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Libor indictment Scribd

Plaintiffs Metzler Investment GmbH, FTC Futures Fund SICAV, FTC Futures Fund PCC Ltd., Atlantic Trading USA, LLC, 303030 Trading LLC, Gary Francis, and Nathanial Haynes (“Plaintiffs”), by their undersigned attorneys, bring this action against defendants identified below (collectively, “Defendants”) pursuant to the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. §§ 1, et seq. (the “CEA”), the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, and common law on behalf of itself and all others who transacted in Eurodollar futures contracts and options on futures contracts on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (“CME”) between August 2007 and May2010 (the “Class Period”). 1


LIBOR is a reference interest rate used as the basis for the pricing of fixed income futures, options, swaps and other derivative products traded on the CME and the Chicago Board of Trade (“CBOT”). This action arises from Defendants’ unlawful and intentional misreporting and manipulation of – as well as their combination, agreement and conspiracy to fix – LIBOR rates and to restrain trade in the market for LIBOR-based derivatives during the respective Class 1 Plaintiffs have delineated the Class Period based on currently available information, including the independent analysis performed by consulting experts Plaintiffs have retained, as well as analyses undertaken by experts retained by other plaintiffs in these coordinated proceedings. As detailed later in the Complaint, those analyses indicate Defendants manipulated LIBOR as of at least August 8, 2007 and continued their manipulation through at least May 17, 2010

2Period in violation of Sections 2(a)(1)(B), 4s(h), 9(a)(2) and 22(a) of the CEA, the Sherman Act,15 U.S.C. § 1, and common law.3.

Plaintiffs’ claims are made on information and belief (except as to allegations specifically pertaining to Plaintiffs and their counsel, which are made on personal knowledge) based on the investigation conducted by and under the supervision of Plaintiffs’ counsel. That investigation included reviewing and analyzing information concerning Defendants and LIBOR, which Plaintiffs (through their counsel) obtained from, among other sources: (i) analyses by consulting experts engaged by Plaintiffs and other plaintiffs in these coordinated proceedings; (ii) publicly available press releases, news articles, and other media reports (whether disseminated in print or by electronic media); (iii) filings Defendants made to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”); (iv) court documents submitted in LIBOR-related proceedings in Canada, Singapore, and Japan; and (v) scholarly literature concerning the potential manipulation of LIBOR during the Class Period. These sources collectively support Plaintiffs’ allegations that Defendants collusively and systematically manipulated LIBOR rates and restrained trade in the market for LIBOR-based derivatives during the Class Period.4.

Except as alleged in this Complaint, neither Plaintiffs nor other members of the public have access to the underlying facts relating to Defendants’ improper activities. Rather, that information lies exclusively within the possession and control of Defendants and other insiders, which prevents Plaintiffs from further detailing Defendants’ misconduct. Moreover, numerous pending government investigations—both domestically and abroad, including by the DOJ, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), and the SEC—concerning potential LIBOR manipulation could yield information from Defendants’ internal records or personnel that bears significantly on Plaintiffs’ claims. Indeed, as one news report observed in detailing U.S. regulators’ ongoing investigation, “[i]nternal bank emails may prove to be key evidence . . . because of the difficulty in proving that banks reported borrowing costs for LIBOR

3at one rate and obtained funding at another.” 2 Plaintiffs thus believe further evidentiary support for their allegations will come to light after a reasonable opportunity for discovery. NATURE OF THE ACTION 5.

This case arises from the manipulation of LIBOR for the U.S. dollar (“USD-LIBOR” or simply “LIBOR”) 3 - the reference point for determining interest rates for trillions of dollars in financial instruments - by a cadre of prominent financial institutions. Defendant s perpetrated a scheme to depress LIBOR for two primary reasons. First, well aware that the interest rate a bank pays (or expects to pay) on its debt is widely, if not universally, viewed as embodying the market’s assessment of the risk associated with the bank, Defendants understated their borrowing costs to the British Bankers’ Association (“BBA”) (thereby suppressing LIBOR) to portray themselves as economically healthier than they actually were—of particular importance given investors’ trepidation in light of the widespread market turmoil of the past few years. Indeed, in an April 10, 2008 report, analysts at Defendant Citigroup Global Markets Inc. posited the “liquidity crisis” had “created a situation where LIBOR at times no longer represents the level at which banks extend loans to others”; specifically, the analysts concluded LIBOR“ may understate actual interbank lending costs by 20-30bp [basis points].” 4 Second, artificially suppressing LIBOR allowed Defendants to pay lower interest rates on LIBOR-based financialinstruments that Defendants sold to investors, and otherwise affect the price for LIBOR-based derivatives like Eurodollar futures.6.

