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The Muslim Brotherhood, a creation of British intelligence in Egypt in 1928
Covert Action: An Effective
October 21, 1996
Richard A. Best, Jr.
Congressional Research Service ~ The Library of Congress
WMR .. CIA gave "moderate" pass to Muslim Brotherhood in the 1980s
|May 16-17, 2016 -- CIA gave "moderate" pass to Muslim Brotherhood in the 1980s
The influence of pro-Sunni Muslim Middle East "experts" Graham Fuller, the National Intelligence Officer for Near East and South Asia, and the present Central Intelligence Agency director John Brennan, the CIA's Arabic-speaking Middle East specialist, can be seen in a newly-declassified CIA report titled "Islamic Fundamentalism in the Middle East and South Asia: Looking Ahead." The formerly Secret report is dated December 1986 and it reflects the CIA's wrong-headed approach to allying with Islamic extremists in pursuit of its agenda against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan and other countries.
The Muslim Brotherhood, a creation of British intelligence in Egypt in 1928 using as the front man Hassan al Banna, an Egyptian Sufi schoolteacher, was a valued Egyptian ally for the CIA in recruiting jihadists to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. The CIA report refers to the Muslim Brotherhood as "moderate" and "pragmatic" and primarily interested in forcing the Hosni Mubarak government into adopting sharia Islamic law in Egypt.
The CIA also made a critical error in judgment in seeing only the potential for Shi'a radicalism in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province as a threat to the Saudi regime. Again, the CIA found itself in bed with the Saudi monarchy in receiving Saudi financing for Langley's adventurism in Afghanistan on the side of Afghan Islamist guerrillas.
The CIA also believed that Syria greatly benefited from President Hafez al Assad's rule in his cracking down on the Muslim Brotherhood in 1982 with the result that "intense ethnic, class, and sectarian loyalties" inhibited the development of a religious-based opposition movement. The CIA failed to read its own reports when Brennan decided to provide assistance to Syria's Al Qaeda and other groups allied with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to topple the government of Bashar al-Assad.
The CIA was willing to stoke the flames of Muslim fundamentalism in countries that had secular leadership. Muslim Brotherhood and other jihadist cells threatened all the secular and anti-fundamentalist leaders in the Middle East, including Mubarak, Hafez al-Assad, Libya's Muammar Qaddafi, Algerian President Chadli Benjedid, Iraq's Saddam Hussein, and the leaders of South Yemen. These cells would eventually be used by the CIA to help depose Mubarak and Qaddafi and seek to oust Bashar al Assad in Syria.
Zbigniew Brzezinski with his jihadist Afghan resistance fighter friends at the Khyber Pass in Pakistan, a few miles from the Afghan border, in 1980.
The motivation of CIA support for Islamist fundamentalists in the 1980s is found in this key passage in the report: "The Soviet Union is unlikely to benefit directly from fundamentalism -- which is anti-Communist." So, in the interest of undermining the Soviet Union, the CIA favored Islamist extremists. Jimmy Carter's Russophobic and Polish-born national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski saw no problem in arming jihadists as long as they killed Russians. Herein lies the origins of Al Qaeda, ISIL, and all the other jihadist groups that are now active around the world.
The CIA created the false category of "moderate Muslim fundamentalism" to sell its aid package for the Afghan jihadist mujaheddin to the Ronald Reagan administration, Congress, and the American public. The CIA understood the terms "moderate" and "fundamentalist" in the Islamic context was an oxymoron.
Even the CIA's own definition of "moderate fundamentalist" creates a question when it comes to "moderates" encountering extremist Wahhabists in the Gulf states. The 1986 report states: "Moderates, who seek to establish Islamic states through legal means, offer a more complex challenge. Moderates are usually older and more established in business and the professions. They seek to gain wider followings through their support of social welfare programs and education. Thus, the Sunni Islamic Call Party, a hitherto nonpolitical religious education society based in India and with more than 1 million members worldwide, recently has been calling attention to its branches in the Gulf states by adopting goals similar to those of other fundamentalist groups."
In other words, when non-political fundamentalists encountered radical Sunni Wahhabists in the Gulf states, the end result was that the "moderates" became radicalized by the Wahhabist agenda. The CIA's definition of "moderate fundamentalist" would have applied to Dr. Ayman Zawahiri, an older Egyptian physician who became the deputy chief of Al Qaeda in the 1990s.
