe --not it broade~ihg ofthe list ofs~spects." At t~e same time, several' ~efense officials said the FBI hits not told them everyt~ing that investigators have learned in the course ofthe probe, making. it difficult to be certain ofthe outcome; The premature disclosure has caused proBlems for investigators, according to numerous law enforcement officials speaking on the condition ofanonymity because the probe is ongoing. . "This has severely hampered their investigation,!' one law enforcement official said. "It's impossible to tell what plight have.been lost beca~se ofall this." An Israeli official in Wash!ngton said the embassy has not received any formal noti,ce from U.S. authorities that th.ere is an investigation ofthe Franklin case. He also said reports of~~ case were growing increasingly exaggerated. 1'. 20f3 nOiv.en ~he level ofdialogue between the ·United States and Israel, this makes little sense," the official said. "We basically pick up the phone and call when we want to discuss policy. We have formal and transparent and open djscussions on all th~se issues. It's not like there are differences on these subjec~;" Naor Oilo!), the embassy's top political diplo~at, who.has been identified in several media ~ccopnts as having met with Franklin, said in an inten;.iew with the Israeli newspaper Maariv published.yesterday that "my hands are clean." "All my activities·are well within the parameters ofaccepted diplomatic norms and procedures," he said,' adding that he was concerned the scandal.will affect his -work in Washington: "Everyone would t!tink twi.c~ n~C!w before talking to me." 813112004 1:37.PM l~~ IntCtvi~wsSenior pe~ OIlici~!n prn$Analyst .. " \ po , ft .~ ~ • .... .. ...." _. In Jerusalem ye_sterday, Foreign Minlster Silv'an'Shalofu to~d'iiieqibeis of.tl1e Jsraeli~cabinet}~~at tl).ere~ was no tr:uth;to' allegatiQns ofspying ~d said the,embassy",' deviatt:<i .either trom diplomatic n9f!ll~ 9r from the-good an~ Opel1: ~i.alogUe 1.jeiWee~ Israel and~the'U.S.,~' a~cording ~o an offici.a! ~~co~t ofhis sta~e~ents. An Ainerican_noti~ government whQ,\yas,i!1terviewed by the FBI l~t week described i~e line of ,questioning as ~ '~fishing e~peditJon'_' ~at d~d hot includ~ any mentio~ ofFi'anklin or Iran. the FBi appe~e~ m.9re concerned abo~t peoP.le this perso1i~ow~ who were·l<?okingJor access t9 intelligence or claSsifi~d informatipn. ' "!fwas left, startled f;i tQWIl 9faward-wil1;Oing j~u~alis~; law enforcemen~ offici~liuw~re ask~~g if' .anyooC? I knew inigh~-be iritere~ted in chis~if1e~ information," $e pers~n said. lilt was a fishing: . expedi~loo. It w~~a~.ex~emelr9dd,conversation.," , Staff)vriters Mqlly Moore. in "JeJ:usale!ri ,iiid Robin Wr!g"ht .qridJerry Markon in Jfashi1}gtol'i contri~iJted to .this r.eport., . .. , 30f3 ... - ............ ...."........ ..... ....,...-- .... _ ,,--,w. .......__ ~ 84\(2004 1:37PM UNCL~SSIFIED - FOUO Boston Globe .August 31, 2004 I ... \ ,"', I~' ""'t "~-j""-"'~o'H1.":~4'+-v«r!m-l!t~..~..~~l."'..'t"~~~~~..r.. ,. '. < .r:~~~~~/:i:.:~~~~~~;t~?~~~~uefense3liileUiien~;-ag~ui~ ~:t: ... ~.... _....-t"4't..__~~.l';:~-...1. Ir ..~. t! ~ ! ' ........... . . ..~ --piA HomeIWhats NewI Products bYTyPe IProducts'bY Regism I~Illiln ALL FBI INFO~~TION CONTAINED HEP~IN IS ~JCLASSIFIED _ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc bawjsab/lsg lof3 2d Probe At The Pentagon Examines. A,ctions On Iraq By Bryan Bender, Globe Staff WASHINGTON -- The Pentagon office in .which an analyst is the focus ofan investigation into the possible passing of secret documents to Israel is at the heartof another ongoing ptobe.on Capitol Hill. The broader probe is trying to determine whether Defense Departl{lent officials wen~ outside normal channels to gather intelligence on Iraq or overstepped their legal mandate by meet!ng with dissiden!S ~o plot against Iran and Syria, according ~o Bush admiriistratio~ and· congressional officials. Senate Intelligen~e and Hou;se Judiciary Co~mittee staffmembers say inquiries. into the Near East and South Asia Affairs division have found preliminary evidence tha! some officials gathered questionable information on we~pons ofmass destruction from Iraqi exile's such as Ahmed Chalabi without proper authorization, whic4 helpl!d build President Bush's case for an invasion last year. The investigators are also looking into a more serious concern: whether the office engaged in illegal· activity by holding unauthorized meetings with foreign-n~tionals to ~establize Syria ~d Iran without the presidential approval required for covert operations, said one senior congressiopal inves~igator who has longtime experience in. intellig~nce oversight. Government officials seeking the cooperatioQ. of foreign nationals to·take secret action against other countries p.eed a so-call~d presidential finding to engage in such activity. The office, I~d by Will~am J. Luti, a former Navy captain and a4viser to then-House Speaker Newt Gingricli,.is a.powerful cog in Bush administration policy making, populated by some ideologically-minded i~dividuals who se~ their goveriUnent service as a way to promote democracy in the Middle East and improve :US-Israel ties, according to colleagues inside ~nd outside government. Th~ recent investigation into whether analyst Larry Franklin provided documents on a pair of lobbyists with the pro-Israel American-Israel Public Affairs Committee -- who then allegedly passed them to the Israeli government -- has placed the little-noticed Pentagon office in the national spotlight at a time when. the Bush administration is attempting to convince vot~rs that the president has been a <?ompetent manager ofmiti~l!al ~~~urity affairs. Douglas Feith, undersecretary ofdefense for policy, who oversees the Near East office, declined to comment. Luti and Franklin did not respond to messages. -Richard Perle, a former assistant secretary ofdefense in the Reagan administration and current adviser to t~e Pentagon, said the investigations are baseless and politically motivated. lilt's pretty nasty, and unfortunately the admi1!istration doesn't seem to have it under contro~," ~aid Perle, calling on the administration to defend Feith more vigorously. 8131120041:37 PM ; 2~ Probe At The Pentagon Bxamines Actio~ 00q '" .. • . hUp:lIwww.dla.ts"adminIBARLYBIRDt04083I1e20040831316433.hlml -, 'i 20f3 Both Perle and senior Defense officials, spe~ing on the condition ofanonymity, deny that the P9licy office or two controversial subgroups have ever engaged in intelligence-gathering activities. The division's work, they said, has consis.ted only ofdrafting policy options for superiors. They contend that the now-defunct P9licy Counterterrorism Coordination Group, set up after the Sept. 11 attacks to search for links between Al Qaeda and state sponsors such as Iraq, never gathered intelligence; it only reevaluated previous government findings. The Iraq War planninggroup called the Office of Special Plans,meanwhile, did not engage in any wrongdoing or questionable contacts, they said. Butinvestigators for the Senate Intelligence Committee, which is closely scrutinizing the office as part of a formal probe of pre-Iraq War intelligence-gathering, and Democratic members ofthe House JudiciarY Committee, who are conducting a preliminary probe, say that the full picture ofthe office's·activities may include more than meets the eye. They are seeking additional documents and interViews from policy officials. After months ofdelay, the investigators said, they are getting cobperation from Feith and his staff: Some of the incidents that prompted the probes are already known. Franklin and another employee, Harold Rhode, met secretly with Manucher Ghorbanifar, an Iranian arms dealer, in Italy in December 200i and subsequently in Paris. The Paris meeting was not approved by Pentagon officials. Ghorbanifar, who has been linked to the Iran-contra scandal ofthe 1980s, has said the men discussed ways to destabilize the Iranian regime, labeled a part ofPresident Bush's tlaxis ofeviltl for support of terrorist groups and suspected development ofwe~ponsofmass destft:lction. Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said I~t fall that the meeting was requested by Iranian officials to dis<;uss the war on terrorism, but nothing came of it. But one congressional investigator said staffers are looking into whether there was an exchange ofmoney between US officials and Ghotbani(ar or pther Iranians, and whether any proposals for cooperation included seeking assistance from the Mujahed~n-e Khalq, a group in Iraq that is seeking to overthrow the Iranian regime but is labeled a terrorist group by the US State Department. Another Near East policy official, F. Michael Maloof, was stripped ofhis security clearance a year ago after the FBI linked him to a Lebanese-American businessman under investigation by the FBI for weapons trafficking. Ahandgun registered to Maloofwas found in the possession ofImad el Hage, a suspected arms dealer. Investigators are seeking to learn whether Maloof's alleged contacts with Hage and a hard-line former Lebanese general, Michel Aoun, may have been part ofa back-channel effort to destabilize-Syria, which has occupied Lebanon for nearly two decades. "People are concerned about covert action being conducted·by a policy office with no legal mandate to do so," said one DemocIC:ltic official involved in the Judiciary Committee inquiry. "lfthe Senate and House intelligence committees in their review only look at the Chalabi relationship but don't look at the office's role in what was in-effect covert action to explore regime change in the entire arc oftPe Middle East, then their inquiry will be a joke." 813112004 1:37. PM •~ P~be At The Pentagon Examines Aetions0(1 hllp:llwww.dia.i(5.ladminlEARL.(B1RD1040831/e20040831316433.html 30f3 The official said he is ttying to determine if some ofthe office's activities may have been prohibited by the Hughes-Ryan Amendment, which holds that all activity to undermine a foreign government must be approved by the president in a specific document approving such activity. Supporters ofFeith and his policy advisers roundly deny accusations that the office is a rogue .opemtion. They say the two ongoing FBI inquiries into alleged leaks ofclassified infonnation amount to what one called "McCarthyism," a sustained campaign by opponents ofBush's policies to discredit their views and brand them as pawns for the Israeli lobby merely because they are pushing for stronger action against terrorist states. They note that no arrests have been made, only charges a~d leaks to journalists fr9m unnamed officials. "It sounds to me that it'is an investigation that was leaked for maximum adverse affect on the office, which has been subjected to a lot ofother criticism," said'Frank Gaffney, president ofthe conservative Center for Security Policy and a former assistant defense secretary under President Reagan. "You have people who are-controversial. They are taking positions that last time I checked, the president ... was closely associated with, that are opposed by other people in the bureaucracy. "One of the tricks ofbureaucratic warfare is to attack them in the press. It makes them less effective," Gaffney said. -"I think that is going on here." . 813112004 1:31,PM Israel's Albatross: U.S. NeoeoDS .~ " UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Los Angeles-Times August 31, 2004 ....'~ ,' ~ ·v~:·· ...,.:·~{'~·~'l1"'~~;r,D·····J7'1t··!"~:'.~~·t~n ~'l..\mtI'1!!;?fAZ~~~.· ~ ......... '.. _. ~··."l; ,:. ./.·~~U·.\!~':-"'t::;-:\,..,. e.lenso;m e tgence~eney.:'" I ~ • ..MJA,"MV~""''''':</f~.:...;.!t1~''~'~s.s "q"'+a • ,.~.,,"'''' ~.-......-.~- . _. ~. ,.,. ~-DiA-Homcil Wbati NccY,1 frOslve's by'Type IproduCts by Resionf~ Ilkhl ALL FBI INFOPMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS tU~CLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg l,of2 Israel's Albatross: U.S. Neocons By Robert Scheer With friends like these, israel doesn't need enemies. The p\U'Ported Israeli "spy caper" is another sign that the neoconservatives in the ~u~h administration, who cl~im to'be big ~upporters ofIsrael, on the contrary, have increased the risks for the Mideast's only functioning democracy. As the. developing story goes, a neacon Pentagon official allegedly gave_clas~ified documents to the American Israel'Pub,lic Affairs Committee, the pro-Israel lobby, which then passed them on to the Israeli Emb~sy. So far? these are onlY unproved accusations. It is disturbing that some well-placed Qfficials in t~e Bush adniinist~tion'haye leaked to the media ~llegations of spying against the Pentagon official and a respecte9 ally.. As'de~onstrat~d in the phQny, Clinton-era China spy case, in which Los Alamos nuclear weapons scientist Wen Ho ~ee was smeared, such lurid charges may not stick. -But the c~arges now circulating do call attention to the regime-change ideologues in the Pentagon, whose antics have left Israel more vull1erable than at any time in recent memory. First, the Bush-administration abandoned the Israel-Palestinian peace proces~ and the United ~tates' historical role as a good-faith broker petween the two sides. Then, after 9/11, the tight band ofso-called .neoconservatives who had champi.oned the invasion,ofIra~-forye·ars, both,in Israel and.i!l the U.S., ~uccessfully completed their hijacking ~fU.S. foreign policy by·landing us in ~e Iraq This has only served to infl!lme passio~s ~cross the region, increasing the threat t9 Israel. Many Is~aeiis concerned for their country are alarmed by President Bush's substitution ofmilitarism for diplomacy, W~ich they believe only. benefits those wh9 Rrofit from fear and hate - such as anns brokers and , political and religious ~xtremis~. - .. -In addition, moderates across the Muslim Worldp'ave seen their position eroded by popular anger over the U.S. occupation and Washington's uncritical support for Ariel Sharon. Al Qaeda and allied terror grouRs have seized Qn the chaos and fury to recruit anew generation of fighters. Extremists are now in control ofcru~~ai parts ofIraq and disrupting th~ r~st, while rogu~ Iran is more politically influential among th~ir cO-J;'eligionists in the Shiite majority in Iraq than is the U.S. with its 120,000 troops on the ground. Now, after the missing weapons ofmass destruction and Abu Ghraiti, comes the latest embarrassing blow to America's image - which polls show has been in-free fall-since the decision to·invade Iraq. It centers on neocon Larry Franklin, the Pentagon's chief Iran analyst, who, according to unnamt;d ~fficials, is under investigation for allegedly supplying the American'Israel committee with a secret draft presidential directive on U.S.-Ir~n policy that was allegedly passed on to Is~ael. Franklin is an ideological comrade of his bosses, Douglas J. Feith, undersecretary ofDefense for policy, _...... --.-_ .. ~. __ .. - • -, - 'i' 813112004 1:38 PM .·Israel's Albatross: U.S. }lJeocons hUp:lIwww.diai(S.ladmlnlEARLYBIRDI04083J1e20040831316386.html and Deputy Defen~e ~ecretary Paul D. Wolfowitz, the two strongest promoters inside the administration ..,.. ofpreemptively invading Iraq. He also was part ofthe unit that funneled intelligence chum up the food chain and into Bush's now..discredited speeches claiming Saddam Hussein's regime posed an imminent danger. These are the folks who bought the disinfonnation pumped out by Iraqi exile.Ahmad Chalabi, whom they promoted as the George Washington ofthe new Iraq state. Now the neocons distance themselves from Chalabi, who'has been accused ofspying for Iran and harangues radical Iraqi Shiite crowds with anti-American rhetoric. That can't be good fOf Israel, which is threatened by Iran's n~clear program. The neocons are unstable ideologues, more in love with their own radical dream ofbreaking the world to remake it in their image than they are with protecting Israel or the U.S. Such unbounded arrogance, embraced by Bush, has greatly amplified the voices of those persistent anti-Semitic conspiracy theorists in the Muslim world and beyond who are now seizing upon the latest Israeli spy rumors. . tilt revives the old charge that Israel is not an ally but a treacherous country," Nathan Guttman wrote Monday in the Israeli newspaper Haaretz. That charge is false. What is troe is thatnot every Bush administration hawk who claims to support Israel is actually a'reliable friend. 20f2 8131120041:38 PM ._.The Iranian Bomb W., UNCLASSIFIED _FOUO Washington T~mes August 31, 2004 Pg. 16 The Irani~n Bomb ~y Frank J. Gaffney Jt. .http://wWw.dia,i~~inIEARLYBlRDi040831/e2l10401i313t6364.h1m! ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAI~mD HEP~IN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg 10f2 One could be forgiven, !n light of recent headlines and'press accounts, for \yondering precisely who the enemy is in this war on terror: For some people, it cle~rly seems the list should include - i€not be headed by - a.aemocratic ally that has bee~ subjected, per capita,to considerably more sustained .and deadly terrorist attacks 'than tile Unit~d States: Is"rael. This argument requires Israel to be seen not for what it is - n~mely, a longstanding U.S. partner in,a strategically vital region ofthe' world where few exist, one that shares America's values and is a bulwark against the risin~ tid~ ofanti-We~tem I$lamist extre1l!is!D. Israel must, instead? be portrayed as perfidi~us, p~rsuing an intematio*al agenda divergent from (if not actu~lly at odds with) that ofthe 'United States an4 a liability, rathe~ t!tan an asset. - Those who wo~ld portray Israel ~n .suc~ an unflattering light doubtless are gleeful over leaks claiming the Jewis.h State surreptitiously obtained state secrets from. a U.S. government employee working for t~e Pentagon. At thJs ,writing, no evidence has beeq. provided to support'such charges. Nor has anyone'been. api>reherided - although, for s~veral ,d,ays, the FBfhas been described as poised to arrest someone employed by the Defense Department's·policy organizatio~. On~y time will tell whether anyone actually is taken into custody, the type ofcharges and wh~ther he is actually found guilty.. In the meanti~e, thes~ leaks have already divert~d attention from a' nation that genuin~ly,should head the. , list ofAmerica's foes: the terrorist-sponsoring, nuclear-arming and ballistic missile-wielding Islatnist gov~rnment ofIran. This effect haS been all the·more ironi9 insofar as, according tO,press accounts, the classified information the FBI thinks was improperly purveyed to Israel involved documents shedding light on America's evolving policy toward the Irani~n. mulhihocracy. Strategic analyst Steven D~ka~ recently offered a reminder ofthe peril posed by Iran: "While the Islamic Republic ofIran as a state is technically not at war with the U.S., Ayatollah Khomeini's fatwa calling-for total war by all Shl'ites, regarciiess ofcitizenship, against the 'Great Satan ~erica' remai~s in effect ~ it has never.been rescinded" and in fact was expanded to include killing Americans as being a necessary part ofa defens~ve jihad to make the world sa(e for Islam. Khohteini's pioneering pseudo-theology was later picked up by Sunni ex~remists,including Osama bin Laden.II .. IIi a t~oughtful article in the Aug. 23 New York Post, ~ir Taheri recounted how 19tomeirii and his succe~sors have translated that fatwa into a 25~year-Iong war against the United States - wag~d asymmetricaUy, both directly (for ~xample, in'attacks against U.S. embassies and personnel) and indirectly (through terrorist proxies like Hezbollah in Lebanon, Sheik Muqtada al-Sadr in Iraq and Shi'ite .warlords i~ Afghanistan). Mr. Taheri correctly Qbsetves "the Khomeinist revoluti9n defines itself in opposition to a vision ofthe world.that it regards as an American imposition.... With or without nuclear weapon.s, the I~lamic Republic, in its present shape,.represents a clear and pr~sent threat to the kind of --- - -- -- ---... 8/3 1/2004 1:38 PM .~T.he lrani~ Bomb -.. o hUP:lIwww.dia.i(5'/adminIBARLYBIRD10408311e2Q01083 ~316364.hlinl Middle East that President Bush says he wants to shape." '" .' Therefore, for the '(:J.S., stopping Tehran's Islamist government before it obtains the carry out threats to attack Americans forces in Iraq and elsewhere should .be an urgent priority. FQr Israel, however, denying the ruling Iranian mullahs nuclear arms is literally a matter ofnational life and death. Israel's concern about the growing existential threat from Iran can only be heightened by overtures Sen. John Kerry and his running mate have been making lately to Tehran"" In remarks Monday, vice presidential candidate John Edwards said a Kerry administration would offer the Iranians a "great bargain": 'They could keep their nuclear energy program and obtainfor it Western supplies ofenriched uranium fuel, provided the regime in Tehran promised to forswear nuclear weapons. According to Mr. Edwards, if Iran did not accept this "bargain," everyone - including our European alliesl~ would recognize the true, military purpose'ofthis program and would,"standwith us" in!evying on'lran "very heavy sanctions." There is just one problem: Based oJ) what is knoWn about Iran's program and intentions -let alone its history ofanimus toward us - only the recklessly naive could still believe such a deal is necessary to divine the mullahs' true purposes. While it may be inconvenient to say so, Iran is clearly putting into place a complete nuclear fuel cycle so as to obtain both weapons and power from its reactor and enrichment facilities. And a deal like that on offer from Messrs. Kerry and Edwards failed abysmally in North Korea. If the United States is unwilling to take concrete steps to prevent the Iranian Bomb from coming to fruition, its Israeli ally will· likely feel compelled to act unilaterally - just as it did with the 1981 raid that neutralized Saddam Hussein's nuclear infrastructure. At the time, the Reagan adminis~tionjoined the world in sharply protesting Israel's attack. Adecade later, however, the value ofthe contribu~ion thus made to American security was noted by then-Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, who said he thanked God every day during Operation Desert Storm that Israel had kept Iraq a nuclear-free zone. If such a counterproliferation strategy becomes necessary once again, it will be in all ofour interests to have Israel succeed. Frank J. Gaffney Jr. is president ofthe Center[or Security Policy and a coiumnis(for The Washington Times. ... 20f2 813112004 1:38 PM .. Hand Rumsfeld Hi~ Walking Papers. .; r .. .. .... or ~ .UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Seattle Post-Intelligencer August 31', 2004 , htlp:llwww.dia.O/adminlEARLYBIRDI040831/C200408313 I6426.hbnl ALL FBI INFORHATION CONTAUJED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg ·,~ lof2 Hand Rumsfeld His Walking Papers !3y Helen Thomas, Hearst Newspapers WASHINGTON ,;,-The tillie has come for Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to leave:His'Pentagon post, either by dismissal or resignatio~. Two separ~te reportsJast week make it clear that Rumsfeid and other t~p PeJ.1tagon officials were ultimate!y responsible for the sadistic abus~ of.prisoners in Iraq's infamous Abu Ghraib. Areport by a four-member panel headed by foriner Defense Secretary James SchlesiJ!ger traced the mistreatment ofprisoners 'in ~q to failures that went all the way up the chainlof com~and in the Pentagon. Another military report Wednesday said 27 people attached to intelligence agencies as well as four private cont~ctors participated in abuses, some tantamount tp torture, ofprisoners. "We.discovered serious misconduct and a loss ofmoral-values," said Army Gen. Paul Kern, ,head ofthe investigation. This gives the lie to early Pentagon efforts'to paiht the prison abuses as the work ofa handful of low-level MPs, acting out their frustrations. The Kern report also noted that eight "ghost detainees" were conceale~ from the Ipterna~ional Committee ofthe Red Cross. One ofthem died in custody. The origiQ ofthe scandal·traces back to Feb. 2, 2002, when President Bush abrogated the Geneva Conventions requiring humanitarian treatment ofprisoners. Bush declared that ~ose rules did~'t apply to the U.S. war against terrorism. Bush has been scrapping ou:r international agreements since he came into office, but for this one he has paid dearly in t~rms ofjust plain decency. 'I. When he canceled the <;]eneva accords, the U.S. focus was in Afghanistan where American forces were rounding up al-Qaida and Taliban suspects. Later that year, in'December, Rumsfeld authorized ruthless interrogation practices against detainees rounded up in Afghanis~ and held at the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Those approved practices included the use ofdogs to terrifY prisoners, forcing p~isoners fito prolonged painful stress positions, stripping them naked, solitary confinement, shaving them, hooding them. The train then completely left the tracks after the U.S. invasion ofIraq where.U.S. military pers<?nnel at the Abu Ghraib ppson adopted the same interrogation.tactics used in Afghanistan and at Quantanamo Bay. 'The photos provided the shocking evidence earlier this year and the investigations, courts-martial and congressional hearings began. 8[3112004 1:39 PM. Hand Rumsfeld His Walking Papers " ... o 20f2 Top military officials ignored the mistreatment ofprisoners until the graphic photographs of naked prisoners piled in a pyramid at Abu Ghrail? horrified the public. , Red Cross reports about prison abuses fell on deatears at the P~ntagon until the administration..was faced' with exposure. Several reviews ofthe military mistreatment of prisoners have been under way but the Schl~singer panel was the first to assign any responsibility to the highest levels ofthe Pentagon. IIThere is both institutional and personal responsibility at higher levels,II the Schles~nger report said. Schlesinger said the pris<;>n problems were "well knownll and corrective actions "could have been taken. , and should have been taken~ II Despite all ofthis, the report concluded that Rumsfeld and other-senior leaders, including Air Force Gen. Richard Myers, chairman ofthe Joint Chiefs"ofStaft; should not be forced to resign. Since he is a Washington "establishment" figure who headed the Pentagon in the Nixon era, Schlesinger was not about to go any higher than a brigade commailder to parcel out responsibility. Schlesinger said Rumsfeld's resignation would be "a boon to all of America's enemies and consequently, I think that it wQuld 'be a misfortune if it were to take place.It Wrong. It would show the world that Americans are not afraid to topple leaders when the country is dishonored on their watch. For those who have lived under totalitarian rule, a challenge to the leadership could have dire consequences. But.that's not our system. In a democracy, public servants must be held accountable. Rumsfeld should have thrown in the towel months ago for this scandal. In the run-up to the invasion ofIraq, the Rumsfeld coterie bragged about the "shock and awe" ofthe p'anned U.S. invasion. The secretary has since lost some ofhis swagger and is no longer a]\T rock ~tar. As the gravity ofthe scandal gradually sunk in around the world, Rumsfeld has become virtually invisible to the public. Rumsfeld stands indicted by the very panel that he appointed to assess responsibility. The fact that the S'chlesinger panel vee~ed sharply atthe last curve and said Rumsfeld should keep his job can't bury the reality that they traced the footprints right to Rumsfeld's office. It's time for him to take responsibility for this scandal. It's time for him to leave office. 813112004 1:39 PM, ;A7AICenterOfSpy Flap Called ~aive, '1;1~ ~Is...1 http://wwwodia.t;/@llminIBARLYBIRDI040831/s2004083131641I.hllitl ."t! .... ,,~ UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO Tel ~viv Haaretz August 31, 2004 - ; '~':l:~ ·.:.:",~','f~~2;:';;,;'·~t~i~~~iI_mt1fn~:q;:C:iA::~~.i ...:J.I . or~"''''''"!&J''''''''"''-'';''-~~ ,(l ~fd'''' r..........". a.tS' gft'".. "J("~ • ~ ... .A .. - -- - PIA Home I What's NewIProductS by Tvpe IProducts bY Region I~IJ:!dn ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw!sab/1sg I of~ Analrst At Center Of Spy Flap Called Naive, Ardently Pro-Israel By Nathan Guttman WASHINGTON - Larry Franklin, the Pentagon analyst suspected ofpassing classified material about Iran to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, has never hidden his unequivocal support ofIsrael. Colleagues from the Near East and South Asia desk at the Defense Department said yesterday that his sympathy for Israel was overt and public - he didn't refrain from praising Israel and he held aggressive views about seve~l Arab governments, primarily the ayatollahs' regime in Iral\ and Saddam Hussein's dictatorship in Iraq. "Everyone kn~W he was·a friend ofIsrael;·but he didn't go about it in any unusual way," a Pentagon coworker said. "He was always accessible t9 everyone.II Franklin~s r~sume describes his current positi~n, which he has held since 200I, as: "Office·ofthe Secretary ofDefense,-Policy, Near EastlSou~h Asia, Iran desk analyst, Office ofSpecial Plans Iraq. Focus Projects: Hizboll~, Islam, Saudi Arabia." But the official re~ume reveals only a few details about the man at the center oCtbe affair. franklin, a religious Gatholic in his late 50s, lives in Kearneysville, West Virginia, a 90-minute ~rive from"the Pentagon..But living in the distantsubur~ assured a high quality oflife. for F:ranklin, his ~ife Patricia ana t~eJr ~v~ children, some ofwhom are college-age. Franklin has a doctorate in East Asian studies from St. Jo~'s University, a,Catholic ~iversity in New York City, and speaks Farsi, Arabic, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese (in addition to English). On top of his work at the Pentagon, Franklin teaches history at Shepherd University i~ We~t Virginia. In conversations about Fr~nklin with his colleagues, one ofthe words that comes up again and again is "naive." He is described as an ideologue who believes wholeheanedly in the neo-conservative approach. tI~verything by him is blac~ and White," said someone who has work~d with Franklin in the P~ntagon. tlHe is a very nice ~erson, very conservative, not at all arrogant,~' said the colleague, adding that one Qf the reasons he was brought into the Near East and South Asia desk was his political beliefs. Franklin's political-opinions are similar to those of his bosses .. Douglas Feith, ulJ,dersecret.ary ofdefense, and William L.uti,.the deputy ~de~ecretary ofdefense responsible for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs: Like th~m, Franklin supports the. policy ofacting to bring·democra~y to AraQ regimes and build allies in the Middle East But those who have worked wi,th"franklin also say he was a bit extreme in his work patterns, atti~de and behavior. They occasionally referred to him as "Planet Larry" ~ a·way of expressing the extent to which he "lives in a world ofhis own," colleagues said. People who have 'Yorked with Franklin believe that it was his trademark naivete that gothim in trouble, s~ying F~anklin was not aware of the severity ofhis activi~ies, and so did not try to hide or mask them. 813112004 1:39 'PM ·:An~lySt At Center qrS~y Flap C~II~ ~aiv~ A~y ~ro-Isniei c '" 'V!' .. ,- .'" .FranJdin.visited Israel eight tiqles ~hH~ he the ll..