Each business day, Thomson Reuters calculates LIBOR—a set of reference or benchmark interest rates priced to different ranges of maturity, from overnight to one year—on 2 David Enrich, Carrick Mollenkamp & Jean Eaglesham, “U.S. Libor Probe Includes BofA, Citi, UBS,” MarketWatch , March 17, 2011. 3 While the term “LIBOR” generally encompasses rates with respect to numerous currencies (which are separately referred to as, for example, USD-LIBOR or Yen-LIBOR), for convenience Plaintiffs use the term “LIBOR” to reference USD-LIBOR. 4 Scott Peng, Chintan (Monty) Gandhi, & Alexander Tyo, “Special Topic: Is LIBOR Broken?”,April 10, 2008 (published by Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

currency via the foreign exchange markets. •

The rates must be submitted by members of staff at a bank with primaryresponsibility for management of a bank’s cash, rather than a bank’s derivative book. •

The definition of “funds” is: unsecured interbank cash or cash raised throughprimary issuance of interbank Certificates of Deposit.8.

The BBA describes itself on its website as “the leading trade association for the UK banking and financial services sector”, claiming that it “speak[s] for over 200 member banks from 60 countries on the full range of UK and international banking issues.” 6 The Defendants are among the member banks of the BBA. As the BBA itself concedes, it is not a regulatory body and has no regulatory function. 7 Its activities are not overseen by any U.K. or foreign regulatory agency. It is governed by a board of member banks that meets four times each year. The board is composed of senior executives from twelve banks, including Barclays Bank plc, Citibank NA, Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank AG, HSBC Bank plc, J.P. Morgan Europe Ltd., and the Royal Bank of Scotland plc. 8 9.

No regulatory agency oversees the setting of LIBOR rates by the BBA and its members. The resultant rates are not filed with, or subject to the approval of, any regulatory agency. As the BBA has been quoted as saying it “calculates and produces BBA Libor at the request of our members for the good of the market.” 9 10.

LIBOR is set by the BBA and its member banks. Each of the ten currencies (namely U.S. Dollars, Japanese Yen, pound sterling, the Australian dollar, the Canadian dollar, the New Zealand dollar, the Danish krone, the Euro, the Swiss Franc and the Swedish krone) isoverseen by a separate LIBOR panel created by the BBA. During the Class Period, designated 6, last accessed on April 30, 2012. 7, last accessed on April 30, 2012 8, last accessed on April 30, 2012. 9

See, last accessed on April 30, 201

contributing panels ranged in size from eight banks for Australian dollar, Swedish krona, Danishkrone, and New Zealand dollar panels to sixteen banks for U.S. dollar, pound sterling, Euro, and Japanese yen panels. There is substantial overlap in membership among the panels. For example, during the Class Period, nine of the sixteen banks that served on the U.S. dollar also served on the Japanese yen, Swiss franc and Euro LIBOR panels. 10 Similarly, thirteen banks participated on both the dollar and yen LIBOR panels 11 and eleven banks participated on both the U.S. dollar and Swiss franc LIBOR panels. 12 It is a requirement of membership of a LIBOR contributor panel that the bank is regulated and authorized to trade on the London money market. As the BBA recently told Bloomberg: “As all contributor banks are regulated, they are responsible to their regulators, rather than us.” 13 11.

As “the primary benchmark for short term interest rates globally,” 14 LIBOR has occupied (and continues to occupy) a crucial role in the operation of financial markets. For example, market participants commonly set the interest rate on floating-rate notes as a spread against LIBOR ( e.g. , “LIBOR + [X] bps”) 15 and use LIBOR as a basis to determine the correct rate of return on short-term fixed-rate notes (by comparing the offered rate to LIBOR). Additionally, the pricing and settlement of Eurodollar futures and options—the most actively traded interest-rate futures contracts on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange—are based on the three-month LIBOR. LIBOR thus affects the pricing of trillions of dollars’ worth of financial 10 Those banks are Bank of Tokyo, Barclays, Citibank, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, JP Morgan Chase, Lloyds, Rabobank, RBS, and UBS 11 Those banks are Bank of America, Bank of Tokyo, Barclays, Citibank, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, JP Morgan Chase, Lloyds, Rabobank, RBS, Société Générale (beginning in 2009), UBS, and West LB. 12 Those banks are Bank of Tokyo, Barclays, Citibank, Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, JPMorgan Chase, Lloyds, Rabobank, RBS, and UBS. 13, last accessed onApril 30, 2012. 14

See, last accessed on April 19, 2012. 15 The term “bps” stands for basis points. 100 basis points equal 1

transactions, rendering it, in the BBA’s own words, “the world’s most important number.” 16 12.

Accordingly, it is well-established among market participants that, as The WallStreet Journal has observed, confidence in LIBOR “matters, because the rate system plays a vital role in the economy.” 17 Moreover, given the vast universe of financial instruments LIBOR impacts, “even a small manipulation” of the rate “could potentially distort capital allocations all over the world.” 18 13.