The CIA's creation of and subsequent support for Muslim fundamentalists as a way to fight the Soviet Union is summed up by this paragraph in the 1986 report: "The Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and meddling in the internal affairs of such states as South Yemen have used up much of the political capital Moscow had in the Muslim world. Some fundamentalist groups, notably the Muslim Brotherhood, train volunteers to fight with the Muslim insurgents in Afghanistan. Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states have provided considerable financial assistance to the Afghan resistance. Even if the USSR were to withdraw from Afghanistan, we do not believe Soviet stock among fundamentalists would rise quickly or significantly."
After the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 and the country devolved into civil war and ultimately, a Taliban-run state that harbored Al Qaeda and its "Arab Legion" of mercenaries, including Zawahiri and Osama bin Laden, the "moderate fundamentalists" turned their attention away from the Soviet Union, which collapsed in 1991, and toward the United States. Soon, these "moderate fundamentalists" were no longer "insurgents," "resistance fighters," and "moderates" in the CIA's lexicon but overnight became "terrorists" and "jihadists."
Just as Germany, today, has welcomed jihadist elements from around the world as "refugees," in the 1980s Germany sponsored a number of jihadist groups, including the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood faction that aimed to oust Syrian President Hafez al Assad from power. Under the sponsorship of West Germany's federal intelligence service, the exiled Syrian Muslim Brotherhood operated in plain sight in Aachen. It also coordinated Muslim Brotherhood destabilization efforts in other Arab countries, including Jordan.
The CIA's creation of the term "moderate fundamentalist" has today morphed into the commonly-used and false term "moderate Arab governments" to describe Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, and other Wahhabist states. The United States has but one country to blame for the rise of Islamist jihadism and radicalism around the world: itself.
WMR U.S. trained Muslim Brotherhood to bring down Arab socialist governments
|January 17-18, 2013 -- U.S. trained Muslim Brotherhood to bring down Arab socialist governments
Using Central Intelligence Agency-funded private foundations, the United States helped train members of the Sunni Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria, According to an April 4, 1967 document recovered from CIA archives, the CIA funded the American Friends of the Middle East (AFME) and "other private voluntary organizations" to organize opposition to Egyptian pan-Arab Socialist President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Syrian Baath President Nureddin al-Atassi, the Baath government of Iraq, and Nasserite Lebanese Prime Minister Rashid Karami.
The two CIA interlocutors with AFME were Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt and the CIA's senior Middle East officer who planned Operation Ajax, the overthrow of Iran's Mohamed Mossadeq and Virginia Gildersleeve, the Dean of the all-female Barnard College who enforced a strict quota on Jewish admissions, favoring German and Sephardic Jews over eastern European Ashkenazis who she believed were "crude and uneducated."
AFME's ties to the Muslim Brotherhood were only discovered when the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) discovered the links and complained to Pennsylvania Republican Senator Hugh Scott. Scott indicated that AFME and "other tax-exempt foundations" funded radical Muslim Arab groups. CIA grants to AFME were made through the U.S. Information Agency, a State Department activity.
AIPAC Chairman Rabbi Philip S. Bernstein complained that AFME was funding "anti-Israel and anti-Zionist views" within the Organization of Arab Students, which campaigned against U.S. support for Israel on over a 100 U.S. campuses. The complaint against AFME and the CIA came a little over a month before the Arab-Israeli Six Day War.
Syria's government complained that AFME funded "secret members" who infiltrated "many Arab states." The term "secret members" was often used to describe Muslim Brotherhood operatives. Iraq accused AFME of conducting "espionage" and promoting "hatred and dissension."
Aware that CIA money was being funneled to Muslim Brotherhood activists and other anti-Israeli groups, Bernstein questioned "the wisdom of any secret subsidies to American organizations which are engaged in public action or propaganda on the American scene." Assistant Secretary of State for Public Information Dixon Donnelley responded to Bernstein in writing and stated: "The President has just directed that no Federal agency shall provide any covert financial assistance, direct or indirect, to American private voluntary organizations and that any such support that has been provided shall be terminated as quickly as possible."
Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. - CIA's architect of U.S. support for the Muslim Brotherhood.