§. A!r,:Force and the Pen~gon... ~Most ofhis.visits app'ear to have be~eii relilted"t<Yhis'teserve duty sC?rvice:aS afi"Qfficer dealing with intemational c9ntacts. AccordiJ).g to l}.is resume, ~ranklin'served as 8; rese~e air force colonel between 1997 and,2004, working with ~~"U.S. ~ilitai'y attache in T~l Ayiv.,Bef~rehand h~'was inyolvedin ari~!yzing cQunter-intel!igence. in the air f<?r<;e. ' 'Had the current accusations not come to.light~ FraQklin's.1ob at th~ Pent~go~"viO,~I~ h~ve d~pe;Il~~d on the" presideQ.tial elections, his coworkers said. If;Democ~tic can~date John-K~rrY wi~s.the next election, colleagues said, it's doubtful that Franklin will move up, ~ue t9 his well-knoW!) pol!pc~l views. . '''He was consider:ed a I'ittle strange even (or the ne9-cpris," a cowo~ker s·aid. "They're' probabiy saying to themselves·- oh, ~arry again.II , . - 20f2 _ -- - , ..................... "" ~ -.... .. - _._~ - -- ~ ........ - ........ - .. <It .... ....aIll&. ~ -- -- - - --- - - ~ _. _.."'"""'- ... ""-- ...... 8131t2~41:39 PM I _ Affair Won't Hann Strong US-Israel Ties '!' •..I.f UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO :Jerusalem Post August 31,'2004 Analysis: hltJ?:llwww.ilia.(S..adniinlEARLYBJRDI0408311s2004083\3162\S.hJIDI' ~j~' . ."~J< '\ ·'~·.~~~·~~~:W~~~~f'·D"'!~i~;~'~i~:.tU...:. ,t~t~;:~~::'~~~ ..1 ~••..t::. ..... ~.,f:;.-="'~=~~~~~i ~:~.• \(-r ".?/f.;; ...e. ...y~~)UI fe ag~p.ce:~~ tilA HOme1What's New IProduCt!rt by Type IProdu~s by Region I~i~ ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg lof2 Affair Won't 'Harm Strong US-ISrael Ties By Gerald M. Steinb~rg, The Jerusal~m Post By their very: na~e, allegations ofespionage and abuse ofcla~sifiedmaterial get huge headliiie~, although the. evidence;... ifany - usually remain,s murky and hidden from public scrutiny. This is particularly th.e case regarding the l}S and Israel, reflecting the wide ~ecurity cooperation that has developed in response to terrorism, nuclear proliferation, and other mutual threats. Mixed with hints of conspiracy and dual loyalty, such cooperation presents a huge target for the relatively small ~u~ber of American offi~ials ~d journalists who want to see tpis relationship halted. For many years, claims involving Israel and spying have been manipulated in the effort tQ drive a wedge betw~en Washington and Jerusale~, particularly after the Pollard fiasco. The damage to relations in' that case was extensive, and its echoes are $till being fett today, making another "affair" the dr~am ofall those who wis.h to disruptUS-Isniel cooperation. But th~ lessons from Pollard ~ppear to have been learned by both the:Israeli government and the US. At the same time,.the absence ofreal and juicy spy scandals has spurred the' invention offictiti9us ones. Afew years ago, false charge~ ~at Israel was stealing and selling the Pentagon's technical secrets to China were later revealed to have been part ofa personal campaign ofreve.nge involving two American officials working for different branches ofthe go~emment. And headlines claiming ~at Israel was eavesdropping on the Os ;vvere also exposed ~'nonsense. In another case, the he~d ofthe CIA - George Tenet - sent. an apolpgy to then Mossa~ head Danny Yatoro"apologizing for accusations linking Israel to espionage. These periodic leaks and allega;tions, including the current case,. reflect a wider agenda. Th~ Ara~ lobby in Washington is gaining influence and access to the media,· and peddling ,such stories is one means of' moving the focus awaytfrom te~orism and t~e growing pressure from many Americans to for the corrupt regimes in the Middle :East. In addition,·fringe Republican Pat Buchanan and his adherents clingto·the classical anti-Semitic myths in which Jews are po~ayed'as all powerful,·and secretly manipulating US policy. The post~war complic"ations inlrag and tlie charge'that a neo-conservative kabal"(code for Jews and' Zionists, even though the top two neo-cons - Secretary .0fDefense Rumsfeld and Vice Pr~sident'Cheney are neither) led America"into this confrontatiol) have,revived the~e myths. This may explain the ~ttempt to involve AIPAC - the "powerful" pro-Israellob~y - and the timing ofthi~ leak at the heightofthe US election campaign. . Yet ~espite these efforts and short-lived I:t~adlines, US-Israel security coope~tio~ has be,?ome,stronger, reflecting an understanding ofthe necessity ofsharing resQ~~ces and; knowledge in order to counter the threats ~9 both. In addition, the underlying shared values of democracy and freedom remai~ central~ and .813112004 1:40 PM Affair Won't Hann ~tiOng US-Israel Ties 2of2 <::> " mark the difference between American and European attitudes towards Israel. As ~ result, in th~ earlier alleged espionage cases, including JJ1e Pollard affair, after the dust cleared, this coxp.mon core re"mained intact,'and there is no re~on to expect the outcome tO'be dlfferent this time. Indeeq, investigatjons into the sources Qfthe allegations and the erqbellis~ent add~d by CBS News may deter the next round ofthis game. Prot.·GeraldM Steinberg directs the Program on Conflict Management at Bar-llan University. 8131120041:40 PM ;'iran Intrigue •. eIt 'UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO ~oston Globe August 31, 2004 Iran Intrigue o --. :~ hltp:/!10408311s20040831~16431.html ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg loft THE MOST instructive aspect ofthe FBI's interest in Larry Franklin, an Iran desk officer in the Defense Department, is the light it casts on, the incohere~ce ofpolicy-making in the Bush adininist~ation tat4er than any conspiracy to pilfer America~ secrets for Israel. There" is a crucial background to the FBI's investigation ofFranklin, who has come-under suspicion for supposedly passing a classified presidential policy directive about Iran to a leader ofthe American Israel· . Public Affai~s ,Committee who allegedly passed the material on to an Israeli official. A neoconservative colleague ofFranklin in the Defense Department, Harold Rhode, and the' neocon promoter Michael Ledeen had been involved in secret back..chaJ:!llel meetings in Paris starti~g as early as l)ecember 2001 with th~ shady Iranian arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar, a key.figure hi the Reagan-era folly r~membered as the Iran-Contra affair~ The CIA had long since proscribed'dealings wit!t Ghorbanifar. The agency had hi~ classified as'a chronic liar. When a US ambassador in Italy got wind ofthe meetings, he and the CIA station'chief in . Rome notified superi~rs at the.State Depai1Ipent and the CIA. George Tenet, the" fonner CIA director, in turn persuaded the number two official on the National Security Couit9il, Stephen Hadley, to prohibit further meet~I.lgs with the Iranian a.nps merchant and the, so-called Ir~nian dissidents he was presenting to neocons avid for regime change in Tehran. This White House prohibition against the back-channel meetings arranged' by Ghorbanifar was to no avail. There were at l~ast two and possibly several more m~etings. Ghorbanifar, living up' to his . . reputation for indiscreet gabbiness, has boasted about further meetings to reporters for the Washington Monthly. This is the outline ofa policy quarrel that one faction has Qeen ~aging surreptitiously. Not only ~he FBI but also the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence have been investigating the neocons' secret me~tings in Paris to promote regime change in Tehran., The regime in Tehran does pose a threat by virtue ofits nuclear program, its sponsorship ofthe Lebanese Shi'ite militia Hezbollah, and its meddling in Iraq. The Bush administration, however, has"been unable to settle on a coherent strate~ to cope with the challenge from Tehran. It is quite possible that no ,prosecution will result from the FBI's in~~rest in Franklin's suspected. disclosure ofclassified infofuatiQn about President Bus~'s Iran policy, as it is unlikely Israel would "permit an intelligence operation that targeted the Bush adrninistration.•ButifBush does ~ot take control of h~s own adn;linistration's policy-making process, the nation could be 4rawn into another Gulfwar by one faction ofthe conservative constellation in his own administration. 8131(.2.. 004 2:08 PM " Espionage Intrigue " "t:. ;It " .., • ..,." UNCLASSIFIED - FOUO o hUp:l/WWWodi"O/adminlEARLYBIRDI04083I1s200408313164I6.html Baltimore Sun August 31, 2004 Espionage Intrigue ALL FBI INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabllsg I ofl THE DENIALS are loud and resounding. The American Israel Public Affairs Committee called allegations that the American Jewish lobby received secret information about U.S. poiicy on Iran from a Pentagon analyst, and passed it onto Israel, "baseless and false." The government ofIsrael·was just as emphatic about the charge: "false and outrageous.II The reported FBI investigation touched a nerve. It raised the specter ofdivided loyalties, Israel spying on its chiefally and benefactor, mudslinging at a pro-Israel presi4ent on the eve ofhis renomination. I There's plenty there to provoke alanning headlines, sharp rhetoric and legitimate cause for concern -- if the allegations prove true. Iran's nuclear program poses a threat to the United States and Israel, though for the Americans it's strategic and for the Israelis it's considerably more immediate. Tehran's insistence on producing Quclear material has pushed Israel to threaten a strike on an Iranian nuclear facility. In 1981, Israel took out Iraq's nuclear reactor to quell similar ambitions. Yet an'Iranian-Israeli face-offwould have devastating consequences for the West and for the Islamic world. The reports about Pentagon analyst Lawrence Franklin, who is at the center ofthe investig~tion, are contradictory. But the fact that he works in a policy office overseen by the ideological Douglas J. Feith clouds the issue. Mr. Feith is a controversial neo-conservative who trumpeted the fall ofSaddam Hussein as an engine for democracy in the Mideast. He was an ardent champion ofAhmad Chalabi, the discredited Iraqi expatriate now thought to have had links to Iranian intelligence. The contradictions also extend to Israel. President Bush is such an unabashed supporter ofIsraeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon that it's unfathomable that Israel couldn't get information on U.S.-Iranian policy if it asked. Would it risk an espionage scandal like the Pollard affair of 1985? What's ironi~ i~ that if the espionage allegations are true, Israel will have likely confirmed that the United States in fact has no coherent or cogent policy on Iran. And the need for one is urgent, given Iran's ' nuclear ambitions and its less-than-candid dealings with international atomic energy inspectors. The campaign ofDemocratic presideQtial candidate John Kerry has unveiled its plan to persuade Iran to give up its nuclear weapons capability -- itwould retain its nuclear energy plants in exchange for any nuclear bomb-making fuel. Mr. Bush has painted himself into a comer with his hm:sh position on Iran and its inclusion in the "axis of evil." The International Atomic Energy Agency is expected in early September to release its report on Iran's nuclear program. Mr. Bush should be prepared to respond with a substantive plan to engage Iran instead ofhis usual, polarizing rhetoric. 8/3112004 2:08 PM ----------- --- oALL IN:ORMATI~~ CONTAINED 0 HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg ~unday,Sep.05,2004 A Web OfIntrigue Inside the Israel espionage investigation By BR;IAN BENNETT, ELAINE SHANNON AND ADAM ZAGORIN TIl\1E MAGAZINE It was a hot, late August afternoon when the Iraqi exile got a call on his cell phone. Over the crackling line, the Iraqi says, the caller identified himself as Larry Franklin, an analyst for the Defense Department in Washington. Franklin rattled offa series ofquestions. He wanted to know if the Iraqi, who had spent, the past decade working with Ahmad Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress (I.N.C.), could recall whether anyone at the I.N.C. had discussed the U.S.'s ability to intercept and decode Iran's secret communications. The Iraqi, who knew Franklin's name but had . never met him, was startled by the call. "How about discussing Iranian codes with a drunken American? Had anyone ever done that?" Franklin wanted to know. For nearly halfan hour, Franklin quizzed him about Pentagon officials and Iranian spycraft. "That was 'really scary," recalls the Iraqi. "I told him, II don't remember anything."1 That phone call, which the Iraqi described to TIME last week, seems to be an indication that two complicated spy cases have become linked. Several weeks ago, according to federal lawenforcement officials, Franklin, who had been under investigation by the FBI for giving classified information to the American ~srael Public Affairs Committee (AlPAC), agreed to cooperate in a probe into whether the pro-Israel group was passing sensitive U.S. secrets to Israel. . Franklin's call to the ex-I.N.C. man, who has provided Tllv.IE with credible information in the past, suggests that Franklin was also assisting the FBI in a separate inquiry into how highly classified details ofAmerica's ability to decode Iranian intelligence messages may have fallen into the hands ofChalabi's organization and been passed on to Iran in February. AU.S. law-· enforcement official confirms that the Iraqi's account ofthe conversation is consistent with the types ofcalls Franklin was making on behalfofthe FBI. According to law-enforcement officials, Franklin began cooperating with the FBI after agents first confronted him with evidence that he'had given classified material to AlPAC, one of Washington's most powerful· lobbying organizations. Israel and AlPAC have denied the spy allegations; neither the Pentagon nor Franklin would comment. The law-enforcement officials say Franklin was persuaded in recent weeks to make "pretext calls"-scriptedconversations monitored by FBI agents and designed to tease out incriminating evidence about other suspects. It was within this time frame that Franklin approached the ex-I.N.C. official who spoke to TIME. The two investigations are among the most politically charged espionage cases in years. Israel and the I.N.C. are longtime allies ofthe U.S., though the CIA has for years warned that Chalabi was not to be trusted. Allegations ofIsraeli espionage have been a hot-button issue since American naval intelligence analyst Jonathan Pollard was imprisoned for life in 1987 for passing U.S. military secrets to Israel. Ever since the Pollard affair, Israel has publiclyinsisted it no C/ , ." longer spies on the U.S. "I can tell you here very authoritatively, very categorically, Israel does not spy on the United States," Israel's U.S. ambassador, Daniel Ayalon said last week. "We do not gather infonnation on our best friend and ally." Federal law-enforcement officials say they re~ain on the lookout for signs that Israelis still pursue U.S. secrets. A fonner congressional official told TWE that in the 1990s Israelis in Washington were known to routinely seek copies ofclassified documents such as secret portions ofthe annual Javits report, a U.S. compilation on arms sales. National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice and her deputy Stephen Hadley were informed of the FBI's probe into AIPAC at least two years ago, according to a U.S. official. But that did not hinder numerous contacts between AIPAC and top Administration officials as well as congressional leaders ofboth parties. The lobbYing group derives its power from its backing among influential Jewish Americans. Just last May, President George W. Bush attended AIPAC's annual conference in Washington and thanked the organization for "serving the cause of America" and bringing to public attention the threat ofIran's developm.ent ofnuclear weapons. At that time, the FBI was alrea.dy deep into its investigation ofAlPAC. A former U.S. official interviewed by the FBI more than·a year ago told TIME that the bureau sought information on key AIPAC personnel, their meetings with White House and other national-security officials in Washington and ev.en details about their personal lives. At one point, the FBI was surveilling a meeting between an Israeli diplomat and an AIPAC official when the Pentagon's Franklin suddenly appeared, igniting concerns. Franklin, a former :Air Force Reserve officer, served briefly in the U.S. military attache's office in Israel in the late 1990s. Since the summer of2001, he has worked as an Iran expert for Douglas.Feith, the Pentagon's third ranking official, a neoconservative long in favor oftougher measures against Iran. In 2001 Franklin and a Pentagon colleague were dispatched to Rome for a meeting with Manucher Ghorbanifar, an Iranian arms dealer who had been a key figure in the 1980s' Iran-contra scandal. They were seeking inteliigence on Iran from him. But the CIA h3$ long considered Ghorbanifar unreliable, and the Bush Administration later cut offthe contacts. According to a former U.S. government source, the material Franklin passed to AlPAC included a draft ofa National Security Presidential Directive dealing with U.S. policy on Iran. The document, a source says, had gone through several ve~ions without ever achieving the status of official U.S. policy pecause ofdeep disagreements within the Administration over how to cope with Iran. Asource familiar with multiple drafts ofthe document said it was a "glorified Op-Ed looking at how engagement [with Iran] doesn't work and how the U.S. needs a more robust strategy.II A former senior U.S. official who also saw the drafts told TIME the directive did not explicitly call for regime change in Tehran and left open the possibility ofcooperation with the Iranians on matters ofmutual interest. . Meanwhile, a former case officer at the Defense Intelligence Agency says that when he was questioned in thel.N.C. case, the FBI seemed fntstrated in that investigation. That case officer, who worked alongside I.N.C. intelligence gatherers at the time ofthe alleged breach, says he was interrogated and polygraphed by the FBI. He contended to TIME that the allegations against the "F --:-------- - --------------- o ALL INF0RMtTION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED f"!!'\ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc ba~J13g September 6, 2004 Spy Case Renews Debate Over Pro-Israel Lobby's Ties to Pentagon By JAMES RISEN and DAVID JOHNSTON ASHINGTON, Sept. 5 - It began like most national security investigations, with a squad of Federal Bureau ofInvestigation agents surreptitiously tailing two men, noting where they went and whom they met. What was different about this case was that the surveillance subjects were lobbyists for the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, and one oftheir contacts turned out to be a policy analyst at the Pentagon. The ensuing criminal investigation into whether Aipac officials passed classified infonnation from the Pentagon official to Israel has become one ofthe most byzantine counterintelligence stories in recent memory. So far, the Justice Department has not accused anyone ofwrongdoing and no one has been arrested. Aipac has dis·missed the accusations as baseless, and Israel has denied conducting espionage operations in the United States. Behind the scenes, however, the case has reignited a furious and long-running debate about the close relationship between Aipac, the pro-Israel lobbying organization, and a conservative group ofRepublican civilian officials at the defense department, who are in charge ofthe office that employs Lawrence A. Franklin, the Pentagon analyst. Their hard-line policy views on Iraq, Iran and the rest ofthe Middle East have been controversial and influential within the Bush administration. "They have no case," said Michael Ledeen, a conservative scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and a friend ofMr. Franklin. "Ifthey have a case, why hasn't anybody been arrested or indicted?" Nearly a dozen officials who have been briefed on, the investigation said in interviews last week that the F.B.I. began the inquiry as a national security matter based on specific accusations that Aipac employees had been a conduit for secrets between Israel and the Pentagon. These offi~ials said that the F.B.I.,.in consultation with the Justice Department, had established the necessary legal foundation required under the law before beginning the investigation. Ahalfdozen people sympathetic to Aipac and the civilian group at the defense department said they viewed the investigation in different terms, as a politically-motivated attempt to discredit Aipac and the Pentagon group. Supporters ofAipac have said the organization is being dragged into an intelligence controversy largely because ofits close ties to a Republican administration and the Israeli government ofPrime Minister Ariel Sharon. . Friends and associates ofthe civilian group at the Pentagon believe they are under assault by adversaries from within the intelligence community who have opposed them since before the war in Iraq. The Pentagon civilians, led by Paul D. Wolfowitz, the deputy defense secretary, and o Douglas 1. Feith, the unders~cretary for policy, were among the first in the immediate aftermath ofthe Sept. 11 attacks to urge military action to topple the regime ofSaddam Hussein in Iraq, an approach favored by Aipac and Israel. Mr. Wolfowitz and Mr. Feith were part ofa larger network ofpolicy experts inside and out ofthe Bush administration who forcefully made the case that the war with Iraq was part ofthe larger fight against terrorism. The Pentagon group circulated its own intelligence assessments, which have since been discredited by the Central Intelligence Agency and by the independent Sept. 11 commission, arguing that there was a terroristalliance between the Hussein regime and Al Qaeda. The group has also advocated that the Bush administration adopt a more aggressive policy toward Iran, and some ofits ~embers have quietly begun to argue for regime change in Tehran. The administration has not yet adopted that stance, however, and the Pentagon conservatives have been engaged in a debate with officials at the State Department and other agencies urging a more moderate approach·to Iran. To Israel, Iran represents a grave threat to its nation~l security. Pushing the United States to adopt a tougher line on Tehran is one ofits major foreign policy objectives, and Aipac has lobbied the Bush administration to support Israel's policies. Mr. Franklin was an expert on Iran in the office ofMr. Feith and among the material he is suspected ofturning over to Aipac is a draft presidential policy directive on Iran, which would have provided a glimpse at the Bush administration's.earIy plans. But skeptics ofthe case have said that the United States and Israel routinely share highly sensitive information on military and diplomatic matters under an officially sanctioneq understanding. In addition, most ofthe contents ofpolicy drafts ilffecting either country are well known to people outside the government who follow American-Israeli affairs. As a result, some ofMr. Franklin's associates regard his efforts as an attempt to obtain Aipac's help to influence the Bush administration rather than an effort to provide Israel with information. They believe the case is the latest in a series of assaults by intelligence and Jaw enforcement agencies, who they believe are determined to diminish the influence ofconservative civilians at the Pentagon. In their view, there have been other attempts to embarrass them. In May, American officials said that Ahmed Chalabi, the leader ofthe Iraqi National Congress and a longtime ally ofthe Pentagon conserva~ives, had told Iranian intelligence officials that the Unit~d States had broken Iran's communications codes. The F.B.I. began a still-open investigation to determine who in the government had told Mr. Chalabi about the secret code-breaking operation. The investigation, which has included the use ofpolygraph examinations, has focused on Defense Department employees who both knew Mr. r ' ...-.=----. II-~ o Chalabi and knew ofthe highly classified code-breaking operation. The F.B.l's inquiry ofthe Chalabi leak may overlap with the Pranklin case because some ofthe same Defense Department officials had access to infonnation that was believed to be compromised. But officials who have briefed on the case say they remain two separate inquiries being conducted by separate teams ofinvestigators, one with jurisdiction over Iranian matters and one with jurisdiction over Israel issues. The focus and direction ofthe Franklin investigation, which was publicly disclosed Aug. 27, remains unclear. The officials said the inquiry first focused on A~pac, but later became more intense after F.B.I. agents gathered evidence indicating that Aipac officials had obtained classified information from Mr. Franklin, which was turned over to Israel. But it is unclear who, if anyone, is likely to be charged with wrongdoing and whether the government is more interested in Aipac, Mr. Franklin or the Israelis who may have received the classified material. Officials say Mr. Franklin has been cooperating with the F.B.I. since being confronted by agents several weeks ago. Two officials at Aipac, Steven Rosen and Keith Weissman, have also been interviewed by the bureau. ItI know that this is part ofa campaign against us," said MichaelMalo04 a former Pentagon analyst who worked in a special-intelligence unit created by Mr. Feith after Sept. 11. Mr. Maloof lost his security clearances because ofan investigation that he believed was unfair. He now believes that Mr. Franklin is being unfairly targeted as well. "They are picking us of~ one by one," Mr. Maloofsaid. But leading critics ofthe Pentagon hard-liners have repeatedly argued that Mr..Wolfowitz, Mr. Feith and others have used the Sept. 11 attacks as a pretext to pursue issues that in some ways mirror the interests ofIsrael's conservative Likud government. One piece ofevidence repeatedly cited by the critics is a 1996 paper issued by the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, an Israeli think tank, calling for the toppling ofSaddam Hussein in order to enhance Israeli security. Entitled "A Clean Break," the 1996 paper was intended to offer a foreign policy agenda for the new Likud government ofBenjamin Netanyahu. The paper argued: "Israel can shape its strategic environment, incooperation with Turkey and Jordan~ by weakening, containing and even rolling back Syria. This effort can focus on rell)oving Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq - an important Israeli strategic objective in its own right - as a means offoiling Syria's regional ambitions.': Among those who signe~ the paper were Mr. Feith; David Wunnser, who later worked for Mr. o I '6 • • -.-..;.-- Feith at the Pentagon and now works for Vice President Dick Cheney; and Richard Perle, a leading conservative who previously served as chainnan ofthe Defense Policy Board, a group of outside consultants to Secretary ofDefense Donald H. Rumsfeld. In the Reagan administration, Mr. Feith served as Mr. Perle's deputy at the Pentagon. 