Throughout the Class Period, Defendants betrayed investors’ confidence in LIBOR, as these financial institutions conspired to, and did, manipulate LIBOR by underreporting to the BBA the actual interest rates at which the Defendant banks expected they could borrow unsecured funds in the London interbank market – i.e. , their true costs of borrowing – on a daily basis. The BBA then relied on the false information Defendants providedto set LIBOR. By acting together and in concert to knowingly understate their true borrowing costs, Defendants caused LIBOR to be set artificially low. 14.

Defendants’ manipulation of LIBOR allowed them to pay unduly low interest rates to investors, on LIBOR-based financial instruments offered during the Class Period. Investors—who until recently had no reason to suspect Defendants’ knowing suppression of LIBOR—justifiably believed the financial instruments they were purchasing derived from a rate that was based on USD-LIBOR panel members’ honest and reasonable assessments of their borrowing costs. To the contrary, Defendants—in the debt-instrument context, the borrowers—surreptitiously bilked investors—the lenders—of their rightful rates of return on their 16 BBA press release, “BBA LIBOR: the world’s most important number now tweets daily,”May 21, 2009, available at, last accessed on April 28, 2012. 17 Carrick Mollenkamp and Mark Whitehouse, “Study Casts Doubt on Key Rate --- WSJAnalysis Suggests Banks May Have Reported Flawed Interest Data for Libor,” The Wall Street Journal , May 29, 2008. 18 Rosa M. Abrantes-Metz and Albert D. Metz, “How Far Can Screens Go in Distinguishing Explicit from Tacit Collusion? New Evidence from the Libor Setting,” CPI Antitrust Chronicle ,March 201

Investments, reaping hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars in ill-gotten gains. They also affected the LIBOR-based derivative market – in products like Eurodollar futures. Defendants’affiliates actively traded in these markets, including and especially in the Eurodollar futures market on the CME. Moreover, by understating their true borrowing costs, Defendants provided a false or misleading impression of their financial strength to investors and the rest of the market.15.

Defendants’ manipulation depressed returns on various types of financial instruments, including notes Defendants issued to raise capital during the Class Period. Inaddition to floating-rate notes, whose interest rates are specifically set as a variable amount over LIBOR, market participants use LIBOR as the starting point for negotiating rates of return on short-term fixed-rate instruments, such as fixed-rate notes maturing in one year or less. Thus, by suppressing LIBOR, Defendants ensured that artificially low interest rates would attach to fixed-rate and variable notes.16.

Plaintiffs now seek relief for the damages they have suffered as a result of Defendants’ violations of federal and state law. JURISDICTION AND VENUE 17.

This action arises under Section 22 of the CEA, 7 U.S.C. § 25, Section 1 of theSherman Antitrust Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, Sections 4 and 16 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 15 and26, and common law, respectively.18.

This Court has jurisdiction over this action pursuant to Section 22 of the CEA, 7U.S.C. § 25, Sections 4 and 16 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 15 and 26(a), and 28 U.S.C.§§ 1331 and 1337. This Court also has jurisdiction over the state law claims under 28 U.S.C. §1367 because those claims are so related to the federal claim that they form part of the same case or controversy, and under 28 U.S.C. § 1332 because the amount in controversy for the Classexceed $5,000,000 and there are members of the Class who are citizens of a different state thanDefendants.19.

Venue is proper in the Southern District of New York, pursuant to, among other statutes, Section 22 of the CEA, 7 U.S.C. § 25(c), 15 U.S.C. § 22 and 28 U.S.C. § 1391(b), (c

and (d). Each of the Defendants transacted business in the Southern District of New York and apart of the events or omissions giving rise to the claims occurred in the Southern District of NewYork. THE PARTIES Plaintiffs 20.

Plaintiff Metzler Investment GmbH (“Metzler”) is a fund company that launches and manages investment funds under German law. The range of funds includes various types of securities, money market, and derivative funds, as well as general and specialized investment funds. Metzler manages assets totaling approximately €47 billion and is based in Frankfurt, Germany. Its funds traded on-exchange based products tied to LIBOR such as Eurodollar futures and were harmed as a consequence of Defendants’ unlawful conduct.21.

Plaintiff FTC Futures Fund SICAV (“FTC SICAV”), a fund based in Luxembourg, traded on-exchange based products tied to LIBOR such as Eurodollar futures andwas harmed as a consequence of Defendants’ unlawful conduct.22.

Plaintiff FTC Futures Fund PCC Ltd. (“FTC PCC”), a fund of FTC Capital based in Gibraltar, traded on-exchange based products tied to LIBOR such as Eurodollar futures and was harmed as a consequence of Defendants’ unlawful conduct.23.