However, there is no actual proof that CIA indirect support to the Muslim Brotherhood ended with President Lyndon Johnson's directive. In fact, after maintaining low-level contacts with the Muslim Brotherhood during Anwar Sadat's presidency of Egypt, the CIA's contacts increased dramatically when the Muslim Brotherhood was used to recruit mercenaries to fight the Soviet Union in Afghanistan in 1979. Instead of organizations like AFME, the funding for the Muslim Brotherhood operations came directly from Saudi Arabia with the support of the CIA.
Once again, the CIA began recruiting Arab student talent on U.S. campuses. Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, attended and taught at the University of California during the CIA's most active recruitment years, 1981 to 1985. Morsi has come under intense pressure from American Jews for comments he made three years ago in which he described Zionists as "bloodsuckers who attack the Palestinians, . . . warmongers, the descendants of apes and pigs."
Forty-five years ago, the CIA funded the Muslim Brotherhood to disseminate the same type of rhetoric.
The CIA's program to oust Arab secular Socialist governments using the Muslim Brotherhood has been a success with Saddam Hussein, Hosni Mubarak, Zine el Abidine Ben Ali, Muammar Qaddafi, and Ali Abdullah Saleh overthrown in Iraq, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Libya, and Yemen, Bashar al Assad on the ropes in Syria, and Algeria's Abdelaziz Bouteflika now facing cross-border "Al Qaeda" raids aimed at destabilizing Algeria.
WMR U.S. allies Qatar and Kuwait in the hands of Muslim Brotherhood, supporters of Taliban, Al Qaeda, and supporters of Syrian Salafist rebels
|June 27-28, 2013 -- U.S. allies Qatar and Kuwait in the hands of Muslim Brotherhood, supporters of Taliban, Al Qaeda, and supporters of Syrian Salafist rebels
President Obama's decision to supply Salafist-led Syrian rebels with U.S. weapons is a continuation of past CIA policy in arming and training the Afghan mujaheddin in their war with the Soviets. The Afghan mujaheddin later morphed into the Taliban and "Al Qaeda."
Obama's foreign policy toward Syria, Afghanistan, and Egypt, the latter where U.S. ambassador to Cairo criticized anti-Muslim Brotherhood demonstrations, is in total synchronization with the policies of the Muslim Brotherhood-dominated governments and Qatar and Saudi Arabia.
With the abdication of Qatar's Emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani and his handing over the throne to his son, handed power on Tuesday to his son, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Qatar's government is now firmtly in the hands of the Muslim Brotherhood, of which Tamim is a longtime member, according to WMR's Middle East sources.
In congratulating Sheikh Tamim, Obama stated, "The United States looks forward to working with Sheikh Tamim to deepen the ties between our two countries, and to continue our close partnership on issues of mutual interest." Of mutual interest are direct U.S. talks with the Taliban, which just opened an office in Doha even as the radical Islamist group considered a terrorist organization by Washington continues to kill U.S. troops and diplomats in Afghanistan, and U.S. military support for Al Qaeda-linked rebels fighting Bashar al Assad's government in Syria. U.S, talks with the Taliban have resulted in a rift between Obama and Afghan president Hamid Karzai.
Kuwait, the country the U.S. and Syria supported against Iraq in Operation Desert Storm, has, like Qatar, become a support base for the Muslim Brotherhood.
A leaked U.S. State Department cable, dated February 15, 2004, provided details of Kuwaiti government attempts to delist the Kuwaiti Islamic charity Lajnat Al Da'awa Al-Islamiyah (LDI) as a terrorist supporting organization. Some U.S. government official supported allowing LDI to resume its activities in Afghanistan. A June 25, 2003, audit completion letter have LDI a clean bill of health on its finances.The audit was carried out by the U.S. accounting firm Ernst & Young, which has had a long overseas relationship with CIA activities.
France and the United States both recognized LDI, which is operated by the Muslim Brotherhood, as supporting the Taliban in Afghanistan. In fact, a 2002 letter to the Afghan Refugee Commissioner in Peshawar from the Secours Populaire Francais (SPF), a relief agency in France started by Communists and it was once known as the "People's Red Cross," points to LDI as the interlocutor for aid to Afghan refugees in northwest Pakistan. However, LDI was also known to funnel aid to the Taliban and other radicals among the Afghan "refugee" population in around Peshawar. LDI also has enjoyed the support of the Pakistani government as seen in this letter from the Pakistani ambassador to Kuwait. SPF has largely shed its old leftist credentials and become another George Soros-linked humanitarian NGO, virtually indistinguishable from Soros's other machinations around the world.