101_ ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED \1 HEREIN IS U!IICLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg' BEHIND THE HEADLINES 7 Used to working behind the scenes, I AIPAC suddenly thrust into limelight By Matthew E. Berger dmJ Print This Story Page 1of3 NEWYORK, Aug. 30 (JTA) -In its outreach to potential supporters and to the media, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee touts its access to the highest levels of government. Now it's,that very access that has thrust the pro-Israel lobby, accustomed to working behind the scenes; into the limelight. Accusations that AIPAC officials received classified information from a Pentagon staffer and forwarded it on to Israel broke on the eve of this week's Republican National Convention in NewYork, where AIPAC is hosting several policy forums for Republican contributors. According to media accounts" a non-Jewish officer on the Iranian desk at the Pentagon, Larry Franklin, is being investigated for passing at least one classified document to AIPAC officials, which may then have been forWarded to Israeli officials in Washington. Reports have suggested that Franklin could face charges ranging from espionage to the mishandling of classified information. The Jerusalem Post reported that the AIPAC officials involved were Steven Rosen and Keith Weissman, and that they h~ve spoken to federal investigators~ Rosen is AIPAC's director of research and considered one of the most influential people in the organization. He has been with AIPAC since 1982, and mentored both Howard Kohr, AIPAC's current executive director, and Martin Indyk, the former U.S. ambassador to Israel. Weissman is deputy director of foreign policy issues and specializes in relations with Iran" Syria and Turkey. AIPACwould not confirm or deny the reports. New reports also suggested that Naor Gilon, minister of political affairs of the Israeli embassy in Washington, was the subject of an FBI investigation on suspicion of espionage for Israel when Franklin came to the investigators' attention more than a year ago. - Both Israel and AIPAC deny any impropriety in the case. Many U.S. Jews believe, or hope, that no charges will be filed and that the issue will fade from the headlines in coming days., But the charges, and their prominent play in the media, have reopened questions about the way'AIPAC does business with the U.S. and Israeli. -- governments. http://www.jta.orglpage-print_story.asp?intarticleid=14440 8/31/2004 AIPAC's grassroots ~dvocacy and political lobbying departments get most of the attention. but the organization also has a thriving think tank that works to influence Middle East policy at the highest levels of government. ITA Print News o o Page 2 of3 To those who work with AIPAC in Washington, or have worked for the organization itself, the idea of information being passed from government officials to AIPAC st~ffers to Israelis seems almost commonplace. After all, these people see each other on almost a daily basis, at think-tank lunches and policy meetings throughout the capital. Information is exchanged and each participant tries to show his importance by touting what he knows and whom he has access to. -The easiest thing to learn in Washington is that no one likes to be surprised," said Jon Alterman, a former State Department official. -AIPAC doesn't like to be surprised and nobody wants to surprise AIPAC.,· In that sense, AIPAC is like any other policy organization in Washington. -Information is the currency in Washington," said Morris Amitay. AIPAC's executive director from 1974 to 1980. MAIPAC meets regularly with officials at the State Department and Defense Department, trying to find out what's going on:' It's unclear how much of the information AIPAC receives is forwarded to Israeli officials, but the coordination between the Jewish state and its advocates in Washington is considerable. Most Israeli officials who travel to Washington meet with AIPAC and exchange information. But Israeli officialS also have strong ties to the Bush administration, and receive much information directly from American governmental sources" without need of intermediaries. One congressional staffer said it was understood in Washington that AIPAC had access to the highest sources in both the U.S. and Israeli governments, and could get most information it wanted. -They are very astute at knowing who will know what they would like to find out,· said the staffer., who spoke on condition of anonymity because the FBI investigation is ongoing. -It's simply understood, based on the success they've had: But because of the issues AIPAC deals with. policy discussions can easily cross into areas of national security. increasing the chances that classified information will be passed., -There's always a real possibility that in giving a briefing. certain information that is classified could come out by the government briefers: said Neal Sheri who served as AIPAC's executive director from 1994 to 1996 and formerly worked in the U.S. Justice Department. -The lines are real blurry.· But Sher said the briefer would be the one committing the illegal act, not the one who gets the information. -Anyone with half a brain. ifsomeone is giving you a classified document. would say, 'I don't want to look at it.' • Amitay said. -Because it could be a sting: According to Newsweek. that's what occurred in the current case. Franklin reportedly tried to give documents to an AIPAC staffer, who wouldn't take them but asked for the information to be summarized orally. .http:/7wwwJta.orglpage-print_story.asp?intarticleid=14440 8/31/2004 JTA Print News When it comes to documents, federScials wHh security clearances are given 0 little leniency.}Most desks have two computers; one for classified material and one for unclassified. The e-mail systems are separate and diskettes are not allowed to be inserted into the classified system. But there's a lot more leeway when government officials brief outsiders. MHow far you go in telling people what's going on in a classified environment is a decision you have to make every daY,1II Alterman said. -There is a perception that you can trust the people you're talking to.III The congressional staffer added that much of what is classified already has been reported by the media. The recent focus on AIPAC's business practices is counter to the way the organization likes to work. AIPAC likes to shift focus away from its own professionals and onto the lay leaders and lawmakers pUblicly expressing support for the Jewish state. But that hasn't always been easy. Because Israel is such a heated topic in Washington and around the world, and because AIPAC has been successful in its mission" the group often is at the center of questions regarding U.S. support for Israel. ~ Print This SlolY Back to top" Page 3 of3 8/31/2004 Search site r"--~--"-~"''''''ra:J Israel Time: 02:23 (GMT+3) Hey'S,. • I 1~I Page lof2 [AD] B Send bye-mail @-send response ~ Print Top Articles Westward, ho This week, the voice of architect Moshe Safdie was heard for the first time in the stormy debate over the West Jerusalem plan that he conceived and that bears his name. By Es~er zandberg An expiration date In a few months. when American magazines list the great movie hits of 2004, not only "Spiderman 2" and "Shrek 2" will star at the top of the list. So will one documentary., By Uri Klein ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sq Another source said there is nothing unusual in the FBI monitoring meetings of diplomats, but said it's unlikely this was mundane surveillance, so it's possible there was suspicion ~f some kind about information reaching the Israeli embassy. Gilon knew Franklin and kept an ordinary working relationship with him as part of his job. The Israeli embassy declined comment on the affair yesterday and banned Gilon from talking to the media. An embassy official yesterday repeated.the line that these are "groundle~s and vicious allegations." Embassy sources were worried reports on the affair could hamper Gilon's duties as the main official in charge of political ties to U.S. administration officials by making them wary of meeting him. Gilon's meetings with Franklin and other administration representatives have been described by the embassy as the .daily routine of diplomats in that post. "It's exactly what all diplomats in Washington do, it's their job," an Israeli source said. Safar, the details available point to Naor Gilon, political adviser at the Israeli embassy in Washington, as the FBI surveillance target that led investigators to Franklin. Israeli sources could 'nqt say ~~~~IrIIiG.D yesterday why Gilon had been til under surveillance, but Israel does not intend to seek clarifications or protest in the matter. lilt's neither the first nor the last time diplomats have been tailed in this town," an Israeli official said yesterday. ii!i_~~!P.ii (See'IHT for further ,details) WASHINGTON· Larry Franklin, the Pentagon'data analyst suspected of funneling classified documents to Israel through the Jewish I~bby AIPAC, had been helping with the investigation for several weeks before the story broke in the media, the New York Times reported yesterday citing sources familiar with~ the case. Israel won't ask U.S. to clarify why official was being tailed By Nathan Guttman Print Edition News Business Editorial & Op-Ed Features Sports Art &Leisure Books Letters Food &Wine Tourism 'Real Estate Cartoon Friday Magazine Week's End Anglo File W. Bank fence ruling Disengagement plan Shopping service Previous Editions 'Select Day , 0 ~.."..........,...., ............... "-'"' - - . 9Qt!Q\§j I ~ I ~ l......... _.....-...-.......,............. _IHomepage News Updates Tue., August 31,,2004 Elu114. 5764 ~. .. . :. HAARETZ -Weekly Digital Edition Dlre~t to your printer mm~ A communique released by embassy officials said "as T~:': representatives of th~ state, we conduct an intensiv~ ThiS Day In. Haaretz dialogue on an'array of.topic~ wi!h o~r colleagues, in. Today's',Papers - -- all,branch~s,~~f ~,h~ a~ministrati~n~ !h~S ~i~l~gue takes http://www.haaret?:.comlhasenispages/4J.1370.html .. .- 8/30/2004 Haaretz - ISrael News - Israel WO~ U.S. to clarify why official was beOtailed Map of Israel place in a responsible, credible, professional, and completely transparent manner, as befits the nature of Useful Numbers relations between Israel and the.United States." In-depth Still, the question remains as to why Gilon was being About Haaretz watched. One possibility mentioned is that the FBI' obtained information that administration documents Tech Support were being leaked to Israel and wanted to track route Paper in PDF format ofthe leak. Headline Newsbox Another possibility is that elements opposed to Israeli [AD] policy tried to set up Gilon and Israel on false accusations. Gilon, who was on vacation for a family event in Israel, has returned to Washington and is back at work. Israeli sources said the embassy staff, Gilon included, will continue meeting as usual with administration and congressional representatives and with Jewish community leaders. The FBI has applied to neither Israel norits U.S.based representatives for any information on the affair and it has not come up in meetings with U.S. officials. Meanwhile, the America Israel Public Affairs Committee is also presenting a business as usual face. The powerful Jewish lobby noted with pride that all its events scheduled for the current Republican National Convention in New York are attracting capacity crowds. Shalom: Mole story has been exaggerated out of proportion A Foreign Ministry investigation of the Larry Franklin affair indicates that Israel's embassy in Washington acted completely according to procedure. lilt never violated the rules of diplomacy and good dialogue that we maintain with the United States.," Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom said yesterday. Referring to Naor Gilon, the embassy's political attache, Shalom said: "He meets senior administration officials in the course of his work, and there's nothing unusual about that. The fact [the FBI] is following him shows this matter has been blown completely out of proportion." (Aluf Benn) [AD] Home INews IBusiness IEditorial &Op-Ed IFeatures ISports IBooks ICartoon ISite rules I C Copyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/spages/471370~html Page 2 of2 ., :.; ». y n 8/30/2004 ..-~- ----- Jerusalem Post IBreaking News from Israel, the Middle East and the Jewish World Page 1of3 I.ll9JJ!. IJ.O.JI!" 0 14 Elul 5764, Tuesday, August 31, 20 IM.AiN::;; _ONLINE EDITION JERUSALEM POST ALL INFORliATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS tTNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg America's Voices JPost Fran~als International JP SMS Alerts Personals Media Kit Shopping Advertise »~» SeGurity·PlplQmacv ~ Article Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom responded publicly on Monday to the allegations for the first time, calling them "media nonsense" that has been blown way out of proportion. Aug. 31, 2004 0:55 Diplomat-tied to alleged mole returns to US By tiEBS KEINON ANQ lANltlE ZACHABIA ~a;~~:("~i ~l»'; ~ • .It ..... .,'...~,\.;... ,. J"" ~ I~l UmorMangl Youth AliyatStrikes Gold I,Was Able t ControlorM With a Uttle Friends - August-Top' Advertisement Ads by Google FBI ~areers Increase your salary with a career in the FBI. Free info pack. WVM' FBI lraining Online Build your career in the FBI with an online aiminal justice degree. www.apU$ edu Fbi Agents Article in BusinessWeek Read it online. Free Triall \ Foreign Ministry officials said Gilon, the political affairs minister and number three at the embassy, returned to Washington because he "did nothing wrong," and "had nothing to hide:' Newsweek reported on Sunday that FBI agents monitoring a lunchtime conversation between an Israeli embassy official, believed to be Gilon, and a lobbyist for AIPAC (the American Israel Public Affairs Committee), discovered Franklin when he "walked in" to the lunch out of the blue. Franklin, according to Newsweek, soon became a subject of the FBI investigation as well. Naor Gilon, the diplomat at Israel's embassy in Washington who reportedly had contact with alleged Pentagon "mole" Larry Franklin. returned to the US on Sunday after spending a vacation in Israel. '---__,1StarcfiI Q&.A Audio Programs Financial Tables Weather Shabbat Times SERVICES Classlficds Subscribe Archives SECTIONS Home News Opinion Columns Business Features Living Real Estate Travel&. Tourism Jewish World Books Sports Sci-Tech In Jerusalem Current Poll Cartoons Readers' Letters JPost Guides Israel programs ~ritableFunds Dating &. Relatlonshlpl tnlng with Tragedy "Israel would not do anything that could harm our best friend, the US," Shalom said at a joint press conference with German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer. liThe government of Israel categorically rejects the accusations that it spied or is spying on its best friend, the US," he said. Shalom said that meetings between embassy and US Administration officials are routine, ordinary, and part of the regular diplomatic work in Washington. He said that similar meetings and exchanges of information take place in Israel among US Embassy and Israeli government officials. Shalom said Gilon is a "dedicated worker who - as part of his job - met with administration officials, there is nothing unique or extraordinary about this. I think this has been blown out of proportion•." - - http://www.jpost.comlservlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull&cid=1093835912... 8/30/2004 Jerusalem Post IBreaking News~Israel, the Middle and the JewibWOrid Specials Shalom said~Foreign Ministry has been dealing with this case since Friday afternoon. :::t;! Estat..Q before the allegations were air~~ on CBS. Israel, Shalom said" has a firm policy that it has Coming to New York City not strayed from of not conducting any espionage activities in the us. .September 4 &. S. Page2of3 N.t.W. The only Jewish dating site you'll ever need. EI AI Online Information, special services, e·tlcketlng &. online booking. Shalom said he believes there are reasons for the timing of the leak about the investigation of Franklin, but refused to say what he thinks those reasons are. However, other Israeli officials over the last two days have said th~ allegations, coming on the eve of the Republican National Convention, are meant to embarrass US President George W. Bush, and are part of an ongoing poliCy battle in Washington being waged among officials in the State Department, CIA, and Pentagon who are at odds over US policy in Iraq. Asked whether Israel was concerned that one of its senior diplomats was being trailed by FBI agents, Shalom replied "you don't know if he was being followed." Other minister officials in the Foreign Ministry said that the "tail" on Gilon should not come as any surprise, and that the operative assumption of most diplomats abroad is that they are under a certain degree of surveillance., In New York on Monday, Sen. Gordon Smith (R·Oregon) told the Anti-Defamation League's New York regional board that the allegation of espionage made little sense. "It doesn't add up to me because I know how closely we share with the State of Israel now," said Smith, "and there is no reason for there to be any espionage operations either way. I'm very skeptical'and I've got a lot of questions to ask when we get to the appropriate hearings." One House Democratic staffer said: "My impression is that the Justice Department is backing off." VVhile CBS news originally reported'on Friday that the Justice Department was poised to "r~1I up" some agents as early as this week, the New York Times reported on Monday that no arrest appears imminent since authorities are unsure if Franklin even broke the law. Continued 11~1~ SECURITY-DIPLOMACY o IAF botches killing of Aksa M.arjyrs fugitives o IAE_ to target Kassam launch crew~ a-"~ factories • ~ir ~its are rare. i!l West Bank • Fourt..h suspect arrested for fo~cing strike o Bomb-sniffing dogs use~..f9r Jerusale~ city buses JPost Sites: JPost Audio· Shopping' Pers~mals • International JP_· ~8e'p',com Sections: ~. Busioess • Features· .Qpinion •LMng • Jpost Erao~i§ ~ .sR.o..rD. •Books' Irayel & Iourism • Real Estate· Te9h •Jewish Wod~ ~ In Jerusalem· Maps o! Israel, Looking Bac!S • ~artoons • America'~ Voice~ • Supp'lements Services: Print Edition· Jposl CD·Rom • SUbscriptions' print Classifieds • Online CI~ssif!eds • erinl Servi~s N~I . JPo_st ~~v~rtisem -. I~rael Programs' JPosl CbagUe§ • Readers' Lettet§ http://www.jpost.comlservletlSatellite?pagename=JPostlJPArticle/ShowFuU&cid=1093835912... 8/30/2004 Jerusalem Post IBreaking NewserIsrael, the Midd1~ East and the Jewit:)0rld I~formatfon: l\bout Us . feedback . Medja Kit •~. Staff E·mails • Pfivacy ~tatem_eot· CORYright ~iriks: 'Cbicago Sun:-Times Travel Deals: Hotel Beservations • Rating§ of HC?tels • event Tickets . g~oDea!,-Lodging . ~..J:JQ..tU @'""995 ! 20041he Jerusalem Post. AU rights reserved. ~I~I AdvertIse wilbJJS I !?ubscdbe I COntact Us Page3"of3 8/30/2004 Search site l--..--·...·.. -"-~ Israel Time: 03:12 (GMT+3) r 1~ Ii Page-Iof2 [AD] Q Print B. ~end bye-mail @-Send response Top Articles Chutzpah: Class 101 Sarah Augerbraun knew she wasn·t in Florida anymore when standing in line at her local supermarket, a man tried to cut in front of her. "I realized I had two options"· recalls the former Hebrew teacher. ·'1 could have either yelled at him or just ignored it." ~y Daphna Bennan An expiration date In a few months, when American magazines list the· great movie hits of 2004. not only "Spiderman 2·' and "Shrek 2" will star at the top of the list. S'o will one documentary•. By Uri Klein e, Finally. even if official Israel proves innocent, the proIsrael lobby in Washington. AIPAC. has already be~n hurt. Advertisement .Prushauer gave half a sigh of relief: ,'~'k~~=:xl"'~ If ~agan and Horev.are to be ·"{'·~~~f~;. ~ beheved, and there IS ~urrently no .;,\¥:~.,,,,..:~ ),." reason not to. then neither the ;t:i:~·;:':_;./:,4/(~-·\ ..~..J;: Mossad nor Horev's Malmab unit - which. in its previous incarnation. • was responsible for running Jonathan Pollard - is involved in the • ' affair. which threatenes to ·'..;,'.. HelJ ,t..Mnl-, .:'. reawaken all the old demons. -; Q ' But it was only haifa sigh of relief, because the Foreign Ministry's own internal investigation has no~ yet ended. Thus documents could yet be uncovered for which Franklin served as a source, whether directly or indirectly. Moreover. as the investigation progresses. suspects' confessions or polygraph tests could implicate Israel. In that case. Israel would appear to be a liar. even if its denials now are genuinely based on the best currently available information. And should Israel eventually hand over evidence against Franklin. it would appear to be a double traitor - first against its benefactor, the U.S., and then against its agent. Analysis I Damage done - true9r not By AmicQren Acting Foreign Ministry Director-General Ron Prushauer called two senior intelligence officials Friday night: Mossad chief Meir Dagan and Yehiel Horev. the defense establishment·s chief of secu~ty. Both gave him the same answer: No, we are not involved in the Larry Franklin affair. _IHomepage News Updates Sun., August 29, 2004 Elu112. 5764 Print Edition News Business Editorial &Op-Ed Features Sports Art &Leisure Books Letters Food'& Wine Tourism Real Estate Cartoon Friday Magazine Week's End Anglo File W. Bank fence ruling Disengagement plan Arab snapshots Shopping service Previous Editions SelectQay- .," ....i:J~ gg~98.1~J r"~'1o"'110~"""''''''''''.:a... ......~ I ~ This Day in H~aretz Today's Papers Map of Israel Useful Numbers In-depth About Haaretz Tech Support Paper in PDF.format 'Headline Newsbox· The importance of the Franklin affair goes far beyond the importance of the information that he allegedly gave to two AIPAC members, who in turn allegedly transmitted it to Israel. The documents, which included a draft decision by President George Bush, were all the type of staff work that is routinely . discussed by Israel·s diplomatic attaches and U.S. officials.· Indeed. getting information from U.S. officials is one of the diplomatic attaches' main jobs., Moss~d representatives and military attaches also maintain ties with American officials. The Military Intelligence representative is responsible for ties with the Defense Intelligenc~ Agency, which is the .Defense,Department's intelligence,arm and Franklin's fOJ!r1~r ~mp"loyer: . -. . ,. . " J~ . http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/spages/470420.html 8/30/2004 Under certain circumstances, any of the above embassy officials could have had reason to speak with someone working, as Franklin most recently did, for DougJas Feith, the undersecretary of defense for policy. Haaretz - Israel News - AnalYSiS(;5amage done - true or not [AD.] o Page2of2 Feith was one of the leading administration advocates of a tough line on Iran, the war in Iraq and strong support for Israel. Others include Undersecretary of State John Bolton, Vice President Richard Cheney" Cheney's chief of staff, Scooter Libby, and Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz. This group is opposed on all three issues by the CIA, Secretary of State Colin'Powell and other State Department officials. Thus Israel has been caught in the crossfire of a policy war within the U.S. administration - one unlikely to end even if Bush is reelected in November. Wolfowitz, whom Bush likes, would probably have trouble getting Senate confirmation for a promotion; Feith was considered a leading candidate for ouster even before the Franklin affair; Bolton's status has been undermined; and the entire group viewed Bush's nomination of Porter Goss for CIA director as a blow, as Goss has close ties with the agency and its outgoing head, George Tenet, the group's long-time rival. Another agency whose battle for survival is liable to hurt Israel, albeit unintentionally, is the FBI, whose signal failure to prevent the September 11, 2001 attacks led both to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and to calls for removing counterterrorism from the FBI's aegis and transferring it to a new agency, similar to Britain's M15. The FBI is thus determined to prove to be outstanding at the top two items on its new agenda: preventing terrorism and preventing espionage. The man who is heading the FBI's investigation against Franklin, Dave Szady, has repeatedly said that he views no person, agency or country as above suspicion. In his view, Israel, along with Taiwan, France, Japan, India and others, is on the list of friendly countries that "nevertheless try to steal our secrets.nHe once stated in an interview that only the prevention of mass-casualty terror attacks is more important than counterespionage. He added that today, it is not only America's enemies, but also its allies that try to steal its secrets - and while embassies and consulates remain the bases for such activity, he continued, foreign governments today also employ stUdents" scientists and nfrontncompanies. ~ ~OD [AD] Home INews IBusiness IEditorial & Op-Ed IFeatures ISports IBooks ICartoon ISite rules I oCopyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/spages/470420.html 1.. y 8/30/2004 Jerusalem Post IBreaking Newst:rIsrael, the Middle East and the Jewi~Or1d Page 1of 2 J.&lsL.In.I ~...nt 14 Elul 5764, Tuesday, August 31, 20 .16"&LMONLINE EDITION JERUSALEM POST ALL INFORMATION CONTAlr~D HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsq America's Voices JPost Fran~ais International JP SMS Alerts Personals Media Kit Shopping Advertise In 1988, the investigative show 60 Minutes ran a critical piece on AIPAC using information supplied by its former communications director (and ex-Jerusalem Post reporter) Barbara Amouyal. Among the material supplied by Amouyal was an internal memo suggesting that the media be fed stories regarding Jesse Jackson's private life. Unfortunately for the influential ,pro-Israel lobbying group, this new affair is turning far too much of the media spotlight on an organization that prefers to work behind the scenes on Capitol Hill. But it is hardly the first time AIPAC has found itself at the center of public controversy, although never in such a serious matter as receiving classified security material. lAPI lImor Mangl '\I Youth Allyar ~trlkes Gold I Was Able t Control of M With a Utt'e friends Ads by GOOQle AugustTop Advertisement [AD] So wrote Steven Rosen, AIPAC director of foreign policy issues, in an internal organizational memo several years ago. "A lobby is like a night flower; It thrives in the dark and dies in the sun." Aug. 29, 2004 22:08 I Updated Aug. 30, 2004 19:00 Background: Not AIPAC's first controversy By CAl.E\I BEN-DAYIQ 'a,flgt~ Si·i)·= ~ .... ' ..... 1> ,,_ ... _.~. SERVICES Classifieds Subscribe Archives SECTIONS Home News Athens 2004 o..Q.9 Opinion Columns Business Features Living Real Estate Travel 8c. Tourism Jewish World Books Sports Sci-Tech In Jerusalem Current Poll Cartoons Readers' Letters Q8cA Audio Programs Financial Tables Weather Shabbat Times JPost Guides I~rael P~ogrjlms Djltlng &. Relationships ~,-ng with ~raged~ Also induded in the 60 Minutes report was another internal memo which seemed to direct how political action committees should donate money to specific pro-Israel ca~didates, a possible violation of federal law forbidding lobby groups such as AIPAC from directly involving themselves in elections. A subsequent investigation by the Federal Elections Commission deared AIPAC of any violations., Nonetheless, AIPAC continues to face accusati()ns that it unduly interferes in the electoral process, especially'from politicians who credit their defeats at the polls to the organization's efforts., The most notable example in recent years was the 2002 congressional race, in which two Georgia Democrats, incumbents Cynthia McKinney and Earl Hilliard, were defeated in party primaries by contenders perceived as more pro-Israel. McKinney subsequently commented: "Despite the fact that I easily won the Democratic vote, 40,000 Republicans maliciousl~ crossed over and overtook the Democratic Primary. And because AIPAC had telegraphed in newspaper arti~esJhat they wer~ goinJJ to target ~oth Earl 8/30/2004 Page 2 of2 AIPAC has sometimes even found itself on the receiving end of criticism from the Israeli governments whose positions it is charged to support. This was especially so during the early years of the Oslo Accords. when an organization viewed by many on the Jewish left as traditionally more right-leaning, seemed slow to adjust itself to Israel's sudden political shift. N&Wl The only Jewish dating site you'll ever need. Jerusalem Post IBreaking Newse:;Israel, the Middle East and the Jewi~h World, Specials Hilliard and me, the Democratic Party was paralyzed." 0 Israel Real Estate Sh.oi'£W Coming to New York City September 4 & 5. EI AI Online Infonnatron, spedal services, e-ticketlng & online booking. In 1992. newly elected prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, in a closed-door meeting with AIPAC leaders in Washington" reportedly told them in harsh terms they had gone too far in antagonizing the Bush administration in the battle to gain loan guarantees sought by the previous Shamir govemment. The next year AIPAC vice-president Harvey Friedman referred to deputy foreign minister Yossi Beilin in the presence of a reporter as a "little slimebaU:' after Beilin had complained that Friedman had spoken approvingly of transferring the Palestinians. Friedman SUbsequently left AIPAC as the organization sought to improve ties with the Rabin govemment., AIPAC's efforts to keep a low media-profile have also led to accusations that it has put undue pressure on journalists, especially from the Jewish press, who cover it critically. Among them is Washington Jewish Week reporter larry Cohler, who earlier this year told an Internet site: ''Their mission statement doesn't say anything about them mucking around in Jewish newspapers. AIPAC tried to get me fired, [and editor)'Andy [Silow-Carrol] fired [from The Washington Jewish Week in 1992]." (AIPAC has denied those charges.) Given its task, it is inevitable that AIPAP will serve as a perennial whipping-boy for antiSemitic Jewish conspiracy theorists. and as the phantom spoiler by disgruntled anti-Israeli politicians who fall short at the ballot box. But its reported involvement in the Pentagon-leak story will force it to handle mainstream-media damage control of the like the organization has not yet known. SECURITY-DIPLOMACY o I~~ ~otches killing ofAksa Martyrs fugitives o rAE to ta!get~~ssam launch cre~s and fact0!ies • N[hits are rare in West Baok o Fou~h suspect arrested (or forcing strike o Bomb-sni~ng ~ogs used for Je~u~alel!l city buses (~J JPost Sites: J'post Audio· Shopping· Personals· Intematio~al J~ !' JRep,corp Sections: ~. Business • Features!' QRin19.n • living .. J~ost Fran@is •~• Books· Travel &Tourism ,. Real Estate· Jech • Jewish Wodd -In Jerusalem ~ Maps of Israel· Looking Back • Cartoons· America:s Vgis:§s • ~"p-Iemeg~ Services: Print Edition' JPost CD-Rom· ~tions • Print Classifieds . Online Classifieds • Print Services N~WI .• JPost Advertisers • Is@el Programs· JPgst ChaO!les -; Readers' Letters- - - - Information: ~bout Us • E~edback • Media Kjt •~. Staff E-mails·priv.acy Statement •~..Y!i9bJ Links: Chicago Sun-:Times Travel Deals: Hotel Reservations· Rating~ o~ Hotels· Event Tickets· European Lodging' Cheap' Hotels @ 1995 - 2004 The Jerusalem Post. All rights reserved. ~I~I Advertise wjtb Us I, Subscdbe I CoQtact Us 8/30/2004 Haaretz - Israe.l News - Making't:runtain into a molehill . ISRld 'MuttClNJ!!j ..~.....~-- . ALL INFOrorATION CONTAINED ":..~......, :OneClick HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~~.. Hundreds r: '~:;I,.,t of Deals!' DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sabj lsg I I 1f II :p~age-l qf2 [AD] ~ Print B Send bye-mail @-Send response Top Articles ~hutzpah: Class 101 Sarah Augerbraun knew she wasn't in Florida anymore when standing in line at her local supermarket. a man tried to cut in front of her. "I realized I had two options," recalls the former Hebrew teacher. "I could have either yelled at him or just ignored it." By Daphn~ Bennan An expiration date In a few months, when American magazines list the great movie hits of 2004, not only "Spiderman 2" and "Shrek 2" will star at the to·p ofthe list. So will· one documentary. By Uri Klein Israel Time:, 02:19 (GMT+3) Searc~ site r Making a mountain into a molehill By Aklya Eldar It now looks by all accounts like Larry Franklin will. at worst, be tried for mishandling sensitive material. In other words, he'li be charged with leaking information to the pro.;.lsraellobby AIPAC. "Sensitive" data of this sort, or of an even more s~nsitive nature, is routinely conveyed during meetings between American officials and Israeli diplomats under the bright lights· of upscale restaurants in th~ heart of Washington,' D.C. Advtrtlstmtnt .The real problem threatening Israel- '.t-:~. ...7'..A'i~'~'" , u.s. relations and the Jewish .~~~\~~ .~ community does not reside in this ~~ ~~..;;1.~~:~::. ~ small-fry from the Pentagon and the .1- ~. ~~;Ii ~~~:.::J classification grade of the leaked t~l1'~ ,f.~:I":': ;; document, but rather in the • suspicion of something fishy at the top. The murky waters of this affair will provide ample fishing grounds for political rivals and conspiracy ~...;.z;:l .........~~,;w buffs. First they'lIland Franklin's boss, Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith, and thenthey'll hook the entire group of neoconservatives of which he is one of the leaders. That is the' group of Israel's friends, inclUding many Jews, that pushed President Bush to go to war in Iraq. Th~ best form of defense being offense. spokespeople for the Israeli government insinuated that anti-Israel elements are behind the affair. Republican representatives point to "Democratic agents" among senior FBI officials who want to spoil things for Bush on the eve of his party's convention. They may be right. But you don't need Franklin and the classified Iranian document to draw fire at the conspiracy to take over Iraq. As members of think tanks several years ago. Feith and his. friends volunteered an open document' in which they laid bare their Israeli-American plot to change the face of the entire Middle East. In 1996, a conservative IsraeliAmerican research institute invited Feith and others, including Richard Perle who headed an advisory panel to the Pentagon known as the Defense Policy Board, to put together a strategic manual for the incoming prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu., Feith is responsible for the following paragraph from that document: "Israel can shape its strategic environment. in cooperation with Turkey and Jordan, by weakening, containing, and even rolJing back Syria. This effort can focus on removing Saddam Hussein fr9m power in Iraq - an importar)t Israeli strategic objective in its own right'- as'a means of ""foiling Syria'sregional ambitions." ,iI ---~.• News Updates Print Edition News Business Editorial &Op-Ed Features Sports Art & Leisure aooks Letters Food &Wine Tourism Real Estate Cartoon Friday M~gazine Week's End Anglo File W.. Bank fence ruling Disengagement plan Arab snapshots Shopping-service Previous Editions S~Da~; ~-tTI1 •0. _-Q0J".1Q0~1..~ fid_3:::::=:~:l;Zr.::t~~· DHomepage Mon., August 30, 2004 Elul13, 5764 -this Day in Haaretz Today's Papers Map of Israel Useful Numbers In-depth About Haaretz Tech Support Paper ill PDF format - Headline Newsoox ~ -..,. ...... "',~ - ... - _.:- .~ .. http://www.haaretz.comlhasen/$pages/470871.html 8/30/2004 Haaretz - IsraelNews - Making ~ountain into a molehill 0 [AD] The document goes on to state that "Jordan has challenged Syria's regional ambitions recently by suggesting the restoration of the Hashemites in Iraq ... Since Iraq's future could affect the strategic balance in the Middle East profoundly, it would be understandable that Israel has an interest in supporting the Hashemites in their efforts to redefine Iraq." Six years later, members of that same group supported the half-baked idea to crown Jordan's Prince Hassan as Iraq's ruler. If anyone was looking to use Franklin to sock Feith in the weak spot of dual loyalty, in order to hurt Bush, they could have located its sources in that very same open document. Its authors provided the head of a foreign government tips on manipulating U.S. members of Congress. They suggested that he take advantage of the period remaining before the November '96 presidential and congressional elections to obtain "a benign American reaction" for his/their policy. In exchange for the free advice. they asked for Netanyahu's help in recruiting members of Congress who "care'Very much about missile defense" to counter an agreement with Russia on reining in proliferation of long-range missiles. Feith and his friends promised in that document that Israeli support for the missile plan would assist efforts to relocate the U.S. embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. That initiative, sponsored by the Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole, was the brainchild of the neoconservatives and their friends at AIPAC., It utterly contravened the view held by president Bill Clinton and prime minister Yitzhak Rabin that initiatives of that sort do not help build trust between Israel and the Palestinians. Perhaps that is the strongest proof of all that the neoconservatives and Jewish lobbyists do not serve two masters. They serve themselves, and that's the trouble. [AD] Home INews IBusiness IEditorial & Op-Ed IFeatures ISports IBooks ICartoon ISite rules I C Copyright 2004 Haaretz. All rights reserved Page 2 o£.2 8/30/2004 ~lran-Sonira 11'/" b~ Joshua Micah M~rshall, Laura Roze... ..... \ -'4 - '.. , 0 ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED I!!"\ .."'f' .... _J\ HEREIN IS TJ1.JCLASSIFIED ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/1sg • nji;ni]iiIE~fl!m5i1Era Nev~.r#r!lis~.a:.Sin~~~ ~~~~e Subscribo ol>fit'le &save 33% off' _ne\'Vs51oltdimce Respond to this Article September 200,. Iran-Contra II? Fresh scrutiny on a rogue Pentagon operation. By JosbuaMicab Marsball, Laura Rozen,·and Paul Glastris i __'_ .....1x:;zs -4ZS;;;:_ = azaSA : _ U_S ;SQ............. t On 'ri~a~ tv¢rUn~, ~as N¢\VS t¢pOt1~d. ttiat Jf)~ FlU i~ Jny~sJi~aUh~ a~u~peqt~d mole in tlie Department ofDefeiise wlio allegedlY passed to Israel, yilt apro-ISraeli Ip~bYiiig otgatiii.iltl~ii, classifled Am~i¢~ iiittiUlg~ttc~ abQit~ Iron. Tne fp~U~ (Sflhe iIive~tigiUiofi, according to u.s. government 6fficiiUs, is Larry VtanIdhi, aveteran Oe&"s~ Int~mg~n~ A&e~¢y Itati ~~IY$t tiQW wotk!t\g bi Ui¢ olli\:e. b.fthe Pentagon's nuiiiber tliree civilian official, UlidersecreWf ofDefeiiSe for PoJic~ Douglas Feith. .. The investigation ofFranklin is now shininB. a bript lig,ht on a shadowy struggle within the Bush adminislration over the direction ofU.S. policy toward Iran. In partic~J1ar, the FBI is lookin~ with renewed interest at an unauthorized back-chann~l between Iranian dissidents and advisers in Feith's office, which more senior adm.inistration officials first tried in vain to shut down .and then later attempted to cover up. ftanlUin, a,IOiig Witlt at\~tlt~t coU¢,{igU¢ f(iPi F¢Uh's ~Uli¢~, Bp9.lyg)QI Midgl~ EftSt expert name(f Harold Rhode, were tlie two offichils involved in tfie back-cliiiiiiiel, wJii~h ifivolv¢d on-going m~~tjng~ iUl4 ~6fi~c~ \YUh h1lmaii ijnn~ d¢aler Manucher Glioi'biiiiifar and other Itaiiian eXiles, dissidentS and government officials. QhQrbsmif(\r- i$ nsfQri¢(j figUf~ WI'4$5 PI4ye.<I ~ k¢Y TQle'h\ embl:Qilirtg t"~ :R.~agl)n adliihiistrati6n iii tne Iran-Contra affair. Tne meetiJi~S were bolli a coiidUit (or¢Ulg~n~e (lbout It~il ~nd flflq ~p4 p~ pfjll>itt~r ~SJ.~injstrati9fiPQ\V¢r-~tru.ggle pittmg officials at DoD who liiive b~iiiii!ShiDg fof Ii IUird-liilepollcy of"regiMe . 9ft(1ng~" iii Iran, si~{lUis( ()thcf ~m¢hils Jit Jh€l St~te Department and the CIA 'who nave been coUiiselin~ aliiore cautious approach. R¢PQi1$ o.fnvo oftlj~e m~¢thigS fi~t surf~¢¢d !i: Y~fii' 4galn Newlday, ~Qa h.Q.y~ smte been the subject ofan oiigamg mvestigati6ft by the Senate Select Committee sin nU¢mg<)n~a, Wlletlt¢f Ot- hoW th~ m~~titig~ nt¢ ~dj\tie¢t¢(I to tl\~ !lll~g~d espioihi~6 feiiUiirts unknown. But tlie fBI is now closelr scfutiiUzbi~ tHem. Whil¢ th¢ Fal is JOQkb.\g At tlie m~eUjigs ~ P'prt pf itS ~tiinit1al hlve§UgatiQil, t~ .coiigressioiUiI mvestigat6rs the GliorBiiiiifar back-channel typifies tlie oUt-6f..coiilr61 bureaucratic turfwari which have characterized and often hobbled Bush I.of4 ':lran-Contra lrr by Joshua Micah Marshall, Laura Roze... .~.~ ~ ~' b 2of4 http://www.washingtonmonthly.comlfeatures/2004/041 ... Q admhustiilUQi) PoJicY-ttiftKlng. And an UiVestigaQQn,by 1'h~ WMhlngtQl1 Miilltl11ym6ludiiig a tareS ililehriew willi Ghorb8.iiifar - adds w6iglit to those concerns. The tftc.¢tlngS {\1m Qut to hAve ij~eil (clt·m6i~ E}xten~UV9 (lp(l mU9h l¢s~ "tidefW"it~ House ~onti'61 tlian otigmally reponed. One ofthe meetingS, wliich Pentagon Qfli4ilU~ lia.Y~ long 9bc)ia¢t~ii~d AS metely (l "Qhl\il<t~ e.ftCs)'Piiter" ~¢em$ itrfact tQ have Been plaiiiied long in advance by RHode and Gh6i'baiiifar. Another has never b~~h repO-tlc(l in Ute .t\m¢tl~ pt~sS,·T"~ ~~inifii~trotiOl\'s r~lUctai1~ ttl dis~I9.S~ these d61ails seems clear: the D6D·Gh6rbanifar meetings sUggest tlie possiOiliiY tmit ft rog\ie fa9tion ~t tli4 p~ntP.goti w~ trying t9 WQrl( 9U.tSj4~ r\p1m~llJS fot<:igp policy cwiliiiels to advance a "tegidie cliiiiig6" agenda not approve(f by the president's foreign policy principals or even the"presl'dent himself. .. The Italian Job T!t~! .~e~ti!1g 9C9~4 in !t.9Wf? !I! R«:~c:ml]c:.r, fOO!.. !t ~1!91!1~~~ Fra..rt!Un! Rhode, and another American, the neoconservative writer and operative Michael 1ede~E, ~!l9 Q!mtl!l~~ .the.~e!!l!g: (J\~!?~r~i.,g t<) \JPJ;.~e~~el! ~~ 11!~n wo!~ing to~ Feith as a consultant.) AlSo in attendance was 9horbanitar and a number ot 9!~~r !t!nil!n.s; Q!!~ Qft~~ !r~'l!~n~;. ~2C9r~t~g tQ ~2 ~Qt;J~~~ ,f~!i3! w!tb th~ meeting; was a tonner $enior member ofthe Iranian Revolutionary Guard who ~!!lirn~~ t9 have !~r9rm!1~ig~ .~~9!lt Ql~..s!4el).t !!'!~ ~j~LI) !i!~ }J'!Ili~ ~~9P,rUY services. Th6 Washington Monthly has also learned from U.S. government sources t.h~t ~i9Q!9. POnani the:' I!f!@q QfI~jy'~ w.iUt:yy !nt~tl~g~n-Q~ I}g~nQY; §tSMI; ~ttended the meetings, as did the Italian Minister ofDefense Antonio Martino, who is well-known In neoconservative circies in Washington. AIann bells about the December 2001meeting began going off in U.S. government channels only days after it occurred. On Dec. 12,2001, at the U.S. embassy in Rome, AmeFica's newly-installed ambassador, Mel Sembler, silt down for a private dinner with Ledeen, an old friend ofhis from RepubUcan Party politics, and Martino, the Italian defense minister. The conversation quickly turned to the meeting. The problem was that this was the first that Amb. Sembler had heard about it. According to U.S. government sources, Sembler immediately set about try{ng to determine what he could about the meeting and how it had happened. Since u.S. government contact with foreign government intelligence agencies is supposed to be overseen by the CIA, Sembler first spoke to the ciA station chief in Rome to fmd out what ifanything he knew about the meeting with the Iranians. But that only raised more questions because the station chiefhad been left in the dark as well. Soon both Sembler and the Rome station chief were sending anxious queries back to the State Department and CIA headquarters in Langley, Va., respectively, raising alanns on bOth sides ofthe Potomac. . Tne ro~eUng WC}S a; $QUN¢. ufCQnc~m fot a~etiea of pv~tlapph)g t~$l$.Qns. S.jD~~ tli~ hUe 19805, Oh6tbdnifar has been the subject 6ftw6 CIA "bUm notices." The agency ~"1,"t."'!•'i•f. a,t1·s.·a ~p8~·n·E'tI ""lial.v.n·cator" W~"'I,d ~l\tIklW~c"'!ll jf~~ O.' J. t~"'g~ • anything to do with him. Moreover, whY were riiid·level Pentagon officials orgqiUtjpg ti1~~tiiu~s with qf.Qtei~1\ ti\(elJigen~e pgency J)eh.ltt(nh~ ~agJ{ Qftti6ClA -- ~ clear 6reacli ofU.S. govenrnlent pf6t6c61? Tliere was also a ma.tter ofpersonal ~°hoag,.ttti.fcQt SemH"'I.e"r; A,t S,Ult~ n~e"p~rt!m.e."t)\lf",'rc:.g'tt9.ntJ~l.~ h1'\(,f J"P.~•t.b.Oe~n QiiUtJ.c')J"1J,ng the Italiitns to te5ttabi theit contacts ~ith bad-acting states like Iran (with Which Italy has extensive trade ti~). .. • 9115/20049:1S'PM '~Iran-Gmtra II?" by Joshua Micah Marshall, Laura Roze... http://WWW.WaGgtonmOnthIY.COmlfeaturesl2004/04l... ~--~ . 0 A~¢~tdin~ tQ u,s! ~QV~tntnent $()yt<i~, botJ1 the s.tate O¢pilllJll.ebt aiiSJ tJi¢ (;11\ eveiitti'a11y broUght the matter to tile attention oftli.e White Hobse - specifi~8JJY, ~o ~o.ng9.1e¢~ Ri~'$ ~lli~f d..epUtY em tI1~ N4tipmU ~e¢pfitY C9.U"~il, ~f¢J)n~n J.. fladley. Later, Italian spy cniefP611ari ia!sed the matter ~rivately willi Tenet, who mmseifW§i\t tQ lIa~J1~Y in ~ly Febnlary 2QQ~, qQ~~~d by T¢iu1t, »{idl~y llent Word to tlie offichils in Feith's office and to Udeeii to cease au ~Ucli activities. Hadley then contacted Sembler, assuring him it wouldn't happen again and to report back if ~ili4 - rh~ otd,ets, ho.\vev~t, ~¢ell\ tQ lt4Y~ ItJig Uttl¢ btT¢ct fof fI sC«Qhd iiie~titig W~ s!)on D uiiderway. AccordiJig to astory pbblished this suiiiiiier in Carriere. de//& Sera, a 1~a.(Uilg lialiiln daUy;fl\i~ $~¢Qn~f Ui~¢tlflg toP-\( phlc¢. iii ROin~ iti J.un~ AOP~r Gh6r'bimifai'tells The Wasliinglon Monthly thiit lie arranged that meeting after a t. .fltillY Qf(axes betWe~n binl~elf jijd.Ob.P ofli¢jQJ Harold'RJiRde. did not attend it tlliiiself, Gliorbiiiiifar says the meeting coiiSisted ofan Egypliah, an Iiaqi, ----~a Hlgn:~~n uIS. gQY~fMi~rit pft'iqial, WhOSQ n4M¢.Ilt; (i~clin&f t<) r~Y~i\I. Tile fitSt tWo· briefed the Ariiericfui 6fficial al>6bt the general situation in Iraq and tlie MJ4dle E\1$t, iUld wha~ Would Il~p~il iii Ji"aq, "AnU itl~ JiliptU~ile(f Wotd t.Qt Word smce," says Gl\orbaiiifar. Aspokesman for the NSC declmed to coiiiiiieiit on tliis ~t1d <)m¢t·fi\e~titig~ an4 t¢feff~s1 '[lie JJ'.~/ifiigtdti Man/ltly t2 Jhe Oef¢hs~ Department, whi¢1i did not iesp6i1d to iepeat~d iriquities.·Udeeii also refused to comment . ~ . No on~ at th~ U.S. ~Jl11}assy ip ~Otnc, ~e~l11$ tQ bA.v~ l<nQwn ~]lQ1At tllis s~gorut ~Qtnll meetlli~. Blit tli~ baclt·cliailflel's continUing eXistence became apparent tli~ fo1l6WiIig Jliopt~ 00- Jul~ 200~ -- \yJi~ii Lec(e~jl il~alri coijJQqtijeJ Sepil1l~r i\ng 191~ liim tn3t he'9 De back hi ROme In SeptemBer to conthiiie "fiis worK" wItIi the Iranians (TIiis time Lea~.~i1 made fig mer\U<)n bf~ny inyolY~m~nt llt P~titJlgQn offlQii\lai IA\e~, ti~ told SemBle; it woUld fie bi August ratner tliWi Septenilier.) Ali exasperated Semliler !i$iliil ~~nt WDi'4 ij~~k t9 WM!llnetotl, lind Hadley again went lilto motioil felling LOOeen, hi no uncertain terms, to back off. Qn~e fig<}ip, "()W~V~f, Hqd.l~Y~ ord~~ $C;~ro tQ IhWe goii~ unh~~d~~. Alirtilst it year hiter in 'June 2003, there wef~ still furtlier meetings iii Paris iiivolving Rliode atld fjhot~Ailifa.t. Ohod;anifii.f saYR the nllfl) ()fthcffi\e~tillg was (Qf JUll)~~ tb g~t Jiiore information on the sifui\ti6ii iii Ifciq and tlie Middle East. "In tllose ti\eeiIDgS w¢ meJ, we gav~ him me ~¢¢hqtio, wn~fWQql4 ~~pp.~i1 hi (lie ~b.ii1itiit d(l.ya iilltaij. And everrtliin~ has happened word for word as we told liitn," Gli6rbanifar.repeats. 1 '!Wt met ji1 ~v~tal difft;t~t'lt places in Paris," he says. "Mode met several other people -lie didri't oiiJr meet ine." Not a "chance encounter" .By the summer of2003, the Senate Select Committee.on Intellisence had beaun to get wInd ofthe Ghorbanlfar-LedeenooDoD back-channel and made inquiries at the GIA, Amonth later! Newsdfll broke~the, original story about the secret Ghorbanifar channel. Faced with the disclosure, Secretary ofDefense Rumsfeld a9knowledged the December 2001 meeting but dismissed it as routine and unimportant. .. "The infonnation has moved around the interagency process to all the departments and agencies,'l he told reporters in Crawford, Texas, after a meeting with Bush. "As .I understand it, there wasn't anything there. that was ofsubstance or of value that needed to be pursued further." Later that day, another senior Defense official b6 b7C , "3 of4 9/15/2004 Q:15.PM, 'i,ran-C,ontra ll?" by Joshua Micah M\U'Shall, LauraRoze... .' http://www.was~gtonmonthly.comlfeaturesl2004/041... J2~. ,••.~ • O. '.. nckiioWI~dg~d U1¢ $~~Qnd tij¢etifig jn P.C\ii~ tti JlJn~ ?o.OJ, ~UI msi~te(l. that It \v~ the resUlt ofa ",cliaiice encoiJiiter" betWeen Gli6i'baiiifar and a P.eii~6ii omci.tU. The administration has,kept to the "chance encounter" story to this day. Ghorbanifar, however, lau~s offthat idea. "Run into each other? We had a prior arrangement," he told The Washington Monihly.: "It involved a Jot ofdiscussion and a lot ofpeople." 9y~r !he J~t Y~!I'; th~ ~~q~tc: JtJ,eIJjg~n9~ ~9mf!lj~~~ ~!lS _con~!1c~~9 1imjt~9 in.q!1iry into the meetln~, inoluding interviews with Feith and Ledeen. But under terms ofa QQmpt9mi~~ agr~~4 to ~y "9th P~i~i @wit inv~tigtltiqn intQ th~ fn;~!ter WM nl!t off until after the November eleotion. Republioans on the committee, many ofwhom $YR1P~!p.f~ wjqt th~ tt~gi.l!le ~h~g~ri·~gen~~ ..l!t ~Q.D, P~v~. JJ~n 1~~1~.~! .!9&~':lth investigations, calling them an election-year fishing expedition. Democrats, by <1QPt~t, ~t~ §l:I94 i!lV~§1ig~t~qp~ ~ yi~a! tq l!q<!e~t~4!pg tlt~ ~~tlt~! rgitt f~lth's office may have played in arange ota dubious intelligence enterprisest trom p~hjng ~l~!~~ J!!lQ~! ~ ~uPP9.~~d ~a4~~I]1-:~J Q!\~~~ pa!t'!~!~Np !1P~ QV~f~JQWn estimates ofalleged Iraqi stocks ofWMe to what the committee's ranking minority m~1P.~~r Sen:.l~Y R9~~fc;l!er Q?-V{~V~.) ~~il~ lithe} Gh~I~~! fc!~!Qti' {@94e ~nd others in Feith's office have been major sponsors otthe Iraqi exile leader~ who is P9W ~Q~er jny~~dga!J9,Q 19.f p~~J,tg \J.~: iI}!~mg~:9~¢ ~9l~):.Wi'h.tiJ~ f~I ~{lding potential espionage charges to the mix the long-simmering questions about the activities ofFeith's operation now,seem certain to come under renewed scrotiny. Research assistance provided by Claudio Lavanga. Image ilJ web link is aphoto ofGhorbanifarfrom the mid-1980s, around the time of Iran-Contra. - J.o.shP-l'lMicahM. a' r.$. ."i\II is .a. "U.'ds.h.1i1J6lttm" .t M,.ee"mIuz.Ol ' c-~~ht,0'b}.'l,fI'D''(oj '"1,;h;",e' t I"th.d the. editor ofTalJdiig P.6iJitS Memo. uui=a Rozeii tepoiti6ii tiatioiiJil secbrity issues fi'Qnt W~t\in~~Qn·RC·ii"a·f6t"fi~fW~bl(jg War add Piece. ~he 9ltft li~ t~dPh.~d Sit Iktozeii~tali66.c6iii. Pabl Glasttis is edlt6F ifi"clliefof the Was1iiri~lOn Man/hit. • - - ¥ 40f4I Mission Masthead FeatureS Archive Writers Guidelines Feedback Customer Service Subscribe Online Make A Donation 1'lti~ sit~ ¥~ ~IJ'~Qt~nts \v~th!!i ~ft: Copyti~t 9 ~Q04 The Washington Monthly 733 15th sf.NW Suite 520 Washington DC. 20005. CommentS or questiohs ... please email ChiisUna LatSorl lSy clicklhg~ 911~/2004 9:15 PM ... .... ~'. ,LEXIS®-NEXIS® View Prin~e Page ~ ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED <::> HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/sab/lsg Page 1 of4 \ Copyright 2004 Los Angeles Times All Rights Reserved Los Angeles Times September 3, 2004 Friday Correction Appended Home Edition SECTION: MAIN NEWS; National Desk; Part A; Pg. 1 LENGTH: 1614 words HEADLINE: TijE WORLD;. Israel Has Long Spied on U.S., Say Officials '" BYLINE: Bob Drog~,n and Greg Miller, Times Staff Writers DATELINE: WASHINGTON BODY: . Despite its fervent denials, Israel se<?retly maintains a large and active intelligence~gathering operation in the United States that has long attempted to recruit U.S. officials as spies and to procure classified documents, U.S. government officials said. FBI and other counterespionage agents, in turn, have covertly followed, bugged and videotaped Israeli diplomats, intelligence officers and others in Washington, New York and elsewhere,~e officials said. The FBI routinely watches many diplomats assigned to America. Offici~ls said FBI surveillance ofa senior Israeli diplomat, who was the subject ofan FBI inquiry in 1997-98, played a role in the latest probe into possible Israeli spying. The bureau now is investigating whether a Pentagon analyst or prQ-Israellobbyists provided Israel with a highly classified draft policy document. The document advocated support for Iranian dissidents, radio broadcasts into Iran and other· efforts aimed at destabilizin~ the regime in Tehran, officials said this week. The case is unresolved, but it hasIhighlighted Israel's unique status as an extremely close U.S. ally that presents a dileIlU)la for U.S. counterintelligence officials. "There is a huge, aggressive, ongoing set ofIsraeli activities directed against the United States," said a former intelligence official who was familiar with the latest FBI probe and who recently left government. "Anybody who worked in counterintelligence in a professional capacity will tell you the L 11 Israelis are among the most aggressive and active countries targeting the United States." 7 ~ The form~r official·discounted repeated Israeli denials that the country exceeded acceptable limits to obtain information. ~ ~~~ \s)<;Y-- ~ b6 .~ b7C https:/Iwww.nexis.comlresearch/search/submitViewTagged 04 ~lpr . LEXIS®-NEXIS®View Printable Page . () Page 2 of4 '''They undertake a wide range oftechnical operations'and human operations," the former official said. "People here as liaison ... aggressively pursue classified intelligence from people. The denials are laughable.II Current and former officials involved with Israel at the White House, CIA, State Department and in Congress had similar appraisals, although not all were as harsh in th~ir assessments. A Bush administration official confirmed that Israel ran intelligence operations against the United States. "I don't know ofany foreign government that doesn't do collection in Washington,1I he said. AnotherU.S~ official familiar with Israeli intelligence said that Israeli espionage efforts were more subtle than aggressive, and typically involved the use ofintermediaries. But aformer senior intelligence official, who focused on Middle East issues, said Israel tried to recruit him as a spy in 1991. "I had an Israeli intelligence officer pitch me in Washington at the time ofthe first Gulf War," he said. "I said, 'No, go away,' and reported it to counterintelligence." The U.S. officials all insisted on anonymity because classified material was involved and because ofthe political sensitivity ofIsraeli relations with Washington. Congress has shown little appetite for vigorous investigations ofalleged Israeli spying. In his fust public comments on the case, Israel's ambassador, Daniel Ayalon, repeated his governmen~'s denials this week. til can tell you here, very authoritatively, very categorically, Israel does not spy on the United States," Ayalon told CNN. "We do not gather information on our best friend and ally." Ayalon said his government had been "very assured that this thing will just fizzle out. There's nothing there.II In public, Israel contends it halted all spying operations against the United States after 1986, when Jonathan Jay Pollard, a former Navy analyst, was convicted in U.S. federal court and sentenced to life in prison for selling secret military documents to Israel. U.S.. officials say the case was never fully resolved because a damage-assessment team concluded that Israel had at least one more high-level spy at the time, apparently inside the Pentagon, who had provided serial numbers ofclassified documents for Pollard to retrieve. The FBI has investigated several incidents ofsuspected intelligence breaches involving Israel since the Pollard case, including a 1997 case in which the National Security Agency b'pgged'two Israeli intelligence officials in Washington discussing efforts to obtain a sensitive U.S. diplomatic document. Israel denied wrongdoing in that case and all others, and no one has been prosecuted. But U.S. diplomats, miljtary officers and other officials are routinely warned before going to Israel that local agents are known to slip into homes and hotel rooms ofvisiting delegations to go through briefcases and to copy computer files. "Any official American in the intelligence' community or in the foreign service gets all these briefings on all the things the Israelis are going to try to do to you," said one U.S. official. . At the same time, experts said relations between the CIA and Israel's chiefintelligence agency, the Mossad, were so close that analysts sometimes shared-highly classified "code-word" intelligence on sensitive subjects. Tel Aviv routinely informs Washington ofthe identities ofthe Mossad station chief and the military intelligence liaison at its embassy in America. https:/ 10/6/2004 LEXIS®-NEXIS® View Pri<5e Page <;) Page 3 of4 "They probably get 98% ofeverything they want handed to them on a weekly basis,tI said the former senior U.S. intelligence officer who has worked closely with Israeli intelligence. "They're very active allies. They're treated the way the British are.II Another former intelligence operative who has worked with Israeli intelligence agreed. tiThe relationship wlth Israeli intelligence is as intimate as it gets," he said. Officials said Israel was acutely interested in U.S. policies and intelligence on the Middle East, especially toward Iran, Syria_and Saudi Arabia. "They are sophisticated enough to want to know where the levers are they can influence, which people in our government are taking which positions they can try to influence,II said a former high..ranking CIA official. . But the official said the relationship ~etween the U.S. and Israel, at least in intelligence circles, "is not one ofcomplete trust at all.II The latest counterintelligence investigation began more than two years ago, and initially focused on whether officials from a powerful Washington lobbying group, the American Israel Political Action Committee, passed classified information to Israel, officials said. . Several months later, the FBI conducted surveillance ofNaor Oilon, chiefofpolitical affairs at the Israeli Embassy, meeting with two AIPAC officials. The arrival ofa veteran Iran analyst at the Pentagon, Larry Franklin, sparked a new line ofFBI inquiry. J~J'~~J.~;:l~~-t4e::f~~;h~~';"J!1qpi~~!~d:<?il<?~-as~p~~.Qf.~·Itr~!i~OiVLht~.~Ji~~~¢.~.~,~:::l ~~~~S. Intelllg~e.e_offi~U1Lworking.w~~.~~on~ ~p~~:.~!g~~~.~li.g;~:l,!11..P.tgp~~_;:a ~A~ng ,!T;~~~.JlLm~~0fli~~.",rst,II!~t..~jI,£§!Q!!""~..Host~. q',1p.Ne~ ~~~llIi~!Lawm~Q1l;~_~~ffil~taersAiian,:oimilimtYJntelligeiic'e..sei.Vjce;;..andJh~ CON.6teams~~veral:olfi~ials.:Said:" .-" '~~~~~~tlr{~g9~,:Q.t~B1i~urv~t~I~p~'lnt~t~~~!?~t!!!~t~.~~~!.~~:v~a-s.:~~~~~~ ~~~~.llice,'CilSce,"!T!lt?Ysus~~o,rKmgmeJP,glpnaccess-to,U;S. ,mtelbgencel w1iir;,li::l ~'a15~~rg., In an e..mail message this week, Gilon said he was under orders not to talk to the media about the current case. He has denied any wrongdoing in interviews with Israeli newspapers. Franklin has not responded to requests for comment, and officials said he was cooperating with authorities. The FBI interviewed several AlPAC officials last Friday and copied the contents ofa computer hard drive. AlPAC has denied any wrongdoing and said it was cooperating fully with investigators. In a statement released Thursday, AlPAC said the groupis continued access to the White House, senior administration officials and ranking members of Congress during the two-year probe would have been "inconceivable ... if any shred ofevidence ofdisloyalty or even negl~gence on AIPAC's part" had been discovered. AIPAC, has especially close ties to the Bush administration. Addressing the group's policy conference on Iy!a~_18, President Bu~lt praised AlPAC for "serving the cause ofAmerica" ~d for highlighting the 10/6/2004 • LEXIS®-NEXIS® View Priese Page nuClear threat from Iran. (;) Page 4 of4 Washington and Tel Aviv differ on their assessments ofIran's nuclear weapons development. Israel considers Iran's nuclear ambitions its No. 1security threat, and the issue is the top priority for AlPAC. The Bush administration takes the Iran nuclear threat seriously, but its intelligence estimates classify the danger as less imminent than do the Israeli assessments. What mystifies those who know AIPAC is how one ofthe savviest~ best-connected lobbying organizations in Washington has found itself emrieshed in a spy investigation. Although never previously implicated in a potential espionage case, AlPAC has frequently been a subject ofcontroversy. Its close ties to Israel and its aggressive advocacy ofIsraeli government positions has drawn criticism that it should be registered as an agent of a foreign country. Others, noting its ability to organize significant backing for or against candidates running for national office, have demanded th~t it be classified as a political action committee. So far the group has avoided both classifications, either ofwhich would impose major restrictions on its activities. Three years ago, Fortune magazine ranked AIPAC fourth on its list of Washington's 25 most powerful lobbying groups -- ahe~d ofsuch organizations as th~ AFL-CIO and the American Medical Assn. Times staffwriters Mark Mazzetti and Tyler Marshall in Washington contributed to this report. CORRECTION-DATE: September 05~ 2004 CORRECTION: Lobbying group -- An article in Friday's Section Aabout allegations ofIsraeli spying in the United States misidentified the American Israel Public Affairs Committ~e, a pro-Israel·lobbying group, as the American Israel Political Action Committee. GRAPHIC: PHOTO: DENIAL: Daniel Ayalon, Israeli ambassador to the U.S., says his nation doesn't spy here. PHOTOGRAPHER: Neal Hamberg Associated Press LOAD-DATE: September 5, 2004 10/6/2004 ------------ --- ---- ---- Pentagon A~~lyst St<?RS Cooger3:t!ng It:l Israel Spy: Case The sloe Sentinel ALL INFOP~TION CONTAINED . ~REIN IS UNCLASSIFIED _~ ~ATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/5~ Page 1 of2 G5R-\.Uf-~b<S15-tJ'L - ~r'f[~ ~ mit Mr' b6 http://30.5.1 OO.249/documents/intranetlinformationlSentine1l2004/b~t6ber/~6.htJ /6/2004 b 7 C Associated Press 02:26:45 By Richard B. Schmitt October 6, 2004 WASHINGTON, DC -- APentagon analyst being investigated for allegedly passing secrets to.Israel has stopped cooperating with authorities and retained a new lawyer to fight possible espionage charges, sources familiar with the case said Tuesday. The analyst, Larry Franklin, has been a key witness in a continuing FBI investigation looking into whether classified intelligence was passed to Israel by the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, an influential Washington lobbying group. Franklin has been accused ofpassing the contents ofa classified document about U.S. policy on Iran to two AIPAC officials, who in tum may have given the infonnation to Israeli officials in Washington, sources have said. Federal prosecutors had proposed an agreement under which Franklin would plead guilty to some of the charges. Such agreements usually are done in exchange for leniency and are accompanied by a pledge of continued cooperation. But sources said that Franklin has rejected a proposed deal because he believes the tenns are too onerous. He recently replaced his court-appointed lawyer.....It looks like there is going to be a battle," a source familiar with the case said. Jr~I officials have not yet sought charges against Franklin or anyone else in the case, although the breakdown ofplea negotiations would appear to raise the odds that he could be charged soon. The scope ofthe investigation is believed to encompass a top diplomat at the Israeli Embassy in Washington; two high-ranking analysts at AlPAC; and the Pentag~n office in wQich Franklin works as an Iran analyst, which is headed up by Defense Undersecretary Douglas J. Feith.