The LDI "charity" work in the "New Shamshato Refugee Camp" mentioned in the SPF letter was, in fact, cover for recruiting activities by the Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin rebel group, run by erstwhile Osama Bin Laden ally Gulbuddin Hekmatayar, a one-time U.S. ally in the war against the Soviets. Hekmatayar, long considered a CIA asset within the Taliban, Al Qaeda, the pre-Taliban Afghan government of President Burhanuddin Rabbani, and while he was in exile in Iran, is one of the Taliban leaders strongly favoring direct takls with the Americans in Qatar. Hekmatayar is also accused of trying to repeatedly assassinate Karzai, something that may have had a "wink and a nod" from Hekmatayar's old friends at Langley, particularly CIA director and Obama confidante John O. Brennan.
This record is a partial extract of the original cable. The full text of the original cable is not available.
C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 02 KUWAIT 000498
STATE FOR EB/ESC/TFS GGLASS AND NROTHSTEIN STATE FOR S/CT FOR SFOX; IO/PHO FOR APEREZ NSC FOR GPETERS; TREASURY GENERAL COUNSEL FOR DAUFHAUSER TREASURY FOR OFAC DIRECTOR RNEWCOMB; TREASURY FOR JZARATE TREASURY TASK FORCE ON TERRORIST FINANCING PARIS FOR PETER KUJAWINSKI AND UZRA ZEYA TUNIS FOR NATALIE BROWN E.O. 12958: DECL: 02/11/2014 TAGS: EFIN[Financial and Monetary Affairs], ECON[Economic Conditions], ETTC [Trade and Technology Controls], PTER[Terrorists and Terrorism], PREL [External Political Relations], KU[Kuwait]
SUBJECT: (C) TERRORIST FINANCE: KUWAITIS WAITING FOR LDITRANSACTION INFORMATION
REF: A.) 04 KUWAIT 494 B.) 04 KUWAIT 481
Classified By: CDA Frank C. Urbancic for reasons 1.4 (b) and (d)
1. (C) Summary: Econoff met with MP Nasser Al-Sane on February 8 to follow up on the Office of Foreign Assets Control's (OFAC) January visit to Kuwait. Al-Sane detailed the history of his efforts to get the Kuwaiti charity Lajnat Al Da'awa Al-Islamiyah (LDI) de-listed as a United Nations-designated terrorist supporting organization and asked the Embassy to work within the USG and with the Government of France (GOF) to this end. He reiterated (Ref. A) that the GOF told him it would consider de-listing LDI if the USG did so first. Al-Sane saidLDI stands by its previous claims that no transactions were made from its accounts after a Central Bank of Kuwait (CBK)-issued freeze order went into effect. He said he and the LDI look forward to clearing up any remaining doubts about said transfers, and to this end are waiting for information on the transactions promised by OFAC Director Newcomb during their meetings in October 2003 and January 2004. End Summary.
2. (C) Econoff met with Islamist MP Nasser Al-Sane on February 8 to follow-up on issues still pending after OFAC,s January 19 meeting with the MP and the leadership of LDI. Al-Sane began by recounting in detail his efforts to clear LDI of charges it is an organization that supports terrorism and thereby get the charity de-listed by the UN. Al-Sane said he visited Paris in early 2003 to discuss the UN listing with the GOF (Note: France initiated the UN's listing of LDI. End Note.) and was told that France would consider de-listing LDI only if the United States agreed to do so first. Upon return to Kuwait, Al-Sane arranged an August trip to the US with the help of Ambassador Jones. There, he met with Afghanistan Coordinator Ambassador William Taylor, who he said urged the continued involvement of Kuwaiti charities in Afghanistan. Al-Sane also met with Treasury officials, who he said assured him that the USG was not the primary obstacle to the de-listing, and with the French, Kuwaiti and US missions to the UN. Al-Sane said the Kuwaiti mission to the UN has been attempting to work with its French counterpart in the matter, but have so far been unsuccessful.
3. (C) During OFAC's first visit to Kuwait, in October 2003, Al-Sane said FM Shaykh Dr. Mohammed Al-Sabah had extracted a pledge from OFAC Director Newcomb that the USG would share information regarding suspicious charity financing activity with the GOK before taking any action. Al-Sane said he was "shocked" when in a subsequent meeting Newcomb presented evidence of dubious transactions to LDI -- not the GOK .