• The case has attracted widespread attention because it spotlights U.S. relations with a longtime ally and raises questions about whether those relations have become too close in recent years. Israel has become acutely sensitive to the growing nuclear capabilities ofIran, which it considers to be its most worrisome and deadly foe. Both the Israeli government and AlPAC have denied that they engaged in any wrongdoing or were given unauthorized access to secrets. Aspokesman for Paul McNulty, the United States attorney for the eastern district ofVirginia, whose office has been assigned the case, declined to comment on the matter. A prominent Washington defense'lawyer, Plato Cacheris, confirmed this week that he recently had been retained by Franklin. "We consider him a loyal American who did not engage in any espionage activities," said Cacheris, the first person representing Franklin to speak out on his behalf since the investigation surfaced a month ago. "Any charge ofespionage will be met with fierce resistance." Cacheris has represented a number ofaccused turncoats, includi~g CIA operative Aldrich Ames, who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1994 after confessing to years ofspying for the Soviet Union. Cacheris also represented fonner EJJ.J counterintelligence agent Robert P. Hanssen, who also was convicted of passing secrets to the Soviets and who received a life sentence in 2002. Cacheris' other clients have inciudedM9nica Lewinsky and Nixon administration Attorney General John Mitchell. Some U.S. officials familiar with the investigation have said there is little hard evidence that Franklin intended to commit espionage and no hint that he was paid for any role he might have played. U.S. offici~ls believe there is more evidence that Franklin -- described by colleagues and friends as diligent and thoughtful yet periodically unreliable and disorganized -- might have handed over information without understanding the gravity ofhis actions. During two decades at the Pentagon spent tracking threats, he was considered a journeyman analyst who often could be found in his office buried behind huge stacks ofdocuments., The classified information \ he is suspected ofsharing included the contents ofa draft v.ersion of a.national security presidential A/) ~ directive, or NSPD, on Iran. The draft advocated measures the United States could take to help , ., / l" destabilize·the regime in Tehran, a subject ofintense interest to the Israelis. But officials also have said that the draft, which originated at the Pentagon's Near.East and South Asian Affairs office, where Franklin worked, contained little in the way of sensitive secrets that had not been reported by the media already. In-addition, after more than two years ofdebate among top U.S. officials, an NSPD on Iran has yet to be agreed upon by top officials and signed by the president. The SlOe Sentinel G - .... - - - - .. Page 2 of2 10/6/2004 \ ALL INFORMATION CONTAIJmD ~IN IS UNCLASSIFIED () ~ 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/3ab/l~ ' D~n~~~ ~yalon, to correct myself. Mr. Ambassaddr, ~e's al~ over the p~ess this week, the FBt js·invest~9ating an official of tbe Defense . Depar~ment, Lawrence Franklin, tor allegedly passing classified documents or materials or data from the White House that the White House plans ~e9a~din9, Iran the Wh~te House's plan~ on I~an and Israel. . ls Franklin spying tor your coun~ry? AMB. AYALON:. No, not. at. all, John. I. can tell you here. -- and thank you ~o~ giv~ng me this opportunity to $ay categorically and very authoritatively, lsrae~ does no~ spy on th~ United States, no~ do we gather any intelligence on the U.S~ We do not do it because it'$ our best friend and ally. And secondly, we don't really need it because we a~e in such close, close xelations -~ strategic, polibical -- and we see eye to eye on most of the ~ssues t~ave~;ng the M~dd~e ~ast, whether ;~'s ter~or or weapons of ma~s destruction, or Iran that we just talked about. And also, John, you emp~asi~ed i~'s press repQrts. Let me a+so say here that I'm not going to contend with or argue with some anonymous leaks or some faceless allegations o~ $ources. I can tell you here ~lS9 ~ha~ in al~ my contacts with the U.S. government, there was no way that formally or ~nfo~mally we were di~cussing any of tpese alle9ations. So it's in the press. 4 don'~ know the motivations of i~. I hope jt will be revealed because there is nothing there wha~soever. MR. MC~UGHLIN: There's no grand jury that's been impaneled? AMB. AYALON: I ha~e no details on that, and no~ am I conce~ned becaus~ we know exactly wha~ ~he facts are. And whoeve~ is leakjng, whoeve~ is feeding the press on ~hat, l would say ~t could be tWQ ~eason~. Eithe~ it'~ $ome incompetence of not unde~standing reality o~ misunderstanding or misin~erpretin9 the activities that we engage ~n witb the U.s. government, or maybe ev~n a malicious intent. I don't. know. ~~t I can t~~l you ag~;n, 9; we-have not heard anything, .neither formal.J.y nor' i.l'lformally. - - M~. MC~U~~L1N: So we q~n ~e9a~Q.this as an oF~ic~al denial on the par~ of the government of I$rael, what you're saying? ~B, AY~OH: Yes. Ye$. And I would say it'$ more than that; for us it's a non-issue. MR. MCLAUGHLIN: I t , s a nont-.~ssue.? AMB. AYA~ON: Exactly. M~. MC~UGHLIN: Now, you a~e aware, with ali due ~espect, Mr. Ambassador, that Israel Qenied that Jonathan Pollard was a spy for 13 years, and then ~t. concu~red after that tha~he·was a spy. ~a. ~YhtON: That wasn't qu~te t.he case. We too~ ~esponsib;l~ty -- ;t w~~ a sad ca~~. It was ~ $ad qase. And i~ w~~ an ~solated, ve~y unique case o£the ~as~ ove~ 20 years ago, and w~ al,..l bore the consequences b6 b7C o for.:- it. MR t MCLAUGHLlN: Well, I think the gene~al assumption is tha~ nations sPY on each other'whethe~ theY'~e friendly or not. AMB. AYALON: Absolutely . .MR. MCLAUGHLIN: And there isn't ve~y much doub~ in my mind tha~ we have our spies, if they are earn~ng some o~ that $40 billion that we pu~ out for CIA, et cetera, ~here are spies in your government working for us. Absolutely? . AHB: ~Y~ON: ~o~lr~ fi9h~ ~h~t -- no, y~yl~~ ;ig~t ~nqt n?~~O~$f even friendly ones, do spy on each othe;-. 1his .is a common, .let.ts say, understanding. But 'afte~ Pollard, l can t~ll you he~e aga~n that rs~ae~ MR. MCLAUGHLIN: The Pol~ard case. AMa. AYALON: After th~ Pollard case fro~ 20 so y~ars agQ, we took .~ lsrael tQok ~ strategic defense -- strategic -decision nQt. to do any kind ot intelligence gat.hering of ~hat. ~ype on the United States, and we adhere to i~ and we don't. want even anytning which will be remotely c10se to such activ~ty because o£ the unique relation$hip between Israel and the United States. The relationship is un1que jn te~ms of clos~ness. . . MR. .MCLAUGHLIN; And preciou.s. AMB. ~YALON: Not just. ~Qe pres~ur~. MR. MCLAUGH~IN: Precious. AMB. AYALON: Not just -- very precious, ¥oulre right. Very precious. We cherish it. We wil~ not do anyth~ng to ~mpair ~t. And a9ain, no~ do we MR: MG~UGHL~N: I ~hin~ thQs~ genia~s a~~ ~eassu~~99. lIm not. $ure it clears my hurd~e of that people in yo~r station are required by the circumst~nces ot your dtp~6matic status to automatica11y d$ny everything, but I think you've gone a ~tep beyond that. - ~. _ _. w __ ~yt ~ nav~ ~ que~t;09 w;th ~~9a~9 ~o ~IPA9. AI~~C ~~ ~ f~0~~i~~in9 qnd very successful lobby. It. does exce~l~nt. work 9n the par~ of Israel, but ;it. is -- i~ appears that. AIPJ\C is functioning as an intermedia~y, a~ this sto~y has been d~~eloped and pu~ forward. Now AI~AC den~ed any involvement, but 1 want to reaq you the lan9uage: . "Any al_legatio~ of criminal. conduct. by J\IPAC OL: ou~ employees is false and baseles~. Ne~the~ AIPAC no~ any of its employees bas vio!a~~d any laws o~ ~ules, nor has ~~~~G 0;- its employees ever rece~ved ~nformat;on they believed was secre~ or classified." Does that sound like ~ categorical denial to you? AMB. A¥ALON: I think so. 1 cannot. speak, ot cQu~se, .foL: AIPAC. I think it's a very, very g09d American organizati9n, and we very much , o appre9~ate ~ts aqtivity on be~alf of the u.s. -- American ~trategiq alliance. I~ is ve~y impor~ant. ~~: M9~UGH~~~: ~gt ~~ ~t ~9t. cu~;o~~ th?t ~h~E~ ~~ ~ig9*e ~09~ in that. statement, and the operat.tve words are "they believed was sec~et or classified?" puts the monkey on Wl;. franklin's back. AIPAC doesn't. deny passing the information on to Israeli it denies that. it. did so knowing that the information was classif~ed. They didn't know it was cla~si~ied. So a~e you -- a~e ~ou putting Franklin out to d~y? ~~. AY~tO~: l w6u~q -- yo~ ~now, ~o~n, was~~n9ton is a place, ~~k~ any other cap~tal, of jnformation shar~n9. Obviously, we do meet. with ~IPAC ¢n a ~egular basis, like we do meet w~tn ot.her think tanks ~- MR. MCLAUGHLIN: Well, he --Frank~in -- AMB. AYALON:~ -~ and wit.h administrat.~oo people MR. MG~QGH~~N: ¥eah. ~B. ~YALON: ~~ CQngre~speople, academi~ people, media people. ~heY'~e all meeting and talkin9~- ~ don't ~hin~ th~~e w~~ ~~yth~ng w~~ng~~th tn~~, and ~e ~;+l continue to do that. And r thin~ that the statement. speak$ for itself. ~ don't. have a~¥thin9 to add. r'm not. a ~pokesman for t.hem~ MR. MCLAUGHLIN: But yo~ understand how t.hat "they believed" prQvides that. wi9gle ~oom? Can you see that? AMB. AYALON: ,}: .-- .no( I'm not. sur~. t.ha~ I ~ndel;stand, you .know, tb1s legal~~tiq language~ I can tel~ you that. -- MR. MCLAUGHLIN: But AIPAC is presenting itself as possiply'an unwitting recipient. of clas~i~~ed ~nformation, whicb it ~ay have pa~sed on. trint Article-American ProspOOnline ALL INFORliATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED F'\ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324~aW/Sab/13g Page 1 of6 Cloak and Swagger The Larry Franklin spy probe reveals an escalating fight over control ofIran policy. By Laura Rozen and Jas~n Vest Issue Date: 11.02.04 Pr~nt ~riendly IEmail Article . To Washington's small and sometimes fractious community ofIran experts, it was becoming obvious: What to do about Iran and its fast-developing nuclear program was set to.rival Iraq as the most pressing foreign-policy challenge for the person elected president in 2004. By the spring and early summer ofthis year, the city was awash in rival Iran task forces and conferences. Some recommended that Washington engage in negotiations with Tehran's mullahs on the nuclear issue; they drew scorn from the other side, which preached regime change or military strikes. In late·July, as this debate raged, a Pentagon analyst named Larry Franklin telephoned'an acquaintance who worked at a pro-Israel lobbying group, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AlPAC). The two men knew each other professionally from their long involvement in the Washington Iran and Iraq policy debates, ABrooklyn-born Catholic father offive who put himselfthrough school, earning a doctorate, as an Air Force reservist, Franklin had served as a Soviet intelligence analyst at the Defense Intelligence Agency until about a decade ago, when he learned, Farsi and became an Iran specialist. At their July meeting, Franklin told the AlPAC employee about his frustration that the U.S. govemmentwasn't responding aggressively enough to intelligence about hostile Iranian activities in Iraq. As Franklin explained it, Iran had sent all of its Arabic-speaking Iranian agents to southern.Iraq, was orchestrating attacks on Ir~qi state oil facilities, and had sent other agents to northern Iraq to kill Israelis, believed to be operating there. Iran had also transferred its top operative for Afghanistan to the Iranian Embassy in Baghdad. The move, Franklin implied, signified Tehran's intention to cause more trouble in Iraq. A couple ofweeks afteJ;' this meeting, in mid-August, the AIPAC official was visited by tWo FBI agents, who asked him about Franklin. From the line ofquestioning, it wasn't clear to the AlPAC official whether Franklin was being investigated by the FBI for possible wrongdoing or ifhe was simply the subject ofa routine background investigation for renewal ofhis security clearance. But on August 27, when CBS broke the story that the FBI was close to arresting an alleged "Israeli mole" in the office ofthe Pentagon's No.3 official, Douglas Feith, it became clear that Franklin was in trouble, News reports said that the FBI had evidence that Franklin had passed a classified draft national-security presidential directive (NSPD) on Iran to AIPAC. What's more, reports said, the FBI wasn'tjust interested in Franklin. For the past two years, it had been con~ucting a counterintelligence probe into whether AlPAC had served as a conduit for U.S. intelligence to Israel, an investigation about which National Security Adviser Condoleez:?:a Rice was briefed shortly after the Bush administration'came into office. In the flurry of news reports that followed, the scope ofthe FBI investigation seethed potentially ?JJ'- enormous. Citing senior U.S. officials, The Washington Post reported that "the FBI is examining ") .\(,. whether highly classified material from the National Security Agency ... was also forwarded to ~t' Israel," and that the investigation Of.Franklin was "coincidental" to that broader FBI probe. Time "'£n'lJ\ magazine reported that Franklin had been enlisted by the FBI to place a series of monitored ,"p~ b 6 . telephone calls (scripted by the FBI) to get possible evidence on others, including allies ofAhmad .b7C Chalabi, a favorite ofPentagon neoconservatives, Chalabi was alleged to have told his Irtu"""·........-~~ file:/{C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdougl~\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte ~ ... ~l~~~r--¢t IPrint Article-American Prosp~Online o Page 2 of6 intelligence contacts that the United ~tates had broken'their commun!cations codes -- a breach that prompted a break in U.S. support for Ch.alabi last spring -- and the FBI wanted to know who had shared that highly classified information with Chalabi. What's more, an independent expert on Israeli espionage said he had been interviewed by the FBI in June and in several follow-up calls, and that the scope ofthe senior FBI investigators' questioning was broad and extremely detailed. In the wake ofthe first news reports, AlPAC strongly denied that any ofits employees had ever knowingly received classified U.S. information. Israel also categorically denied that it had conducted intelligence operations against the United States since the case ofJonathan Pollard, a U.S. Navy intelligence analyst who was convicted ofspyi~g for Israel in 1987. At the time the CBS report aired in late August-- incidentally, on the Friday evening before the opening ofthe Republican national convention -- custody ofthe Franklin investigation was being transferred from the head ofthe FBI counterintelligence unit, David Szady, to U.S. Attorney Paul McNulty, a Bush appointee, in Alexandria, Virginia, as the case moved to the grand-jury phase.. And then, in mid-September, news ofthe Franklin investigation went dark. *** The classified document that Franklin allegedly passed to AlPAC concerned a controversial proposal by Pentagon hard-liners to destabilize Iran. The latest iteration of the national-security ) presidential directive was drafted by a Pentagon ci~ilian and avid neocon, Michael Rubin, who .--1 hoped it would be adopted as official policy by the Bush administration. But in mid-June, Bush's national-security advisers canceled consideration of the draft, partly hi response to resistance from some at the State Department and the National Security Council, according to a recent memo written by Rubin and obtained by The American Prospect. No doubt also contributing to the administration's decision was the swelling insurgency and chaos ofpostwar Iraq. Rubin, in his early 30s, is a relative newcomer to the neoconservative circles in which he is playing an increasingly prominent role. Once the Iraq and Iran desk officer in the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans and later a Coalition Provisional Authority adviser in Iraq, these days the Yale-educated Ph.D~ hangs his hat at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and serves as editor for controversial Middle East scholar Daniel Pipes' magazine, The Middle East Quarterly. In an article published in the Republican-oriented quarterly Ripon Forum in June, Rubin suggests that the administration resolve its Iran warning by turning against the current regime. "In 1953 and 1979," he wrote, "Washington supported an unpopular Iranian government against the will of the people. The United States should not make the same mistake three times." In other words, President Bush should step up his public condemnation ofthe Iranian regime and break off all contact with it in hopes ofspurring a swelling ofthe Iranian pro-democracy movement. In short, Rubin, like his fellow Iran hawks, urges the administration to make regime c~ange in Iran its official policy. This invocation of"moral clarity" has a long intellectual pedigree among neoconservatives. It's the same argument they made to Ronald Reagan about the Soviet Union more than 20 years ago. "Ifwe could bring down the Soviet empire by inspiring and supporting a small percentage ofthe people," Michael Ledeen, a chief neoconservative advocate ofregime change in Iran and freedom scholar at AEI, recently wrote in the National Review, "surely the chances ofsuccessful - _.~ - ~ - . file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 •Print Article-American prospoOnline revolution in Iran-are more likely.u Page 3 Of9 Was it to this end that Franklin was allegedly observed by the FBI passing the ~raft NSPD on Iran to AIPAC? Was he trying to inform AIPAC, or Israel, about the contents ofthe draft NSPD? Or rather, and perhaps more plausibly, was he trying to enlist the powerful Washington lobbying organization in advocating for a Iran-destabilization policy? In other words, is the Franklin case really about espionage, or is it a glimpse into the ugly sausage-making process by which Middle Eastpolicy gets decided in Washington and, in particular, in the Bush administration? *** Arguably past the apogee ofits power, AIPJ\C nonetheless remains one ofWashington's most influential organizations. Successor to the E!senhower-era American Zionist Council ofPublic Affairs, AIPAC came into its own during the Reagan years, thanks largely to the efforts offormer Executive Director Thomas Dine. When Dine assumed his pqst in 1981, the organization had an annual budget ofa little more than $1 million, about two dozen employees, and 8,000 members; when he left in 1993, a budget of$15 million was being administered by a staffof 158, and the committee had 50,000 members. ' An assiduous networker and fund-raiser, Dine also quickly became indispensable to the Reagan White House as a promoter ofvarious neoconservative foreign-policy initiatives. He also forged alliances between AlPAC and other interests, including the Christian right. (Another former AlPAC executive director, Morris Amitay, has long been active in neoconservative ventures, ~ both a business partner to Feith and Richard Perle and co-~ounder, with Michael Ledeen, ofthe Coalition for Democracy in Iran.) By the mid-'80s, AlPAChad been a prime mover in the defeat or crippling ofinitiatives and legislators not to its liking, and the passage ofbillions in grants to Israel., It had also taken on an increasingly pro-Republican (and pro-Likud) tilt. While many regarded AlPAC's power as lessened during the Clinton administration, since 2001 AlPAC has been powerful enough that even the Bush administration couldn't get the committee and its congressional allies to tone down language in a 2002 resolution in support ofIsraeli military actions against the Palestinians. AIPAC's 2002 annual conference included 50 senators, 90 representatives, and more than a dozen senior administration officials; this year's conclave boasted PresidentBush h~mself, plus ~ouse Majority Leader Tom DeLay and an array of State and Defense department officials. But while AlPAC is a powerhouse, It is not clear that it would have been the perfect vehicle for the kind ofIran-destabilization lobbyi~g that some in Washington have been pushing. There are a wide variety ofIsraeli positions on how to deal with Iran. Many ofWashington's Middle East hands who are pro-Israel believe destabilization will not likely succeed, and they fear it will not deal with what they consider the real threat from Iran: nuclear weapons. "Ifyou mean trying to promote the peaceful overthrow ofthe regime in Iran, I think the prospects -for success are highly uncertain,u says Patrick Clawson, deputy director ofthe Washington Institute for Near East Policy, a pro-Israel think tank. Pro-Israel activists in Washington want to make sure that the United States considers Iran's nuclear program first and foremost, an American .problem, the response to which could include, ifnecessary, air strikes against Iran's nuclear facilities. Iran's nuclear pr<;>gram, one such activist recently told the Prospect, "has to be seen as Washington's problem." . - ... - ... .. file:/IC:\Documents%20and%20S~tti~gs\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... -10/22/2004 •Print Article-American PrOSPOOnline o Page 4 of6 There are other competing positions within the Israel-policy community. One Isra~1i official i!l Washington this summer for diplomatic -meetings discussed regime change in Iran with a reporter from The American Prospect on the condition th!lt his identity not be disclosed. He believes that Iran is ripe for democratic revolution, that it has one ofthe most pro-Western populations in the region, and that Iranian opposition forces would be electrified by a vigorous show ofU.S. presidential support. But he believes that any sort ofmilitary intervention in Iran would set back copsiderably these promising regime-change forces. Still'another group ofIsraeli policy-makers seem more inclined toward a military option, as evidenced by Israel's well-publici~edpurchase of 500 "bunke~-buster" bombs from the United States in September and its failed efforts to launch a spy satellite to monitor Iran's nuclear-program developments. Yet another policy position became evident in Seymour Hersh's article in The New Yorker in June, in which Hersh reported that Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, sensing that the U.S.created chaos in Iraq could leave an opening for anti-Israel efforts in Iran, was pursuing a "Plan B" that had Israeli operatives covertly training and equipping Kurds in Iraq, Iran, and Syria for possible future covert action to counter any such measures. As Hersh reported: "Israeli intelligence and military operatives are now quietly at work in Kurdistan, providing training for Kurdish commando units and, most important in Israel's view, running covert operations inside Kurdish areas oflran and Syria.... Some Israeli operatives have crossed the border into Iran, accompanied by Kurdish commandos, to install sensors and other sensitive devices that primarily target suspected Iranian nuclear facilities." The Israeli government insisted the story wasn't credible, and that it was sourced by Turkey, which is panicked, as ever, about foreign designs on Kurdistan. But a source told the Prospect that Franklin expressed the conviction that the United States has intelligence that affirms Hersh's report to be largely accurate. A second fonner U.S. diplomatic official who recently visited the area told the Prospect that there are Israeli intelligence officials·operating in Kurdish Iraq as political advisers, and others under the guise ofbusinessmen. All ofwhich raises questions, like what exactly was in the draft NSPD that Rubin wrote and Franklin allegedly shared with AlPAC? And does the destabilization plan pushed by neoconservatiyes in the draft NSPD in fact advocate that the United States or its proxies ann the Iranian opposition, including the Kurds, as part ofits efforts to pursue regime change? The public sfatements by the neoconservatives emphasize that regime change in Iran would not require U.S. military force. Then again, the neoconservatives' inspiration for the Iran plan has its roots in Reagan-era NSPDs that, while providing nonmilitary support to Poland's Solidary Movement, also had the CIA aggressively arming and training the Afghan mujahideen, the NicaraguanContras, and other anti-communist rebels. There's also no denying that some ofthe chief advocates ofthe Iran regime plot come out ofthe Pentagon, America's military command center. And some ofthose same Iran hawks have discussed the Iran regime-change issue, for instance, with Parisian-based Iran Contra arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar -- not exactly the kind of go-to guy for a nonviolent regime change plan, one might think. *** Whatever the nuances, the neocons are facing one oftheir biggest challenges in Washington today: persuading the administration to adopt their regime-change policy toward Iran even while their regime-change policy in Iraq appears to be crumbling. Since the Iraq invasion, Feith's office has come under the intense scrutiny ofcongressional investigators, investigative journalists, and - file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 •Print Article-American prospoOnline o Page 5 of6 Democratic critics for its two controversial prewar intelligence units, the Office ofSpecial Plans and the Policy Counter Terrorism Evaluation Group. It was those units that had helped convince the Bush White House of an operational connection between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda -- a claim since disproved by the independent September 1'1 commission, among others. Those secretive intelligence units had also been among the administration's strongest champions of Cbalabi, who allegedly told Iranian intelligence agents that the United States had penetrated Iranian communications channels. An FBI counterintelligence investigation ofwho had leaked this information to Chalabi was reportedly under way by spring 2004, and many ofChalabi's neocon allies were incredibly anxious: Misjudgment about Chalabi's virtues or postwar Iraq planning was one thing; passing secrets to another nation would be an accusation ofan altogether graver magnitude. All ofthese investigations put Franklin and other neoconservatives associated with Feith at the white-hot center ofa raging controversy: What would any second-term Bushforeign policy look like? Would controversial neocon figures like Feith remain in power? Or would it mark the rise of pragmatists and realists? For the neoconservatives, the fight to clear-Franklin and themselves has become a fight against their internal administration rivals. And they're fighting it in classic neocon fashion: dirty and disingenuously. Among intelligence professionals, it's hardly a state secret that even nations whose relationships go beyond mere alliance and constitute friendship spy on one another. That's one reason nations have counterintelligence capabilities as well. As such, investigations ofespionage and mishandling ofclassified documents are not uncommon in Washington; the Bush administration',s Justice Department, for example, has opened investigations to probe allegations ofChinese, Taiwanese, and Saudi espionage, including ones that involve ranking officials at the FBI and State Department. With the investigations into AIPAC and Franklin, the Justice Department has renewed its interest in snooping by our ally, Israel. Since the Pollard case, U.S. intelligence and law-enforcement sources have revealed to the Prospect that at least six sealed indictments have been issued against individuals for espionage on Israel's behalf. It's a testament to the unique relationship between the United States and Israel that those cases were never prosecuted; according to the same sources, both governments ultimately addressed them through diplomatic and intelligence channels rather than air the dirty laundry. A number ofcareer Justice Department and intelligence officials who have worked on Israeli counterespionage told the Prospect oflong-standing frustration among investigators and prosecutors who feel that cases that could have been made successfully against"Israeli spies were never brought to trial, or that the investigations were shut down prematurely. This history had led to informed speculation that the FBI -- fearing the Franklin probe was heading toward the same silent end -- leaked the story to CBS to keep it in the public eye and give it a fighting chance. But the pro..lsraellobby and some neoconservatives, fighting for their poiiticallives, have turned the leak on its head. They claim that the AlPAC and Franklin investigations have nothing to do with the substance of the Iran-related leaks. Rather, they say, investigators are going after Jews. In the current probes ofFranklin and AlPAC, Michael Rubin has led the strident charge. On September 4, during the media flap over the investigations, Rubin sent an e-mail memo -obtained by the Prospect -.. to a list offriendly parties targeting two of Washington's more respected mainstre~m journalists, calling them key players in an "increasing anti-Semitic witch hunt." The memo fingered Deputy Secretary ofState Richard Armitage as one likely source ofthe leaks about the investigation, and also urged that, if the accusations had any merit, the White file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 ,. •Print Article-American prospoOnliJ;le· o Page 6 of6 House demand the evidence be made public. "Pm increasingly c,oncemed about the l~a~s spinning off from the Franklin affair,u Rubin wrote. celt was bad enough when the White House rewarded the June 15,2003, leak oy canceling conside~ation ofthe NSPD. It showed the State Department that leaks could supplant real debate.... Bureaucratic rivalries are out ofcontrol.u Rubin's memo showed up in a similar form almost a month later in the op-ed pages of The Washington Times under the byline ofNational Review staffer Joel Mowbray, and echoes ofit can be seen in the pages ofthe neocon-friendly Jerusalem Post. Meanwhile, FranKlin was involved in some pushback ofhis own. In late August, the Franklin case was referred from Szady to U.S. Attorney Paul J. McNulty, a Bush-Ashcroft appointee who heads the U.S. District COU!! for the Eastern District ofVirginia. Agrand jury was seated on the case in September and had subpoenaed at least some witnesses to testify about Franklin. Then, on October 1, The New York Sun reported that Franklin had fired his court-appointed attorney (whom he had·presumably retained for financial reasons), halting grand-jury proceedings while he found new couns~l. On October 6, the Los Angeles Times reported that Franklin had stopped cooperating with the FBI entirely. He had hired ~ high-profile lawyer, Plato Cacheris (of Aldrich Ames and' Robert Hanssen fame), and had rejected a proposed plea agreement whose terms Franklin considers "too onerous,u according to the Los Angeles Times. Who pushed Franklin -- who for months seemed vulnerable -- to stop'cooperating? And wQo is paying for his expensive new lawyer? At this writing, we do not know, Also unknown is the status ofthe larger FBI counterintelligence probe ofalleged Israeli espionage into which Franklin stumbled. But we do know that his recent decisions would seem to immensely help any ofthe people against whom he could have testified. At least for now, that~s a rQund won by a clique intent on pushing freelance crypto-diplomacy to its limits. Laura Rozen reports onforeign-policy and national-security issuesjrom Washington, D,C. Jason Vest is a Prospect senior correspondent. ' Copyright © 2004 by The American Prospect, Inc. Preferred Citation: Laura Rozen and Jason yest, "Cloak and Swagg~r'_',_The ~f!lerican Prosnect OnUne,_Nov 1, 2Q04, This article may not be resold" reprinted, or redistributed for compensation ofany kind without prior written permission from the author.'Direct questions about permissions to . . file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\sdouglas\Local%20Settings\Temporary%20Inte... 10/22/2004 Docum.entResults . ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ~HERE IN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~ ~DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/s~g Page 1of2 -search Within Results: 1_--_=_"--..,-,....,-.......-...."",.,,,,..,...__,,,,,,:,,,,,,,,,J mmm· Edit Search I New Search .Pri~~ I Do,,:,nload - View: ~ I Full < Prey Document 10 of 14 next > ~ Tag for Print &. Download r;r:s:t). o Copyright 2004 Los Angeles limes All Rights Reserved Los Angeles limes April 4, 2004 Sunday Home Edition SECTION: OPINION; Editorial Pages Desk; Part M; Pg. 1 LENGTH: 979 words HEADLINE: Iraqi Democrats Feeling Sidelined BYUNE: Michael Rubin, Michael Rubin Is a resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and was a governance team advisor for the Coalition Provisional Authority In Iraq. ' DATELINE: WASHINGTON BODY: Last summer, as Iraqis sweltered outside, the Coalition Provisional Authority met in the marbled corridors and air-conditioned offices of one of Saddam Hussein's former palaces to hash out how to fund political parties. The State Department was adamant, insisting that the CPA should maintain "an even playing field" and should not favor one party over another. Parties affiliated with the Iraqi Governing Council's militant Islamists and liberal secularists should receive the same treatment. There should be no special consideration given to groups seeking to unite Iraqis rather than dividing them by ethnlclty or sectarian affiliations. - This may sound like the way to ensure fair elections•. But while the CPA has maintained its neutrality, our adversaries have shown no such compunction. Until recently, I worked for the CPA, living in a nondescript house outside Baghdad's Green Zone. I traveled the country with Iraqi friends, paying spot checks on borders, political parties, shrines and markets. Because I was not In a convoy or traveling with heavily armed guards, Iraqis could easily approach me. Professionals, politicians and religious figures telephoned at all hours for meetings, knowing they would not have to wait at the fortified gates of the palace complex. I quickly learned that most political business In Iraq happens not at Governing Council sessions, but In private homes between 9 p.m. and 3 a.m. One February evening, a governor from a southern province asked to see me. We met after dark at a frlend's house. After pleasantries and tea, he got down to business. "The Iranians are flooding the city and countryside with money," he said. "Last month, they sent a truckload of silk carpets across the border for the tribal sheikhs. Whomever they can't buy, they threaten." The following week, I headed south to Investigate. A number of Iraqis said the Iranians had channeled money through the offices of the Dawa Party, an Islamist political party, led by Governing Council member Ibrahim Jafarl. On separate occasions In Baghdad and the southern city of Naslrlya, I watched ordinary Iraqis line up for handouts of money and supplies at Dawa offices. The largess seems to be having an effect: Polls Indicate that Jafari is Iraq's most popular politician, enjoying a favorable rating by more than 50% of the electorate. The CPA's evenhandedness may be well-intentioned, but to a society weaned on conspiracy theories, the United States' failure to support liberals and democrats signals support forthe Islamists~ Equal https:l/w3.Iexis.comllawenfsolutions_securedlsearchfonnsldoBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=.... 11/16/2004 Document Results ,\ o o Page2of2 opportunity may exist In Washington, but not in Baghdad. Why, Iraqis ask, wouid the ,CPA ignore the Influx of Iranian arms and money into southern Iraq if It had not struck some secret deal with Tehran or did not desire the resulting increase in militancy? Why would the Iranian border be largely unguarded a year after liberation? Iraqi liberals are especially sensitive to signs of support for Shiite politician Abdelaziz Hakim, leader of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution In Iraq, whose visit official Washington welcomed in January. Students affiliated with the Badr Corps, Hakim's militia, roam Basra University, forcing women to wear the veil. Signs proclaiming the supremacy of Hakim are affixed to doors across the university, and professors say they are afraid to remove them. In Naslriya and Karbala, Iraqis lament they can no longer speak openly, lest they become the subject of retaliation by Iranian-funded gangs. While Sense John F. Kerry of Massachusetts and carl levin of Michigan demand yet another government audit of the Iraqi National Congress (previous audits have found no wrongdoing), radical-clerics find their pockets full, their Iranian sponsors more Interested In mission than political cannibalism. last month, I Visited a gathering of urban professionals in Najaf. They repeatedly asked why ti:'e CPA stood ~y while followers of firebrand Shiite cleric MUQtader Sadr invaded homes, smashed satellite dishes'and meted out punishment in ad hoc Islamic courts. We may dismiss Sadr as a grass-roots populist, ~ut his rise was not arbitrary. Rather; his network.lS"'based:~pon~ample~fundlna he'receives through Iran-based" cleric Ayatollah Kazem al Haerl, a close"'assocfate"orrranian·Supreme LeaderAyatollah All Khamenei.·, In signing the bill authorizing $87.5 billion for reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan in November, President Bush called the massive campaign to rebuild bottl nations "the greatest commitment of Its kind since the Marshall Plan'!." There is daily progress. Shops have opened. Roads are repaved. But, the CPA remains hampered by a strategic communications strategy geared more toward Washington than Iraq. American newspapers may report our $5.6 billion Investment in Iraq's electrical infrastructure1 but what Iraqis see are signs such as a billboard of Hakim, the radical politician, affixed to a newlY'refurblshed Ministry of Electricity office in Baghdad. On March 26, a team of United Nations election specialists arrived In Baghdad to prepare the country for elections following the scheduled June 30 transfer of sovereignty. Iraqis may welcome elections, but It would be an abdication of American leadership If we do not support our allies, especially as Iraq's neighbors fund proxy groups and radicals with goals Inimical to democracy. We should not be more willing to help our adversaries than our friends. Democracy Is about not only elections, but also about tolerance, compromise and liberty. Twenty-five years ago, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinl, leader of the Islamic Revolution In Iran, declared "the first day of God's government." In a rushed referendum supervised by armed vigilantes, Iranians voted for theocracy. For a quarter century, they have struggled to undo their mistake. It would be a betrayal of'Bush's vision as well as 24 million Iraqis if we replicate It In Iraq. LOAD-DATE: April 4, 2004 I View: ~ I Full < p,re~ Document 10 of 14 next > Edit-Search I New Search .e.o.nt I pownload About LexisNexls I Terms and Conditions I privacy Policy Copyrlgbt 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed· Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https:l/w3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_securedlsear~hfoITIls/dqBrowse.~p?SearchlnfoID=... 11/16/2004 Edit Search I New Search Search Within Results: 1.."..,,-- - ""'.--'-'=-"",,-_:__ PrIn~ I - ---==-', mmm DocumentResults ALL INFORliATION CONTAINED O HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/~lSg • Page 1of3 View: ~I Full < JmlUt Document 2 of 2 .:- Tag for Print &. Download o 'r:rmDl Copyright 2004 IPS-Inter Press Service/Global Information Network IPS-Inter Press SelVice April 9, 2004, Monday LENGTH: 1435 words HEADLINE: IRAQ: NEO-CONS SEE IRAN BEHIND SHIITE UPRISING BYLINE: By Jim Lobe DATELINE: WASHINGTON, Apr. 9 BODY: Neo-conservatives close to the administration of President George W Bush are pushlng'for'retribution aga,~~st Iran for; they'say, sponsoring this'week's'Shiite uprislng'in'Iraq'led by radical'cleriC"Moqtada~al~ s-a~t Despite the growing number of reports that depict the fighting as a spontaneous and indigenous revolt agains~ the U.S.-led occupation, the influential neo-cons are calling on Bush to warn Tehran to·cease its alleged backing for al-Sadr and other Shla militias or face retaliation, ranging from an attack on Iraniap' nuclear facilities to covert action designed to overthrow the government. But independent experts say that while Iran has no doubt provided various forms of assistance to Shia factions In Iraq since the ouster of former President Saddam Hussein one year ago, its relations with Sadr'have long been rocky, and that it has opposed radical actions that could destabJllse the situation. "Those el~ments closest to Iran among the ShIIte clerics (In Iraq) have been the most moderate through all of this," according to Shaul Bakhash, an Iran expert at George Mason University here. Many regional specialists agree that Iran has a strategic Interest In avoiding any train of events that risks plunging Iraq Into chaos or civil war and partition. Neo-conselVatives centred in Vice President Dick Cheney'S office and among the civilian leadership in the Pentagon have strongly opposed any detente with Iran, and have frequently blamed it for problems the United States has encountered in both Afghanistan and Iraq. Neo-conselVatives outside the administration, such as former Defence Policy Board chairman Richard Perle and his colleagues at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), Michael Ledeen and Reuel Marc Gerecht, called even before the,Iraq war for Washington to support Indigenous efforts to oust the "mullahcracy" in Tehran, which Is seen as an arch-enemy of both the United States and Israel. Some neo~conservatives have seized on Sadr's uprising ~s a ,new opportunity both to raise tensions against Iran and to divert attention from Washington's bungling of relations with the Shia community in Iraq. . Top U.S. officials both here and in Iraq have not yet named Iran as the hidden hand behind Sadr, although a senior reporter at the right-wing 'Washing~on_llmes~, Rowan Scarborough, quoted unnamed:"militarv.'.sources~WednesdaY'as"te1lifig~hinltthat:SadG:ISihelnQ;!ldea;;:direetly:bY;-lran~s· Revoliitr{fnaIYGiiard;';:_and:I:iy:Hezbolrah~ciir'iraniari~created terrorist'group-:bijseC:l:rn':tetianon~ Unnamed "Pentagon offidals" gave a similar account to the 'New York Times', although 1lmes reporter James Risen stressed that CIA offidals disagreed with that analysis, adding, som~ intelligence officials Iittps:/Iw3.1eXis.comllawenfsoluti6iis_sectiredlsearchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=.... 11/16/2004 Document Results o Page 2 of3 j, •, p believe that the Pentagon has·been eager to link Hezbollah to the violence in Iraq to link th~ Iranian regime more closely to anti-American terrorism". The Iran hand was first raised In connection with Sadr's revolt by Michael Rubin, who just returned as a "governance team advisor" for the U.S.-led Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) In Iraq to his previous position as a resident fellow at ~EI. In a column published In the 'Los Angeles TImes' on Sunday, he complained that Washington and the CPA had failed to provide liberal and democratic Iraqi leaders with anything like the kind of support that Iran was supplying to radical Shla leaders and their "gangs". Rubin said that on a Visit to the Shla-domlnated south he found that Iranians were pouring money and arms to key Islamlst parties,.Including the Da'wa, the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution In Iraq (SCIRI), and Sadr himself, whose rise over the past year, according to Rubin, is explained by the "ample funding he receives through Iran-based cleric Ayatollah Kazem al Haeri, a close associate of Iranian Supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamelni". Another'senior CPA adviser,.Larry: Diamondi·a'neo=,conservative·who:speclalisestin'democratlsatl~~:at.the~ CalifornIa-based Hoove...Instltution:-told'IPS:thr~weerc-that Sadr's' Mahdi ArmYi,;.and~othe~Shiaimll~~as,~_ ' are' beIng'armed. and.financed by'Iran with the:alm·of.·lmposlng:"anothe,...rrai1laiFstyletheoCracy~- - "Iran is embarked on a concerned, clever, lavishly-resourced campaign to defeat any effort for any genuine pluralist democracy in Iraq," said Diamond. "The longer we wait to confront the thug, the more troops he'll have in his army, the more arms he'll have and financial support -- virtually all coming from Iran -- the more he will Intimidate and kill sincere democratic actors in the country, and the more Impossible our task at building democracy will become". "I think we ,should tell the Iranian regime that if they don't cease and desist, we will play the same game, that we will destabllise them," he added. On Tuesday, the 'Wall Street Journal's editorial page took up the same theme, arguing that Sadr has talked "openly of creating an Iranian-style Islam!c Republic In Iraq (and) has visited Tehran since'the fall of Saddam•••• hl~ Mahdi militia is almost certainly financed and trained by Iranians," the editorial continued, adding, "Revolutionary Guards may be Instigating some of the current unrest".• "As for Tehran, we would hope the Sadr uprising puts to rest the iIIuslon,that the mullahs (In"Tehran) can be appeased. As Bernard Lewis teaches, Middle Eastern leaders interpret American restraint as weakness. Iran's mullahs fear a Muslim democracy in Iraq because Is It a direct threat to their own rule." "If warnings to Tehran from Washington don't Impress them, perhaps some cruise missiles aimed at the Bushehr nuclear site will concentrate their minds," the Journal suggested. On Wednesday, 'New York Times' columnist William Safire asserted'the existence ofan axis Involving Sadr, Iran, Hezbollah and Syria. "We should break the Iranian-Hezbollah-Sadr connection in ways that our special forces know how to do", he wrote. But this line of reasoning appears particularly curious to Bakhash, who notes that the Sadr family, including Moqtada himself, is precisely the kind of Iraqi Shiite who would be deeply suspicious of Tehran. "Sadr's father was a strong Iraqi nationalist, like Moqtada himself", he told IPS. "He often used to question why there were in Iraq ayatollahs who spoke Arabic with. a Persian accent." Uke other experts, Bakhash believes that Iran has Indeed been heavily Involved with the Iraqi Shla community, but sees the leadership providing far more support to SCIRI and Its·Badr brigades than to Sadr, who, from Tehran's point of vieYl, is seen as untrustworthy. Bakhash also questions the neo-conservatlve assumption that Iran wants to destabilise Iraq now. "Obviously the Iranians are not unhappy to see the Americans discomfited in Iraq, but I don't think it's the policy of the Iranian government to destabilise Iraq right along its own border," he said. Middle East historian Juan Cole of the University of Michigan also questions the notion of a link between .https:/lw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secure~searclifonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoJD=:... 11/16/2004' ------------- - . ---_._------- Document Results o o Page 3 of3 ,I Iran and Sadr in the current uprising. While Sadr's views on theocratic government are consistent with , those of Iranian hardliners, according to Cole, his outspoken Iraqi nationalism poses a major challenge to Khameini's claim to authority over all Shiite religious communities, including those outside Iran. Contrary to the Journal's assumptions, adds Cole, Sadr'did not receive much encouragement from the Iranians leaders he met in Tehran. "The message he got •••was that he should stop being so divisive and should cooperate more with the other Shiite I~aders". Geoffrey Kemp, an Iran specialist at the Nixon Centre and Middle East adviser on former president Ronald Reagan's National Security Council staff, says he has little doubt the Iranians have Influence with several different Shiite groups, and that there might even be "rogue elements" inside Iraq who back Sadr. But he agrees that Tehran's strongest ties are with SCIRIand the Badr Brigades, who were trained by the Revolutionary Guard inside Iran during Hussein's rule. "TIle situation is far too complex to: make simplistic statements about what Iran is or is not doing," Kemp told IPS. "But to suggest that-this is an Iranian-inspired insurrection is a stretch". "The neo-conservatives are all so heavily invested In the success of Iraq.that instead of blaming the Pentagon for some extraordinary blunders, they want to blame everyone else -- the State'Department, the Iranians,4the Syrians for the mess that was partly of their own making." LOAD-DATE: April 12, 2004 View: Us.t I Full < I!I:U Document 2 of 2 edit Search I New Search f.r!nt I Download About lexlsNexl#! I Terms and Condition#! I Privacy POlicy .<;Opyclght 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https://w3.lexis.comllawenfsolution~~securedlsearchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=.... 11/16/2004 "I Document Results ALL INFORl'1ATION CONTAI~~D "HEREHI IS UNCLASSI FIED ~~ATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/S~Sg Page 1of2 search Within Results: I~~:_:::: ----.=-==-_--="1 LDlI Edit Search I New Search I!.tnt I D0".Vnload View: list I Full M Tag for Print a. Download o < prey Document 6 of 14 n~ > Copyright 2004 Federal Information and News Dispatch, Inc. Voice of America News April 19, 2004 SECTION: RADIO SCRIPTS - BACKGROUND REPORT 5-55191L LENGTH: 625 words HEADLINE: IRAN I IRAQ BYLINE: GARY THOMAS TEXT: WASHINGTON INTRO: An attempt by Iran to mediate an end to the fight in neighboring Iraq between the forces of a radical Muslim cleric and U-S troops was not successful. But, as correspondent Gary Thomas reports, the effort underscores Iran's bid to wield some clout In postwar Iraq. To Iran, the United States Is still, officially speaking, the Great Satan. And from the U-S perspective, Iran Is one of the two remaining members of what President Bush famously termed an axis of evil. But Iran sent a delegation to Iraq to try mediate an end to the standoff between radical Shl'lte Muslim cleric Moqtada al-Sadr and the U-S occupation authority - and the United States made no move to stop the effort. An Iranian diplomat was gunned down In Baghdad during the visit and the mediation subsequently broke down. Nevertheless, say analysts, the Iranian effort In Iraq was symptomatic of a broader political struggle In Iran for influence, power, and International legitimacy. Just how. much clout Iran has In Iraq - and just who In Iran wields it - Is murky. Juan Cole, a professor of Middle East and South Asian history at the University of Michigan, says the Iranian mission to Iraq is part of an effort by, President Mohammad Ali Khatami and his fellow reformists to regain some Influence they had lost'to the hardliners. President Khatami has pointedly distanced himself from Mr. al-Sadr. [COLE ACT] That faction has been under enormous pressure inside Iran. Of course, it was sidelined in the recent elections by the hardliners. And so reaching out and playing this kind of positive role in the region may be one way for the reformiSts to break back out of their isolation. [END ACT] But Michael Rubin, who was until last month a political advisor to the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad, says the Iranian role in Iraq was anything but positive. He says Iran is meddling and trying to set up Its own cells in Iraq. [RUBIN ACT] ~ ~hlnk having Iranian Involvement In Iraq is like having the arsonist volunteering to put out the fire. https:llw3.1exis.comJlawenfsolutions_secured/~earc.hfo~s/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=~.. 11116/2004 DocumentResults [END ACT] o Page2of2 Moq~da al-Sadr .. the cleric tumed Insurgent - is believed to have strong backing from the hardllne elements-in Iran. His mentor, say analysts, Is Ayatollah Kazem al-Husselni al-Hairi, a senior Shi'ite cleric in the Iranian holy city of Qom .. although how much Influence he actually exerts on Mr. al-Sadr Is not c1e~a:. And while supreme leader Ayatollah All K~amenei has welcomed the forced departure of Saddam Hussein .. who led a bloody decade-long war against Iran .. he has sharply condemned the U-S-Ied occl:lpation of Iraq. Mr. Rubin says Iran is actively helping'Mr. al::"Sadr's forces. [2ND RUBIN ACT] The Iranians have-been funding some of the radicals with arms, with Revolutionary Guards. The Iranian charge d'affaires In Baghdad is actually not a diplomat. He is a member of the Qods force,.which Is the unit of the Revolutionary Guards dedicated to the export of the Islamic revplutlon. The last.thing Iraqis want is for us to Involve non-Iraqis In this matter. [END ACT] But Professor Cole says Iran's role In Iraq is not as pervasive as Mr., Rubin and like-minded analysts portray. [2ND COLE ACT] There are persistent reports that Iran has, and the hardliners in Iran have, provided material support ~o Moqtada and his faction. I personally think those reports are overblown. I think this is largely an indigenous Iraqi movement, but it may have gotten some money. Lots of Iraqi groups.have gotten money from Iran, including some of the more secular politicians. [END ACT] Analysts.say Iran Is not likely to allow its once-powerful neighbor to be reconstituted without trying to have some influence over t~e matter. (SIG!'IED) NEB/GPT/RH/RAE LOAD-DATE: April 19, 2004 View: !J§t I Full < prey Document 6 of 14 next > Edit Search I New Search n f.rJ.Dt I Download About LexisNexl$ I Terms and Conditions I privacy policy s:opyr,gbt 2004 LexlsNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights re~erved• .h!tP~:lIwj.lexis.con1llaweiifsottitlOlis_securedlsearcbfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID===..., 11/16/2994 - - -- - - r ? ---~J search Within Results: __"';'".,..,,¥!..._.."""_=_~__"""=-"-' Bmm ·. , ALL INFOm'~TION CONTAIlmD ~REIN IS TJMCLASSIFIED ~ '-JbATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw/s~g Page 1 of2 Edit Search I New Search ~nt I Download View: Yi$. I Full < ~ Document 2 of 14 ~ext > M Tag for Print & Download r;m;t). o Copyright 2004 The News and Observer Th~ News &. Observer. (Raleigh, North Carolina) June 6, 2004 Sunday Anal Edition , SECTION: NEWS; Pg. A26 LENGTH: 576 words HEADLINE: Ustening post; Ideas and issues under discussion in the Triangle BODY: llred of losing? Stay the course COMMENTARY From Carolina Journal, a publication of the John Locke Foundation, a commentary by editor Richard Wagner'!, "If you ever have a player who's afraid he's going to lose, take him out." A legendary baseball-managerin my hometown uttered that advice to a protege about 40 years ago. The statement, seemingly simple, actually embodies a much deeper philosophy of commitment, success and leadership In everyday life. That advice can be applied also to the nation's morale and the war on terrorism being waged, for now, In Iraq and Afghanistan. The losers in our society say we can't win in the Mideast. They say President Bush duped Americans Into thinking Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein' had weapons of mass destruction. They say we have entered a "quagmire" In Iraq, like we did in Vietnam. They said the same thing before U.S. troops liberated Afghanistan. The losers are the same people who refuse to recognize the simple fact that terrorism is nothing new. Islamic terrorists have been at war with the United States for about 30 years. Observers of recent history remember that the long string of terrorism began with the hijacking of airlines, the taking of hostages and the slaughter of innocent victims in the 1970s. Then it progressed, among other events, into the bombing of U.S. military barracks, U.S. embassies, the USS Cole and the World Trade Center. Then came Sept. 11•. Until then, the terrorists were at war with us, but we weren't at war with them. Americans woke up when al-Qaeda terrorists flew airliners into the World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon. Only a few years later, the losers lulled themselves into a false sense of security, closed their eyes ~nd went b~ck to sleep. 11ley're stili asleep today. . Now, according to some national surveys, the losers are infecting others with their disease. More Americans are beginning to doubt themselves and to lose their will to fight. file://C:\DOCUME-l\agbmkram~QCALS-l \Temp\H9DE4R6D.htm 11/16/2004 Some leaders, however, are slapping the nation with some cold facts. One of them, retired Lt. Gen. Thomas·McInemey, a military analyst for Fox News Channel, spoke at a recent luncheon sponsored by the John Locke Foundation. Some of his revelations were: o Page2of2 - Syria got $300 million from Saddam Hussein to hide Iraq's weapons of mass destruction; - The recent outbrea~othostilitie&l! radical Islamists to ensure that we do not get a successfurtumover in Iraq and Iraq becoming a growing democracy"; - Iran is sponsoring and funding Muqtada al-Sadr in the recent fighting In Iraq; - Terrorist organizations,. such' as Hezbollah and Hamas, are an arm of Iran and Syria; - Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Ubya, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and North Korea form a "web of terror" that supports terrorism. "If these web of terror nations did not support terrorism, terrorism Withers," he said. Ubya and Afghanistan are no longer on the list. . - Sadr, too, remembers Vietnam. One of his objectives is to sow discord in the United States so we will lose our resolve. . I believe McInerney and the president. For some Americans, losing Is a way of life. To them, America, likewise, is always a loser. They made Vietnam a self-fulfilling prophecy. Now they want to do the same in Iraq. If the losers are allowed to endure, sure enough, we will allow freedom to be held hostage again~ Our nation eventually not only could surrender, it could succumb. The enemy this time has entered our back yard and prepa[es to torch our home. LOAD-DATE: June 6, 2004 View: ~ I Full < p~ev Document 2 of 14 n~t > edit Search I New Search ~dnt I Download u About WIsNexfs I Terms and Conditions I privacy PAU~ CgRy(ight 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved., file:IIC:\D9CUME-l\agbmkram\L9CAL~""'1\Temp\H9DE4R6D.htrn 11/16/2004 ..t.." Document Results search Within Results: c- o ALL INFOR!lATION CONTAI~mD HEREIN IS U1iICLASS IFIED ~ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/~/1Sg -- - _:: ] mmm· Page 1of2 edit Search I New Search - P!1nt I Download ~ew: Ust I Full ~ Tag tor Print a. Download o Document 1 of 5 ~~ > Copyright 2004 U.P.I. United Press International June 8, 2004 Tuesday LENGTH: 908 words HEADLINE: Analysis: Despite Iraqi gains, Sadr remains BYLINE: By GAOl OECHTER DATELINE: WASHINGTON, June 8 (UPI) BODY: Despite a recent spate of positive political news Iraq-watchers of diverse stripes·agree that renegade cleric Moqtada Sadr remains the critical thorn in the country's side, and not likely to be extirpated any time soon. Incoming Iraqi Prime Minister Ayad Allawl formally outlawed on Monday the defiant Shiite cleric's Mahdi Army, a private militia of 2,000..3,000 fighters that has repeatedly clashed with U.S. forces in recent months, and barred Sadr and his lieutenants from holding public office for three years. The order is an exception to a new Iraqi policy of Including private militias and their leaders in a postwar political process In exchange for their disbanding and pledging to work with the new government, which is scheduled to take over sovereignty from coalition forces on June 30. Nine other Iraqi political parties and movements pledged on Monday to comply with the order. Juan Cole, a University of Michigan history professor and frequent commentator on the Middle East said that banning Sadr from mainstream Iraqi politics would only endanger the fragile truce between the Mahdi Army and U.S. forces in the holy ShIIte cities of Najaf and Kufa, a cease-fire that has held since Friday. "I think there Is every prospect of drawing (Sadr) Into the political process," Cole told United Press International Tuesday. "(Sadr's) forces can be potentially drawn off into the regular army and it Is better to do that than confront him." Among the obstacles to Sadr's Inclusion in mainstream Iraqi politics Is an outstanding warrant for his arrest Issued In April by an Iraqi jUdge, on charges that Sadr allegedly murdered a rival cleric last year. A State Department spokesman said Monday it believes Iraqi authorities should prosecute SadrI "It Is our view that Moqtada Sadr Is a subject of Iraqi law and that law should be applied to him, as well as to any other Iraqi citizen who has been accused of violating the law," Adam Erell told a briefing In Washington. But the Iraqi government could take advantage of the transitional nature of Iraqi politics to amend Sadr's current fugitive status, said Cole. "The charges ~galnst (Sadr) were arbitrary anyway, since no grand jury has met and had him charged. They could be allowed to lapse or given over to the clerics to handle Internally," he said. Turning the outlaw cleric into a legitimate political player would not necessarily neutralize him as a security th~at,.and may In fact increase his power; according to Amatzia Baram, a senior fellow at the https:llw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secu~d/searc.hfonnsl4oBr~)\_lVse.