4. (C) OFAC had raised the issue of post-freeze transactions during both of its 2003 and 2004 visits to Kuwait. Al-Sane maintains that contrary to OFAC claims, no transactions have been made to or fromLDI's accounts since the Central Bank of Kuwait issued a freeze order on its assets after LDI's listing by the UN. He said he and the LDIleadership are awaiting specific information on the transactions, as was promised by OFAC during both its October 2003 and January 2004 visits, so that they can clear up any remaining doubts. Al-Sane said Newcomb told him this information would be available "in 8 weeks, maximum" during their January 2004 meeting.
5. (C) When asked what would happen if it were concluded that LDIdid make transactions after the freeze, Al-Sane admitted "there would be a case" against them. Al-Sane asked Econoff to work within the USG and with the GOF on getting LDI de-listed. He said that there were numerous legitimate charity projects that were halted by the asset freeze, and referred to their delays as "humanitarian issues." Al-Sane said the French have continued to tell the Kuwaitis that they will consider the issue of delisting only if the USG acts first, and French promises to look into the matter (most recently French FM de Villepin's promise to the Kuwaiti FM during his January visit to Kuwait) have produced no results.
6. (C) During a 7 February counterterrorism action group (CTAG) meeting hosted by Embassy Kuwait (Ref. B), French Ambassador to Kuwait Claude Losguardi raised the issue of Lajnat al-Dawa al-Islamiya. The ambassador said that he had met with the head of Consular Affairs at the Kuwaiti Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whom the ambassador characterized as very aggressive in asking the French to delist LDI. That official had claimed the USG was askingLDI to resume activity in Afghanistan. Acting DCM Richard Bell, who was chairing the meeting assured the ambassador that the US continued to support the designation of LDI.
7. (C) Comment: It is clear from Al-Sane's approach and comments that he is hoping that OFAC will recommend delisting LDI as a result of its visits to Kuwait; at the very least, he is expecting to receive the transaction information he said was promised by Newcomb so that LDIcan respond to accusations it moved assets after the freeze.
WMR Nobel Committee rewards Muslim Brotherhood with Peace Prize
|October 9-11, 2015 -- Nobel Committee rewards Muslim Brotherhood with Peace Prize
Once again, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has either shown itself to be a bunch of drunken sots plastered on 80 proof aquavit or continuing their role as dupes for global troublemaker George Soros and his themed revolution friends at the Central Intelligence Agency. By awarding this year's Nobel Peace Prize to the Tunisian National Dialog Quartet, the Nobel hierarchy pays homage to the main Islamist political party in Tunisia, the
Ennahda is nothing more than the Tunisian wing of the Turkish Islamist-oriented Justice and Development Party (AKP) of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and the formerly-ruling Freedom and Justice Party of Egypt, led by the deposed Egyptian president, Muslim Brotherhood leader, Mohamed Morsi.
Ennahda is a major Muslim Brotherhood influence factor within theTunisian General Labor Union, which will share the Nobel Peace Prize with three other members of the quartet, the Tunisian Order of Lawyers, the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade, and Handicrafts, and the Tunisian Human Rights League. George Soros's Open Society Institute and the CIA-linked U.S. National Endowment for Democracy (NED) have heavily funded the operations of the Tunisian Human Rights League.
Tunisia's "Jasmine Revolution" was the first successful "Arab Spring" coup d'état in the Arab world. Jasmine used the techniques of the "themed revolution" long advocated by Gene Sharp, the father of the CIA's staged and quite synthetic rebellions in countries around the world. After the Jasmine Revolution overthrew the corrupt secular president
Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, Ennahda took advantage of the political vacuum and arose as the strongest party in the country. Ennahda received immediate support from Turkey's AKP and Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood.
By honoring a Muslim Brotherhood offshoot, Ennahda, during the current battle between Turkey/NATO/Muslim Brotherhood/Saudi/Qatari forces on one side and Syria's Bashar al Assad/Russia/Iran/China/Iraq/Kurdistan on the other for control of Syria and much of Iraq, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has shown itself to be as completely tone deaf as it was in 2009 when it awarded the Peace Prize to Barack Obama as an "aspirant" award in the hope he would eventually be a peace president. Not only has Obama re-ignited the Cold War with Russia and China but his armed forces just bombed the hospital of the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize winner, Doctors Without Borders.