~p?Sear~hInfoID=...11/16/2004 United States Instltut~ of Peace, a federally funded think tan~. "can (Sadr) be bought off? He can be bought off, yes. But only as a stepping-stone to total power. Namely, he'll do the same thing that Saddam Huss~in has done, that Hitler has done. He'll cooperate up to a point and then he'll try to take over and replace the system," said Baram, who Is also a professor of Middle Eastern history at the University of Haifa In Israel. "Unless Sadr is captured or killed he will remain a thorn In the side of the new Iraqi government," agreed ,Nimrod Raphaell, a senior analyst at the Middle Eastern Media Research Institute, an organization that monitors and analyzes Middle East media reports. Document Results o o Page2of2 Whatever strategy the new Iraqi government ultimately pursues, experts agree that disbanding the Mahdi Army,. whether by force or persuasion, Is a practical challenge of ~Imost overwhelming difficulty. Unlike Kurdish militias and the Badr Corps -- the armed force of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution In Iraq, or SCIRI, which Is one of the groups that has reportedly agreed 'to disband -- Sadr's militia Is undisciplined and may not respond even to their leader's commands to lay down weapons. liThe Mahdi Army Is not a militia in the same way that the Badr Corps Is, and cannot be disbanded. It's just a congeries of ShIIte ghetto youth gangs, mainly from ,East Baghdad," said Cole. "They are like the Crlps and the Bloods in Los Angeles. As long as there are ghettos and as long as the poverty-stricken young men In them are armed, they will be something of a problem." Moqtada Sadr, 30, Is the fourth son of Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Muhammad Baqlr Sadr, a Shiite leader who was killed, along with two of his children, by agents of Saddam Hussein In 1999. The Sadr family traces Its origins to the prophet Muhammad and Is one of the most venerated In ShIIte Iraq. His fiery serm9.ns are characterized by Intense anti-American hostility and.afundamentallst Interpretation of Islam.similar to that promulgated by the Iranian government, from-whom he is believed to receive funding. . "His vision for Iraq is probably a government similar to that of Iran," said Raphaell. After Sadr's weekly paper, AI-Hawza, was dosed by the Coalition Provisional Authority on March 28, his forces took over holy ShUte shrines in the cities of Najaf and Karbala and declared open rebellion against the U.S.-led occupation. Fighters In the Mahdi Army occupied buildings and mosques In as many as six Iraqi cities In April, holding out longest in Najaf and Kufa. Those cities have been relatively quiet for about a week, following a cease-fire between American and Sadr forces mediated by mainstream ShIIte authorities. U.S~ forces appear to have given upon their threats to "capture or kill" Sadr and have reportedly decided to let the new Iraqi prime minister decide how to handle the rebellious cleric. LOAD-DATE: June 9, 2004 View: !J$. I Full Document 1 of 5 nmsl > Edit Search I New Search -- ~rint I Download I' About LexlsNexls I Terms and Conditions I Privacy POlicy Copyright 2004 LexlsNexls, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc~ All rights reserved. https:llw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchInfoID=... 11116/2004 Edit Search I New Search Search Within Results: 1;....":.,,,;,. _~~t I Downloa~ -,....."_.......-~"".-"_~-.,,,,..--'l IDDI ..- a ALL INFOP.RATION COIJTAINED HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED Q DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baw. J1sg Page 1 of9 View: Ust I Full _ Tag for Print &. Download _t:II!I!&Il o Copyright 2004 U.S. News a. World Report U.S. News&' World Report November 22, 2004 Document 1 of 2 ~> SECTION: SPECIAL REPORT; COVER PACKAGE; THE IRAN CONNECTION; Vol. 137 , No. 18; Pg. 34 LENGTH: 6480 words HEADLINE: Special Report: The Iran Connection BYLINE: By Edward T. Pound; Jennifer Jack BODY: In the summer of last year, Iranian intelligence agents in Tehran began planning something quite spectacular for September 11, the two-year a'nnlversary of al Qaeda's attack on the United States, according to a classified American intelligence report. Iranian agents disbursed $ 20,000 to a team of assassins, the report said, to kill Paul Bremer, then the top U.S. civilian administrator In Iraq. The Information was specific: The team, said a well-placed source quoted In the intelligence document, would use a Toyota Corona taxi and a second car, driven by suicide bombers, to take out Bremer and destroy two hotels In downtown Baghdad. The source even named one of the planners, Hlmin Bani Shari, a hlghranking member of the Ansar ai-Islam terrorist group and a known associate of Iranian intelligence agen~. . The alleged plan was never carried out:- But American officials regarded Iran's reported role, and Its ability to make trouble In Iraq, as deadly serious. Iran, said a separate report, issued in Nov~mber 2003 by American military analysts, "will use and support proxy groups" such as Ansar ai-Islam "to conduct attacks in Iraq in an attempt to further destablize the country." An assessment by the U.S. Army's V Corps, which then directed all Army activity In Iraq, agre~d: "Iranian intelligence continues to prod and facilitate the infiltration of Iraq with their subversive elements while providing them support once they ar~ in country." With the Pentagon's stepped-up efforts to break the back of the Insurgency before Iraq'S scheduled elections in late January, Iran's efforts to destabilize Iraq have received little public attention. But a review of thousands of pages of Intelligence reports by U.S.' News reveals the critical role Iran has played In aiding some elements of the anti-American· insurgency after Baghdad fell--and raises Important questions about whether Iran will continue to try to destabilize Iraq after elections are held. The classified intelligence reports, covering the period July 2003 through early 2004, were prepared by the CIA; the Defense Intelligence Agency; the Iraq Survey Group, the 1,400-person outfit President Bush sent to Iraq to find weapons of mass destruction; the Coalition Provisional Authority; and various military commands and units in the field, Including the V Corps and the Pentagon's Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force. The reports are based on ,Information gathered from Iraqis, Iranian dissidents, and other sources inside Iraq. U.S. News also· reviewed British Intelligence assessments of the postwar p~ase in Iraq. ' $ 500 a soldier. Many of the reports are uncorroborated and are considered "raw" Intelligence of the type seldom seen by those 'outside the national security community. But the picture that emerges from the sheer v~lume of the reports, and as a result of the multiplicity of sources from which they were generated, leaves little doubt about the depth of Iran's involvement in supporting elements of the insurgency and In positioning Itself to move quickly In Iraq If it believes a change In circumstances there dictates such action. "Iran," wrote an analyst with the Air Force Office of Special Investigations on Dec. 5, 2003, "poses the greatest long-term threat to U.S. efforts in Iraq." An analyst at the V Corps summarized m~tters this way: "Iranian intelligence agents are conducting operations in every major city file:/IG:\DOCUME-l\agbmkram\LOCALS-l~Temp\C0l6ZEQF..htlt! _ l1/i612004 o o Page2of9 with a significant Shla population. The counterintelligence threat from Iran Is assessed to be high, as locally employed people, former military officers, politicians, and young men are recruited, -hired, and trained by Iranian Intelligence to collect [Intelligence] on coalition forces." Even as Bremer's Coalition ProVisional Authority and the U.S.-led military were pressing last year to consolidate their grip on Iraq, the intelligence reports Indicate, the seeds of the Insurgency were growing, In some cases with funding and direction from Iranian government ~actions. "Iranian Intelligence will not conduct attacks on CF [coalition forces] that can be directlY linked to Iran," wrote' a senior Army analyst, "but will provide-lethal aid to subversive elements within Iraq ••• in the form of weapons, safe hOUSes, or money." In an interview, David Kay, the former chief weapons inspector for the Iraq Survey Group, said he believes that factions within the Iranian government have been plotting with and funding some insurgency groups. "I think we are In an intelligence war with Iran," Kay said. "There are Iranian lntellfgence agents all over the country [Iraq]." Another former American official, Michael Rubin, who worked for the Pentagon and the Coalition Provisional Authority, agrees. "Iran feels It should be the predominant power In the region," Rubin said. "With the U.S. out of there, they [will] have no real competition.n The Intelligence reports reViewed by U.S. News appear to supportthose assessments. Examples: Iran set up a massive Intelligence network in Iraq, flooding the country with agents In the months after the U.S.-led coalition toppled Saddam Hussein's regime. Sources told American intelligence analysts that Iranian agents were tasked with finding information on U.S. military plans and Identifying Iraqis who would ,be willing to conduct attacks on U.S. forces that would not be linked to Iran. Iranian Intelligence agents were said to have planned attacks against the U.S.-led forces and supported terrorist groups with weapons. Iranian agents smuggled weapons and ammunition across the border Into Iraq and distributed them "to Individuals who wanted to attack coalition forces," according to one report, citing "a source with good access." SeparC!tely, an Iraq Survey Group report said that Iranian agents "placed a bounty" of $ 500 for each American soldier killed by insurgents and more for destruction of tanks and heavy weaponry. " Iran trained terrorists and provided them with safe havens and passage across the border Into Iraq, several of the reports say. The Iranian-supported Ansar ai-Islam began carrying out bombings and other attacks against coalition forces and Iraqi citizens in tile summer of 2003. One report, describing an interview with a source, said: "There were approximately 320 Ansar ai-Islam terrorists being trained In Iran ••• for various attack scenarios including suicide bombings, assassinations, and general subversion against U.S. forces In Iraq." The reports linked Ansar ai-Islam to al Qaeda and to Abu Musab Zarqawl, the most wanted terrorist In Iraq. "Among the more capable terrorist groups operating in Iraq," an analyst wrote In another report, "are al Qaeda, the al Zarqawl network, as well as Ansar ai-Islam." Iran.has.been·a·prlncipal supporter of Moqtada al-Sadr, a radical Shiite cleric whose black-clad Mahdl Army fighters have clashed often with U.S.-led forces. Months before the worst of the insurgency In southern"Iraq began last April, U.S. intelligence officials tracked reported movements of Iranlan·money and arms to forces loyal to·Sadr. According to a VCorps report written In September 2003, "There has been an increase of Iranian Intelligence officers entering" Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Basra, and Amarah. Sa"dr's fighters later engaged in fierce battles wl~h coalition forces In each of those cities. "Double game." Iran's permanent mission to the United Nations In New York did not respond to repeated requests for comment from U.S. News. In a sermon given last April, Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi. Rafsanjanl, a leading political figure In Iran, said that Americans were "a very effective target" but that Iran "does not wish to get involved In acts of adventurism." Separately,.In New York last September, Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi denied that his country had funded or armed Sadr's Mahdl Army. U.S. government officials, questioned about the Intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News, say the evidence of Iran's destabilization efforts in Iraq is persuasive. "We certainly do have a lot of evidence of Iranian mischief making," a senior Pentagon official said In an Interview, "and attempts [at] building subversive Influence. I would never underestimate the Iranian problem••.• Iran Is a menace In a basic sense." Looking at the overall problem in Iraq, however, the official identifies Sunnl Muslim extremists as the "hard core" of the insurgency. They Include for:mer supporters of Saddam and some foreign fighters-most prominently Zarqaw', whos.e network has claimed responsibility for some of Iraq's bloodiest file:/IC:\DOCUME-1\agbmkram\LOCALS-lyr~mp\C! 06ZFQF.hfl!l 11/16/2004 o o Page 3 of9 bombings and the beheading of American Nicholas Berg and other western captives. Some terrorists, the official noted pointedly, are also using Syria as an outpost and safe haven. More than a year ago, the Defense Intelligence Agency reached similar conclusions In a secret analysis headlined "Iraq: Who·Are We Fighting?" The analysis cited foreign jlhadlsts as· "potentially" the most "threatening." An analyst with the- Iraq Survey Group concluded that "[a]s time passes and more and more terrorists and foreign fighters come into Iraq, the situation will become more dangerous because you will get a more experienced enemy, with more training, resources, and experience.II Iran has obvious interests In Iraq. In the 1980s,. Iran and Iraq fought a brutal eight-year war that claimed more than a million casualties. Despite the hostilities, the ShIIte communities of both countries have deep ties. Shiites compose the majority of the population In both Iran and Iraq, accounting for 60 percent of the latter's 25.4 million people. Iraq Is home to some of Shiite Islam's most important holy sites, and thousands of Iranians have taken advantage of newly opened borders to visit them. During. Saddam's three decades of repression, Iran provided support and refuge for many of Iraq's Shiite religious leaders. Patrick Clawson, a leading expert on Iraq and Iran at the Washington Institute for Near East Polley, says It is not surprising that Iran Is heavily Involved In Iraq. "It only makes sense that the government of Iran would want to have a network of contacts with the Insurgents, develop friends, develop Intelligence sources, provide them Information about American assets and capabllities," he said In an interview. " ••• It is In their national Interest." At the same time, Clawson says, Iran Is playing "a double game"--stirrlng up trouble In Iraq while publicly professing support for Iraqi elections. Understanding Iran's precise motives In Iraq Is no simple matter. Ahmed Hashim, a professor of strategic studies at the U.S. Naval War College, says that the Islamic regime In Tehran does not always speak With one voice. "I think Iran has Its hand In a lot of what's going on [In Iraq], but we shouldn't assume the government Is unified," he says. "When you look'at th~ Iranian system of government, if you say Iran, It could actually be the Ministry of Intelligence and Security, the [charitable] foundations, or various agencies of the government. They act almost independently." Another Iran expert, Kenneth Pollack, who served In the Clinton White House as director of Persian Gulf affairs on the National Security Council staff, ,believes Iran does not want chaos in Iraq. "The Iranian leaders are terrified of chaos In Iraq," he says, "and the spillover" aspect. Iran, PoHack adds, wants a stable, "Independent" government headed by ShIItes. Whatever Its objectives In Iraq, Iran has a well-documented history of supporting terrorist groups. For years, the State Department has Identified Iran as the .world's pre-eminent state sponsor of terrorism. American officials say the regime has provided fundin'g, safe havens, training, and weapons to several terrorist groups, Including Lebanon-based Hezbollah.,The commission Investigating the 9ill attacks said In Its final report that al Qaeda has long-standing ties to Iran and Hezbollah. Iran favors spectacular attacks, officials say, citing Its alleged role In the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers In Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, that claimed the lives of 19 U.S. servicemen. Six of the Hezbollah terrorists Indicted In the attack "directly implicated" senior Iranian government officials "In the planning and execution of this attaCk," former FBI Director Louis Freeh wrote last year. A wolrs claws. F~eeh named two Iranian government agencies, the Ministry of Intelligence and Security, or MOIS, and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, an elite fighting unit and enforcer for the clerical regime. As the Insurgency developed in Iraq,·both played central roles In planning and funding some of the attacks on coalitionJorces, according to the Intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News. Early on, MOIS and the revolutionary guard corps were tasked with the job of creating instability In Iraq, the reports say. In some cases, Iran's agents allegedly worked with former Saddam loyalists, an odd marriage but one that shared a common goal: to drive U.S. forces out of Iraq. The reports detail how Iranian agents sought to recruit former regime loyalists and how one former Iraqi Intelligence Service officer, who had close ties to Saddam's late son, Uday, reportedly setup a front company for Iranian Intelligence operations In Baghdad. Only weeks after Saddam was ousted, In April 2003, Iran publicly signaled support for Violence against the coalition. In a sermon on May 2, Ayatollah Ahmad Jannatl, secretary general of Iran's powerful Council of Guardians, called on Iraqis to stage suicide attacks to drive U.S.-led forces from Iran. The Iraqi people, he said, "have no other choice but to rise up and stage martyrdom operation~•••• The Iraqi people were released from the claws of one wolf and have been caught by another wolf." Two months later, U.S. News has learned, coalition forces uncovered a document describing a fatwa, or religious edict, that had reportedly been Issued In Iran for Its ShIIte supporters In Iraq. The fatWa urged "h~ly fighters" In Iraq to get close to the enemy--the U.S.-led troops. These fighters, the fatwa said, file:IIC:\DOCUME~1\agbmkram\LOCALS-l\re~p\G106Z¥QF..~tm 11/16/2004 " o Page4of9 should "maintain good-relations with the coalition forces" but afthe same time create "a secret group that would conduct attacks against American troops." U.S. analysts could not confirm that the ruling was issued by Iranian clerics, but they believe it was credible. Wrote one analyst: "It seems that they [the Iranians] want them [Iraqi Shiite supporters] to be close to the coalition forces and outwardly respect them so that they can gather Intelligence that will assist them in their mission." Before long, Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security stepped up Its Intelligence operations In Iraq, many of the Intelligence reports suggest. Agents set up "significant" Intelligence cells In key Iraqi cities, several reports said, Including Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Kut, Basra, and Klrkuk. MOIS agents also.set up a "listening post" In a city In southeastern Iraq to monitor the activities of U.S. forces. In southern Iraq, 10 Iranian agents reportedly began operating out of two rooms at a Shiite mosque. Iran, according to the reports, also sought to place spies within Bremer's Coalition Provisional Authority, then running Iraq's affairs, and they followed and photographed coalition forces. Four Iranians, believed to be MOIS agents, were detained In late July 2003 for photographing a hydropower plant near the central city of Samarra. Power plants became a frequent target of insurgents. In one case, U.S. Intelligence officials learned that a MOIS agent, a man named Muhammad Farhaadl, videotaped coalition operations In Karbala, a city south of Baghdad, then took the tape 'back to Iran. During the summer and fall of 2003, U.S. analysts' reports describe how MOIS and Its operatives sought to develop information from ShIItes In the south and from Sunnls in the north on the activities of U.S.-led forces. In the fall of 2003, an analyst for the Air Force Office of Special Investigations wrote: "Iranian intelligence has infiltrated all areas of Iraq, posing both a tactical and strategic threat to U~S. Interests." Bribes and border crossings. MOIS also sought to cultivate former Iraqi Intelligence officers who might help develop Intelligence on the plans and activities of the Coalition Provisional Authority and U.S.-led forces, several reports said. "Former lIS [Iraqi Intelligence Servlce]offlcers are highly sought-after targets by U.S. intelligence," said an October 2003 report issued by the Air Force Office of Special Investigations, "not only for their current and former knowledge of Iraqi activities but also because many US officers will likely have a wealth of Intelligence information on Iran. Iran knows this and will strive to recruit former ns officers before the U.s. Is able to do so. The environment is ripe for double-agent operations, and loyalties can never be certain.n The Intelligence reports detail precisely what Iran was after. Its "collection priorities" included finding out what weapons U.S. troops were carrying and what kind of body armor they were wearing. Iranian agents also sought Information on the location of U.s. Army and intelligence bases; on the routes travel.ed by U.S. convoys; on the operations of the Special Forces' elite Delta Force; and on the plans of the U.S. military and Intelligence Inside Iraq. A military report said a source had reported that the Iranians were pressing to find out whether the Israeli Intelligence agency, Mossad, was active In Iraq. According to the report, MOIS directed its agents "to collect Information on the Israeli Intelligence presence In northern Iraq." Iran's "primary objective In Iraq," wrote another analyst, citing a good source, "Is to create Instability so coalition forces will focus on controlling the unstable situation rather than concentrating on reconstruction efforts." MOIS agents carried cash, reports said, to bribe Iraqi border pollee In order to obtain safe passage Into Iraq. In reality, however, all the IranJans had to do was walk across the border at any number of crossing points, where they could blend In amid Iranians coming to Iraq to visit relatives, do business, and worship at ShIIte shrines, according to the Intelligence reports and several senior Army officers Interviewed by U.S. News. "The borders were wide open," says one senior officer. "It suggests that terrorists could come over pretty easily. My God, there were busloads of Iranians crossing· the border without Interference." Another U.S. Army officer was so concerned that Iranian spies and Islamic jlhadlsts were crossing Into Iraq that he visited a border site in a mountainous region northeast of Baghdad last January. "I saw over 1,200 people come over [to Iraq] In an hour, and there were no [coalition] troops there," the officer recalls. "I did not see them armed, but then a lot of them came across in carts and some In vehicles and donkeys, and you wouldn't know. If only 1 percent of them were combatants," he adds, "you can see the problem." Iranian agents f.1ad plenty of help waiting Inside Iraq. Numerous Intelligence reports say that members of a ShIIte militia group In Iraq known as the Badr Corps aided Iran In moving agents, weapons, and other materiel Into southern Iraq--sometlmes under the cover of humanitarian organizations. The Badr Corps has served as the armed wing of one of the most popular Shiite political parties In southern Iraq, the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, or SCIRI. The leaders of both SCIRI and the Badr Corps, which now calls Itself the Badr Organization, have maintained close ties to Iran for about two decades. file:/IC:\Do.CUME-l\agb~kram\LOGALS-l\Temp\Cl 06ZFQF.~!m "1 1116/2004 o o PageS of9 Iraqis associated with SClRI and Badr opposed Saddam's regime and fled to Iran In ~he ea~ly 1980s, where their organizations were established. They began returning to Iraq in droves after U.S.-led troops invaded Iraq in March 2003, prompting Defense Secretary Donald .Rumsfeld to warn the Badr Corps not to Interfere In Iraq. Badr leaders say they have no hostile Intentions toward U.S. forces, but their loyalties remain much In doubt. Just last month, Iraq's national intelligence chief, Mohammed al Shahwanl, accused the Badr Organization of killing 10 of his agents on orders from Iranian leaders. Badr, which denied the charges, was said to have disarmed this past summer, as part of an agreement with the new Iraqi government that would allow its members to serve in the new Iraqi Civil Defense Force~ Yet Badr's historical ties to Iran, as described in U.S. and British Intelligence reports, offer little In the way of reassurance. While saying that SClRI and Badr have "made some attempts to emphasize independence from Iran," a British Defence Intelligence Staff report on "Armed Groups in Iraq," dated Nov. 21, 2003, says that the Badr Organization retains "strong links" to ,Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps." The IRGC, the report says, "has funded, trained, and armed" the militia group, whose membership it estimated at between 18,000 and 20,000. The report says that some Badr members were unhappy with their leader, Abul Azlz ai-Hakim, who commands both SCIRI and Badr, and had returned to Iran. At the time, the report says, Badr was "well equipped" with "small arms, mortars and RPG s [rocket-propelled grenades]," T-55 series tanks and a "variety of artillery and antlalr pieces." Other intelligence reports say that an Iranian government agency--probably the IRGC--had provided Badr with global positioning systems to better target U.S.-led forces. Some of the most important Information on Iran has been provided by an Iranian exile group, the Mujaheddln..e-Khalq. The MEK fled Iran after the 1979 revolution and later relocated with Saddam's support to Iraq, where it continued to advocate the overthrow of the Iranian clerical regime. U.s~ forces now are guarding Its 3,800 members at Camp Ashraf, the MEK's sprawling compound northeast of Baghdad. Designated a terrorist organization by the State Department, the MEK neve.rtheless has provided American officials with Significant intelligence on Iran's nuclear weapons programs. The MEK, wrote one Army analyst, is "quite proficient at intelligence collection." Other analysts said that the MEK' . also had provided valuable on-the-ground intelligence to Army Special Forces after the invaslonlof Iraq. te: "The SF guys claim the [MEK] are a valuable intel asset," wrote an Army sergeant who had met'. frequently with the MEK, "and are generally reliable." At the same time, an Army team wrote that It.was.l' Important to be mindful that, given that its stated goal is to topple the government In Tehran, the MEK'stt' ~ reports "were designed to Inform as well as Influence American policy toward ••• the Iranian regime.~ ~ A red'truck. Relying on Its own agents inside Iran and other sources, the MEK has given Army personnel detailed reports on what it says have been Iran's efforts to destabilize Iraq. In its reports, some of which were reviewed by U.S. News, the MEK reported on the Intelligence-collection methods of Iran's MOIS, arms shipments from Iran to Iraq, and· the involvement In these operations of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps's so~called Qods Force, or "Jerusalem Force." In December last year, MEK intelligence officers provided the Army with a detailed report and maps on what it called "a widespread network for transferring and distributing arms from Iran to Iraq" through the Ilam region in ~estern Iran. The MEK said its sworn enemy, the Badr Organization, was involved In the network. According to the MEK's operatives, both Badr and the Iranian command staff were based in Iran at the border town of Mehran. "In order to control and manage the intelligence and terrorist activities in Iraq," a MEK intelligence officer wrote, "the Qods Force has recently moved part of its command staff from Tehran to the border city of Mehran." His report also Identifed the areas In western, northwestern, and southern Iran where Qods Force commanders operated, along with the identities of more than a dozen commanders. The MEK's reports contain detailed information on arms shipments. On Dec. 4, ~003, the MEK reported, Iranian agents moved 1,OOO.rocket-propelled grenades and seven boxes of TNT from western Iran to Iraqi resistance groups. A week later, Iran's Qods Force moved "a number of Mirage submachine guns" into Iraq In a "truck loaded with cement bags under which the arms were hidden," according to another report. later that month, the MEK said, an Iraqi working for Iran drove a red fruit truck..-a "cover for a consignment of arms," including RPG s, mortars, and Kalashnlkov rifles--across the border into Iraq. The dissident Iranian group also provided American intelligence officers with information on how Hezbollah was aiding Iran In gathering Intelligence in I~q. Hezbollah, a bitter enemy of Israel with close ties to Iran and Syria, collected information on American and, British troops, photographed them, then sent the information to Qods Force commanders In Iran, according to MEK intelligence reports. J;ile:I/C~\DQCQlvJE-l)agb~Iq-am\LOCAL~-I.\Temp\Cl06ZFQF.htm 11/16/2004 o o Page 6 of9 .' Intelligence officers for the MEK also said they had learned that Hezbollah had some 800 operatives In Iraq as of last January, including assassination teams. "The teams assassinate their opponents," a MEK intelligence officer reported, "and carry out sabotage operations." The MEK claimed that Hezbollah had assassinated an Iraqi man who had prOVided information to coalition forces. Other sources prOVided similar information, including Mossad, the Israeli intelligence agency. Mossad warned U.S. intelligence officials in October 4003 that Hezbollah planned to set up a resistance movement that would cause mass casualties, according to a report prepared by the Defense Intelligence Agency's Joint Intelligence Task Force--Combating Terrorism. Iran, the report said, was calling the shots. "Should such mass casualty attacks be considered," the task force wrote, "they [Hezbollah] must first receive approval from Iran." The Iranians "do not want the U.S. and the coalition to focus attention on Iranian support for terrorist networks or other anti-coalition activities they're involved with," said a report by an analyst for a U.S. Central Command support team in Iraq. "Iran Is also trying to ensure it has a great deal of influence in Iraq, and one way of doing that Is to supply weapons to anti-coalition groups." Iranian agencies put the intelligence they gathered to practical use, planning, funding, and training attackers, according to many of the intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News. In November of last year, the Iraq Survey Group received information that Iran had formed small groups of fighters to conduct attacks in cities across Iraq. "Iran had reportedly placed a bounty on U.S. forces of U.S. $ 2,000 for each helicopter shot down, $ 1,000 for each tank destroyed, and $ 500 for each U.S. military personnel killed," the Iraq Survey Group reported. Iranian agents were also suspected in the assassination of at least two prominent Iraqis. In the fall of 2003, there were two reported plots against Bremer, the Coalition Provisional Authority administrator. The Iraq Survey Group, citing a source who "has provided reliable information In the past," said a senior Iranian cleric in Tehran set up a special 100member army, known as al Saqar, which means eagle in Arabic, to assassinate Bremer and carry out other terrorist attacks. The Eagle Army, the Iraqi Survey Group was told, had trained for 30 days at an Iranian terJ:0rist camp. This alleged plot and others reportedly planned against Bremer came to nothing. There were many reported plots against Bremer during his one-year tenure in Baghdad, and throughout his time there he was prOVided with blanket security. He declined to be interviewed for this story. Mastermind. Jihadlsts saw Iraq as an opportunity. In a report quoting a source who was not otherwise characterized, a U.S. Special Operations task force wrote that "the lebanese Hlzballah leadership believes that the struggle In Iraq is the new battleground in the fight against the U.S." In fact, other analysts wrote, Hezbollah and Ansar ai-Islam were among the most active groups in Iraq, although al. Qaeda operatives also were believed to be operating there soon afterthe invasion. Ansar ai-Islam Is a small group of Arabs and Iraqi Kurds that Is believed to have figured in some of the most violent attacks in Iraq. American and British Intelligence, the reports show, concluded that Ansar alIslam was working closely with Iran, and alsoal Qaeda, In Its terrorist attacks against coalition forces. Military intelligence reports suggested that the group was believed to be linked to two horrific bombings in Baghdad last year--the attack on the Jordanian Embassy on August 7, In which 17 people were killed, and the August 19 bombing that devastated the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad. That attack killed 22 people, including U.N. envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello. Intelligence reporting Indicated that the mastermind of the U.N. attack was Zarqawi, the terrorist who has continued to bedevil coalition forces, and that al Qaeda operatives also played a role. A "reliable source with good access" said that Zarqawl had coordinated his plans for attacks in Iraq with Ansar ai-Islam's top leader, Abu Abdullah al-Shafii. The reports did not link Iran directly to either the U.N. attack or the Jordanian bombing. But one British defense,report noted pointedly: "Some elements [of Ansar ai-Islam] remain In Iran. Intelligence indicates that elements" of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps "are providing safe haven and basic training to Iran-based AI [Ansar ai-Islam] cadres." Funneling money. A separate report from the British Secret Intelligence Service, quoting a source who "has proved fairly reliable,., said that Iranian government agendes were also secretly helping Ansar alIslam members cross Into Iraq from Iran, as part of a plan to mount sniper attacks against coalition forces. There were also multiple American intelligence reports Identifying Iran as a chief supporter of Ansar ai-Islam. U.S. intelligence received information that an Iranian was aiding Ansar ai-Islam "on how to build and set up" Improvised explosive devices, known as lED s. An analyst for the'U.S. Central Command offered this assessment: "AI [Ansar ai-Islam] is actively attempting to'improve lED effectiveness and sophisticationt As might be expected, given the volume of the intelligence reports reviewed by U.S. News, some of the file:!!C:\DOCUME-l\agb~kraro~OCAL~-l\Tt!mp\C106~QF.hOO 11116/2004 o Page 7 of9 information was contradictory. In some cases, Hezbollah, for Instance, was said to be planning direct attacks against coalition forces. In others, It was said to be working only behind the scenes in fomenting violence in Iraq. Perhaps Iran's most significant involvement.ln Iraq has been Its support for Moqtada al-Sadr, the .. radical, anti-U.S. cleric. His Mahdl Army militia engaged In a series of vicious battles with coalition forces in the holY.. southern.Shiite cities of Najaf and Karbala, and in the teeming Baghdad slum known as Sadr City, between-Aprirand.Oetober:thfsqtear. Uke most of Its operations in Iraq, the Intelligence reports indicate that the Iranian regime has tried to mask Its support of Sadr. He visited Tehran in June 2003 for a ceremony marking the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinl, the spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution, but it is riot known whether he received any commitment from Iran at that time. U.S. intelligence reports say thatIran used Hezbollah to train and,provlde.funds·to~Sadr·sMahdi:Army'and: may'also have used front·companies'to~funnel~money:to:him:'l'For-a.time; the·reports=suggest;;Sadr appeared to be getting funds'from-a"senior-Shiite religious leader living In Iran, the Grand Ayatollah Kazem al-Haeri, who advocates an Islamic state In Iraq. But by mid-October 2003, according to a special operations task force, Haeri withdrew his "financial support" from Sadr. The ayatollah later publicly cut his ties with Sadr. .. There.was no such break with Hez~ollah•.lhe first sign that the terrorist group planned to support Sadr is reflected"ln a-July' 29; 2003; U:S: intelligence,report. Citing~Israeli·military-intelligence, -the report says Hezbollah "military activists" were attempting to establish contacts with Sadr and his Mahdi Army. The next month they did. By late August, according to a report prepared by aU.S. military analyst, Hezbollah had established "a team of30 to 40 operatives" in Najaf "In support of Moqtada Sadr's Shia paramiltary group." The report, based on a source "with direct access to the reported information," said that Hezbollah was recruiting and training members of Sadr's militia. A later report, citing "multiple sources," said that Hezbollah was "buying rocket-propelled grenades ..• antitank missiles" and other weapons for Sadr's militia. Intelligence analysts also tied Sadr to Hassan Nasrallah, the secretary general of Hezbollah. "Reporting also confirms the relationship between •.•• Sadr and Hassan Nasrallah," an Army report said. The report cited unconfirmed Information indicating that a top adviser to Nasrallah, who Is based In Lebanon, had, delivered funds to Sadr In Najaf. Other reporting indicated that the Mahdi Army may have received support from former Saddam supporters .and other antlcoalition groups. Intelligence analysts were aware, as early as the fall of 2003, that Sadr could become a serious problem. At that time, there had been no confirmed attacks on coalition forces, only Sadr's tough rhetoric, in which he denounced the United States and called the Iraqi Governing Council Illegal. But, as a British defense intelligence report said, "stockpiling of heavier weapons, along with public antl-CF [Coalition Force] rhetoric, could indicate a willingness to take more direct action against CF." "111e honeymoon Is over." Dlrect.action..was precisely what Sadr took, after Bremer ordered his Baghdad newspaper shut down, in March this year, accusing It of "inciting violence" against U.S.-led forces. Days later, after American soldiers arrested a Sadr aide, fierce fighting erupted between U.S. troops and Sadr's forces. In August, Sadr's Mahdl Army surrendered the Imam All Shrine in Najaf, and last month he reached a cease-fire with the United States and Iraq's Interim government. Sadr's fighters began turning in their weapons, as part of an agreement to disband, and Sadr signaled his Intention to get involved in the political process. He remains influential with many ShIItes, and American officials know that, if the Iraqi venture is to succeed, they must do everything they can to keep the majority Shiites happy.~ "Beware if we lose the goodwill of the Shl'ites. The honeymoon is over/' an Army captain wrote in October 2003, months before the battles with.Sadr's forces began. "Arresting Sadr, the son of a martyr, will only fuel Shiite extremists' animosity, and strengthen their recruiting efforts." Managing the Sadr situation, some government and intelligence officials say, is a microcosm of the far more difficult challenges America faces In responding to Iran's activities in Iraq. Iran clearly has the potential to stir up far more trouble than it has, partiCUlarly in the largely Shiite southern half of Iraq. But so far, as It continues its elaborate dance with the West over its ambitious nuclear program, the Islamic regime has yet to turn the heat up full blast In, Iraq, evidently secure in the knowledge that it can do so when and· if it sees the need to. "I would not put it past them to carry out spectacular attacks," says David Kay, the former chief U.S. weapons inspector in Iraq, "to demonstrate the cost of a hostile policy. That Is the policy issue--can we learn to live with Iranian nuclear capacity?" file:I/C:\DO.CUME-l\a~bmJ«at.ll\L9CALS-l\Tell).p\C10~ZFQ~.htm 1Iii6/2004 The Ties to Tehran -0 Page 8 of9 Agents from Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps infiltrated several Iraqi cities (yellow) to collect Information on U.S.-led forces and work with insurgent groups after the ouster of Saddam Hussein. Other Iranian agents crossed the long, porous, border with Iraq, intelligence reports said, to support t~e Mahdi Army and the Badr Organization. [MAP LABELS] IRAQ IRAN Tehran Iraq-Iran border crossings Hajj Umran Baneh Halabjah As Sulaymaniyah Khanaqln Mehran and Baramadad Chamsarl Hoveyzeh Darsiyah Shalamchah Khorramshahr Abadan Active Iranian intelligence cells Mosul Klrkuk Baghdad Karbala Kut Najaf Amarah Basra [LABELS-GLOBE INSET] IRAQ IRAN Area of detail Sources: U.S. intelligence and State.Department reports; United Nations Rob Cady--USN&WR AN UNHOLY ALUANCE BADR ORGANIZATION. This group served as the armed wing of a Shiite political party in Iraq known as the Supreme Council for IslalJlic Revolution. Members of the Badr group opposed Saddam Hussein's rule, and fled to Iran In the early 1980s. A British intelligence report says that Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps "funded, trained, and armed the group, as well as assigning IRGC personnel in a support file:IIC:\DOCUME-l\agQJ!1~m\LO~ALS-!\Te~p\CI96ZFQ;F.htm 11116/2004 o ,0 Page90f9 ,'''' capacity." Members returned to Iraq after the coalition invasion in March 2003. HEZBOLLAH (THE PARTY OF GOD) was created In 1982 after Israel invaded Lebanon. Hezbollah Is a Lebanon-based Shiite Muslim group inspired by the Iranian revolution and the teachings of the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinl. The organization is funded by Iraq. Syria also supports this group. ANSAR AL-ISLAM is a Sunnl Muslim group of Iraqi Kurds and Arabs established in December 2001. It is closely allied with al Qaeda and the terrorist network of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Intelligence reports indicate that elements of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps have provided safe haven and training for Ansar ai-Islam members. Reports also say that Ansar ai-Islam and al Qaeda have crossed into Iraq from Iran and Syria. Additionally, they suggest an Ansar ai-Islam tie with former members of Saddam Hussein's Fedayeen paramilitary force. . MAHDI ARMY. This is the armed militia group of the radical Shiite cleric, Moqtada al-Sadr. Intelligence reportS say that Iran used Hezbollah to train and provide funds to Sadr's militia and may have also used front companies to fund Sadr's attacks against coalition forces. Sources: U.S. Intelligence and State Department reports, United Nations GRAPHIC: Picture, CARNAGE. After the bombing of the U.N. headquarters In Baghdad. Two groups with ties to Iran are suspected in the August 2003 attack. (GEERTVAN KESTEREN--AGENTUR FOCUS / CONTACT)j 'Picture, HOLY MAN. Iran's Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati told Iraqis they have no other choice" but to rise up against U.S. forces there and drive them out. (VAHID SALEMI--AP); Picture, BEUEVERS. Members of Iran's elite Revoutiomiry Guard Corps. In Iraq, reports say, the guard helped plan and finance attacks on U.S.-led forces. (DAMIR SAGOU--REUTERS I CORBIS); Pictures: ALL HANDS. At prayers in a Shiite shrine in Karbala (left). A customs office on the Iraq-Iran border displays "terrorist "wanted" posters. (ABBAS--MAGNUMi HUSSEIN MALLA--AP); Pictures: TEHRAN TIES. Followers of Moqtada al-Sadr (left); Abdul Azlz ai-Hakim (right, with glasses), the head of the Supreme CoiJncii of Islamic Revolution in Iraq (PAOLO WOODS--ANZENBERGERj MURAD SEZER--AP); Picture, TARGET? Intelligence reports linked two alleged plots to ~iII Paul Bremer, the top U.S. official In Baghdad, to Iranian-backed groups. (GEERT VAN KESTEREN--AGEN11JR FOCUS I CONTACT); Picture, On the attack. A member of Moqtada al-Sadr's Mahdi Army preparing to fire a rocket-propelled 'grenade at an American tank In Baghdad (KAELAlFORD--PANOS); Picture, Ansar ai-Islam fighters in Iraq (CHANG W. LEi;--THE NEW YORK TIMES); Map, The 'lies to Tehran (U.S. intelligence and State Department reports, United Nations; Rob cady--USN&WR) LOAD-DATE: November 15,2004 View: Lls~ I Full Document 1 of 2 nm > Edit Search I New Search ~~n~ I Oownload About LtxisNexls I Terms and Conditions I Privacy Policy P>pyrlght 2004 LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. file:/IC:\pOCl!ME-l\ag~m~.m\LOtALS-l\Temp\C106ZFQF.htrn 11/16/2004 .- ".. f' • :pocument Results ALL INFORl·iATION CONTAINED 0 - . HERE IN IS mJCLASSIFIED 1"-\ DATE 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc ba~/1sg Pagelof2 j:dlt...S.earc;t.ll r~,-ey!-S.e.a(cb. frlnt I View: .Lls,t I Full M Tag ror Print &. Download < prex Document 17 of28~!!X;t> Copyright 2003 Agence France Presse Agence France Presse -- English July 7, 2003 Monday SECTION: International News LENGTH: 742 words HEADLINE: Iran brings Israel within missile range, digs in on tougher UN nuclear probe BYLINE: SIAVOSH GHAZI DATELINE: TEHRAN, July 7 BODY: Iran has conducted a final test of its Shahab-3 ballistic missile, the Iranian foreign ministry ,confirmed Monday, in a move that brings arch-enemy Israel well within range of the Islamic republic's armed forces. The announcement sparked Immediate alarm in Israel, and also came as Iran's clerical leaders dug in on their refusal to allow tougher UN inspections of their civil nuclear programme, seen by the United States as a cover for nuclear weapons development. "The test took place several weeks ago. The range of the missile is what we declared before," foreign ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi told reporterS, adding the test was the final one before the missile was handed over for operation by the country's army. Officials here have previously said the missile -- based on North Korea's No-Dong and Pakistan's Ghauri-II -- has a range of 1~300 kilometers (810 miles). It can reportedly carry a warhead weighing up to 1,000 kllogrammes. In Farsi, Shahab means "meteor" or "shooting star". Asefi was reacting to a report in the Israeli Haaretz newspaper last week which said Iran had conducted the test just over a week ago and was now capable of hitting the Jewish state, American forces in~the Gulf or the Indian subcontinent. "This is nothing new," Asefi said. "Apparently the Israelis are a bit late with their Information." In Israel, government spokesman Avi Pazner told AFP that the Jewish state was "very concerned" at the development. "We are very concerned, especially since we know that Iran is seeking to acquire the nuclear weapon," he said. Iran has fiercely denied accusations it has a nuclear weapons programme, and asserts its missile development is· purely for its own defence. But confirmation of the test came as Iran was set to face more scrutiny over its nuclear programme, with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) director Mohamed EIBaradel set to visit Wednesday to press demands for tougher Inspections. - But Asefl again rebuffed mounting international demands to immediately and unconditionally allow https:/Iw3.Iexis.comllawenfsolutions_securedlsearchfonns/doBrowse.asp?SearchlnfoID=... 11/18/2004 Document ,Results o· Page 2 0(2 tougher UN inspections of its nuclear facilities, asserting instead that drawn-out negotiat!ons may be necessary. "There is no have-to involved. We hope that in negotiations with Mr. EIBaradei, the two sides can cover subjects that allow us to build mutual trust,'· he said, adding that lIif not, negotiations must continue'·. The IAEA has been urging Iran immediately sign, ratify and implement an additional protocol to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that would allow its teams to conduct surprise inspections of suspect sites. So far the Vienna-based UN body is only allowed to ,pay pre-arranged visJts to declared sites, but Iran has been urged to open up its nuclea·r programme amid widespread fears it is also seeking t9 acquire a nuclear arsenal. EIBaradei has been backed up by G8 leaders and the European Union. Individual states, Japan, France, Britain, Australia, Russia and the United States, have also echoed the demand. Foreign diplomats here have asserted they are not prepared to see lengthy negotiations on the issue. But Asefi said that for Iran, the additional protocol problem is "not a black and white Issue·'. IIFor every problem there is a solution, and for this problem we must negotiate and we are fully ready to listen,II he told reporters. In June, EIBaradei said the Islamic republic had not fully respected the NPT by failing to inform the IAEA of some of its nuclear activities, including the import of uran'um in 1991. Iranian officials have dismissed the criticism.s as technicalities, and have consistently asserted they are ready to allow a tougher inspections regime, but only on the condition that other,NPT signatories first assist its nuclear power programme -- one of their treaty obligations. Asefi also dismissed threats from some EU quarters that negotiations over a trade and cooperatiop agreement -- which the EU hopes will YJeld progress on political, human rights and military concerns in Iran -- could be torpedoed by Iranls intransigence on inspections. liThe commercial cooperation accord would be profitable for both -sides, so this cannot be used as leverage and the Islamic republic will not accept such pressure,'I he said. I'Sanctions against the Islamicrepublic have been ineffective. The Europeans should be careful about what they say and avoid using threats." sgh-sas/ps Iran-missile-nuclear-IAEA LOAD-DATE: July 8, 2003 View: I Full < pte\{ Document 17 of 28 "~~t > Edit Sea'[ch' I New Search Pritlll D~Y{nlo~~ - all.Q.l!.LLexlsNexis I ~l!!!.s_cm.d_CondD:Loll~ I Privacy PoJL~ ~_o.RY.d9J:g 2004 LexisNexls, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. https:/lw3.lexis.comllawenfsolutions_secured/searchfonnsldoBrows~.asp?SearchlnfoID=... 11/18/2004 l?ocument Results ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ~EIN IS UNCLASSIFIED ~ ~ 07-29-2010 BY 60324 uc baW/3ab/~ Page 10f4 ..... 'W .Search Within Results: [ =::::: :.. ::=.3 mTmJ ~dlt_S.ear.cb I .r:teYi_S.eatcU P.rJot I .Q,ownlo.a_d View: J..Ist I Full < p.t.ex Document 10 of 28 J1.ext > M Tag for Print &. Download 1Bm1 , [] Copyright 2003 Defense &Foreign Affairs/International Strategic Studies Association Defense &Foreign Affairs Daily July 25, 2003 Friday SECTION: Vol. XXI, No. 111 LENGTH: 2761 words HEADLINE: Iranian Clerical Leaders Continue to Defy Opposition, Causing Hardening of Position by its Allies BODY: Analysis. By Jason Fuchs, GIS staff. Iran's clerical leadership has begun to harden Its position against internal and perceived US-supported opposition following its successful suppression of the July 9, 2003, protests against the Administration. At the same time, the clerical leadership has embarked on a campaign -- which repeats a process successfully undertaken on several occasions In the past -designed to show that it was cooperating with the US and other states in the "war on terror" when, in fact, it continues to harbor major anti-Western terrorists.<1> Reports on July 22, 2003, to the effect that it had detained ~enior al-Qaida leaders were almost identical to remarks made over earlier months to the US, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. No evidence has been provided that the Iranian claims were true, and nor have any such senior al-Qaida terrorists been handed over to Saudi Arabia and Egypt, as promised, despite the fact that Saudi Arabia had -- as part of a supposed reciprocal deal -'! handed over Iranian terrorists to the Iranian authorities. Suggestions that the Iranian clerics had detained, and would hand over, al-Qaida deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, were ridiculed by informed Tehran sources, following the hints by Iranian clerical sources to Western media that such an prisoner was being held. Sources in Iran indicated that the.psychological operations initiative had worked in the past to·suppress US support for the Iranian opposition, and they noted that senior Iranian Administration officials believed that it would work again; , , MeanWhile, the successful Iranian suppression of the mounting waves of Internal opposition, supported by the US, also gave encouragement to Iran's allies and other anti-Western states.<2> In the wake of the st1:date Year="2003" Day="9" Month="7" July 9, 2003 'I demonstrations marking the fourth anniversary of the 1999 student demonstrations in Tehran, the Iranian leadership, satisfied with the outcome of its suppression of the protests, appeared resurgently defiant of US-Western demands for transparency regarding the indigenous Iranian nuclear program and, by late July 2003, Tehran's allies, both regional and otherwise, appeared to have taken note. The jamming of US-based satellite feeds into Iran that began on st1:date Year=".2003" Oay="S" Month="7" July 5, 2003 , reportedly from sites in Cuba, emphasized this. Cuba's blocking of the transmissions, which continued through July 24, 2003, served as a reminder to the US Bush Administration that states like Cuba, Syria, and Libya _.. referred to as the rrjunior varsity axis of evil" by a Bush AdministratioQ official in April 2003 -- continued to look to Tehran as a barometer for their own dealings with the US. There was now also growing US concern over the status of the Iranian nuclear weapons program, following reports, reportedly confirmed by both US and Israeli Intelligence services, tha~ Pakistani nuclear weapons technology had now been acquired and had accelerated ~he pace of Iranian Indigenous nuclear development. Significantly, whil~ the North Korean (OPRK) Administration of Mar. Kim Jong-il out~tripped Iran in real militarY terms, it too had looked to Tehran in the aftermath of th~ US-led Coalition-Iraq War of Marchhttps:/ 11/18/2094 · .. :Oocument Results o Page 2 of4 April 2003. Reports of a second DPRK nuclear facility In mid-July 2003 along with the North Korean declaration tnat it had· produced enough fissile material to build an additional six nuclear weapons had, by late July 2003, refocused international attention on the DPRK nuclear program, with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) citing the the Kim Jong-il Administration as the greatest threat to world peace. The DPRK 's continuing diplomatic offensive against the US appeared to have been at least partially resultant of the continuing hard-line Iranian stance, Insofar as long-standing and continuing diplomatic and military understanding between Pyongyang and Tehran. Indications bystl:date Vear=1I2003" Day="24" Month="711 July 24, 2003, were that Pyongyang would continue to heighten tensions on the Korean peninsula, parallel to the increasing US pressure on Tehran and Dama~cus • An exchange of fire between North and South Korean troops along the demilitarized zone (DMZ) on July 17, 2003, appeared to reaffirm this intent. GIS/ Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily had extensively reported on the North Korean military nuclear capability and related delivery systems. In a January 9, 2003 , report entitled Iraq, Iran, North Korea and WMD: Threat Activated, i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily noted: "Even by early 1994, it was known that the DPRK had 10 nuclear warheads of SOkt yield deployed on ballistic missiles, plus two additional SOkt devices suitable for vehicle or aircraft delivery. i style="msobidi- font-style: normalllDefense & Foreign Affairs sources believe that the number of warheads available to the DPRK would now be substantially higher, given the fact that it has had an additional eight-years to work on the program." As Defense &Foreign Affairs Daily reported in late June 2003, the Iranian leadership had evaluated the new realities of the post-Saddam Middle East and, increasingly threatened both by the neighboring US military presence In both Afghanistan and Iraq and demonstrations within Iran, decided to initiate an anti-Western offensive for the very survival of Iran as an Islamic Republic. A i style="mso-bidi-fontstyle: normal"Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily report on June 30, 2003, In particular noted the assemblage of a so-called l'Anti-July 9 Crackdown Committee" to suppress the planned July 9, 2003, anti-Government demonstrations. The fruits of these efforts were made evident by the Government's largely successful containment of the st1:date Year=1I2003" Day="9" Month=1I7" July 9, 2003, protests, which, though sizable in number [upwards of 10,000 according to reports] failed to act as any sort of catalyst to spur further Widespread support and/or action within the Iranian populace or military. While the protests of stl:date Year=1I2003" Day=1I911 Month="7" July 9, 2003, may have played a key role In the anti-Government movement, it was decidedly not the decisive turning point that some within the Iranian opposition had hoped for. ~ntslIntranetlInformation/Sentinel/2009/June/12.htm 6/l2/2009



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    • Common Dreams "The American Bar Association's House of Delegates voted yesterday to call on President Bush and future presidents not to issue ``signing statements" that claim the power to bypass laws, and it urged Congress to pass legislation to help courts put a stop to the growing practice."
    • American Bar Association search: Bush signing statements, poses a dangerous challenge to the constitutional checks and balances central to power in the US.  


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