When one Nobel Peace Prize awardee, Obama, bombs another Peace Prize honoree, it shows that the entire Nobel Peace Prize decision process is nothing more than a corporatized propaganda scam designed to do nothing more than sway public opinion. As with all good intentions, the Nobel process, including its recent decision to award the Nobel Prize for Literature to Belarusian dissident author and anti-Russian activist Svetlana Alexievich, has become as much an abomination as other organizations that once adhered to loftier principles: the International Olympic Committee, International Federation of Association Football (FIFA), the U.S. Peace Corps, and UNICEF.
The Nobel Committee has just shown the world that themed revolutions are a good thing and should continue no matter the consequences, whether they be bloody civil wars in Libya, Syria, and Yemen; terrorist attacks against tourists in Tunisia; the rise of a bloodthirsty caliphate extending from the mountains of Afghanistan to the Sahara Desert; mass migration of a few million refugees into Europe; or returning the world to a Cold War mentality.
If the decision by the Norwegian Nobel Committee to award Tunisia's Islamists with the Nobel Peace Prize was done in a sober fashion, perhaps they should all get drunk on aquavit for engaging in such a shameful act. As for the Syrian jihadists, there will soon be over $1 million in Nobel Peace Prize cash available in Tunisia to buy more Toyota all-terrain vehicles.
WMR The "fact checkers" are correct: Huma Abedin is not associated with the Muslim Brotherhood; she's linked to Al Qaeda
October 3-4, 2016 -- The "fact checkers" are correct: Huma Abedin is not associated with the Muslim Brotherhood; she's linked to Al Qaeda
WMR CIA sought Muslim invasion of USSR in 1952
|December 8-9, 2015 -- CIA sought Muslim invasion of USSR in 1952
According to its own formerly TOP SECRET Central Intelligence Bulletin, dated December 4, 1952, during the waning days of the Harry Truman administration, the Central Intelligence Agency had embarked on a program to foment nationalism among the Uzbek tribes of Afghanistan in order that it might spill across the border into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, a constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
This revelation means that the current attempt by such anti-Russian U.S. official and quasi-official intelligence policy makers, including former Jimmy Carter national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski, hedge fund tycoon George Soros, and CIA director John Brennan, to bring about a radical Muslim destabilization of the Russian Federation is nothing new.
Buried in the 1952 report on increased Chinese Communist aid to the Viet Minh, pleadings from Tonkin governor Nguyen Huu Tri for the French not to abandon to the Viet Minh French-held territory in his province, Communist disturbances in Nepal, and a Saudi attempt to bring the Trucial States (now the United Arab Emirates) under its control is a reference to a band of Afghan Uzbeks secretly supported by the CIA. While the first reference to the band is redacted, a second is not.
The Afghan Uzbek group, called the Mogul Band by the CIA, was reported by the CIA to have had "considerable strength in the northern part of the country" and "hoped to 'reunite' Afghan Uzbeks with fellow tribesmen across the Soviet frontier." The CIA also reported that the Afghan Uzbeks "tried to attract support" from mainly Shi'a Hazara tribal leaders in northern Afghanistan.
It is clear that the CIA was involved in antagonizing Afghan Uzbeks against the Soviets in response to what the CIA deemed "Soviet subversion" of Uzbek tribes inside Afghanistan. The reference to the Mogul Band is the earliest example of the CIA using external Muslim forces against the Soviet Union. In the 1970s, the overthrow of the Afghan king and the establishment of a socialist republic in Afghanistan prompted the CIA to organize a jihadist army to fight against the secular Afghan government and its Soviet protectors. The jihadist army that fought the Soviets in Afghanistan was the embryo out of which the Taliban, Al Qaeda, and, ultimately, the Islamic State (or Da'esh) arose.
The CIA screwed up when it first redacted the name of its Afghan Uzbek tribal guerrilla force targeting the USSR, the Mogul Band, and then named it.
The declassified CIA document shows that the roots of the CIA's jihadist army began long before the intervention in the Soviet-mujaheddin war in Afghanistan but in the early days of the Cold War in what was then the neutral Kingdom of Afghanistan.
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