Plaintiff Atlantic Trading USA, LLC (“Atlantic”) is an Illinois limited liability company with its principal place of business in Chicago, Illinois. Atlantic Trading USA, LLCtraded on-exchange based products tied to LIBOR such as Eurodollar futures and was harmed asa consequence of Defendants’ unlawful conduct.24.

Plaintiff 303030 Trading LLC (“303030”) is an Illinois limited liability corporation with its principal place of business in Lake County, Illinois. 303030 traded on-exchange based products tied to LIBOR such as Eurodollar futures and were harmed as a consequence of Defendants’ unlawful conduct.25.

Plaintiff Gary Francis (“Francis”) is a resident of Chicago, Illinois. Plaintiff Francis traded on-exchange based products tied to LIBOR such as Eurodollar futures and was

harmed as a consequence of Defendants’ unlawful conduct.26.

Plaintiff Nathanial Haynes (“Haynes”) is a resident of Chicago, Illinois. Plaintiff Haynes traded on-exchange based products tied to LIBOR such as Eurodollar futuresand was harmed as a consequence of Defendants’ unlawful conduct. Defendants 27.


Defendant Bank of America Corporation is a Delaware corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. Defendant Bank of America, N.A. is a federally chartered national banking association headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina and an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of Defendant Bank of America Corporation. Defendant Bank of America Corporation and Bank of America, N.A. are hereinafter referred to collectively as“BAC”)28.

Defendant Barclays Bank plc (“Barclays”) is a British public limited company headquartered in London, England.29.

Defendant Citibank, N.A. (“Citibank”) is federally chartered national banking association headquartered in New York, New York and a wholly owned subsidiary of Defendant Citigroup, Inc. (“Citigroup”). Defendant Citigroup is a Delaware corporation headquartered inNew York, New York.30.

Defendant Credit Suisse Group AG (“Credit Suisse”) is a Swiss company headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland.31.

Defendant J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. (“JPMorgan Chase”) is a Delaware financial holding company headquartered in New York, New York. Defendant J.P. Morgan Chase Bank, National Association, is a federally chartered national banking association headquartered in New York, New York and a wholly owned subsidiary of Defendant JPMorganChase.32.

Defendant HSBC Holdings plc (“HSBC”) is a British public limited company headquartered in London, England. Defendant HSBC Bank plc is a United Kingdom public limited company headquartered in London, England and a wholly owned subsidiary o

Defendant HSBC.33.

Defendant Lloyds Banking Group plc (“Lloyds”) is a British public limited company headquartered in London, England. Lloyds was formed in 2009 through the acquisition of Defendant HBOS plc (“HBOS”) by Lloyds TSB Bank plc.34.

Defendant West LB AG (“West LB”) is a German joint stock company headquartered in Dusseldorf, Germany. Defendant West deutsche Immobilien Bank AG is a German company headquartered in Mainz and wholly owned subsidiary of Defendant WestLB.35.

Defendant UBS AG (“UBS”) is a Swiss company based in Basel and Zurich,Switzerland.36.



Defendant Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc (“RBS”) is a British public limited company headquartered in Edinburgh, Scotland.37.

Defendant Deutsche Bank, AG (“Deutsche Bank”) is a German financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany.38.

Defendant Royal Bank of Canada (“RBC”) is a Canada company head quartered in Toronto, Canada.39.

Defendant The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. (“Bank of Toyko” or“BTMU”) is a Japan company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.40.

Defendant Coöperatieve Centrale Raiffeisen-Boerenleenbank B.A.(“Rabobank”) is a financial services provider with its headquarters in Utrecht, the Netherlands.41.

Defendant The Norinchukin Bank (“Norinchukin” or “Norin”) is a Japanese cooperative bank headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.42.

During the Class Period, Defendants BAC, Credit Suisse, JPMorgan Chase, HSBC, Barclays, Lloyds, HBOS, WestLB, RBS, UBS, Deutsche Bank, Citibank, Royal Bank of Canada, Rabobank, BTMU and Norinchukin were members of the BBA’s USD-LIBOR panel. Additionally, Citigroup, which controlled Citibank and reaped significant financial benefit from the suppression of LIBOR, actively participated in the conspiracy


During the Class Period, the following subsidiaries or other affiliates of Defendants joined and furthered the conspiracy by trading LIBOR-based financial instruments such as Eurodollar futures contracts at manipulated prices not reflecting fundamental supply anddemand, to the direct benefit of Defendants: (i) Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC; (ii) Bank of America Securities LLC; (iii) J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp.; (iv) J.P. Morgan Futures, Inc.; (v) HSBC Securities (USA); (vi) Barclays Capital Inc.; (vii) UBS Securities LLC; (viii) RBS Securities Inc.; (ix) Deutsche Bank Securities; and (x) Citigroup Global Markets Inc.44.

In addition to the above entities’ participation in selling LIBOR-based financial instruments to Plaintiffs during the Class Period, investigations regarding Defendants ’manipulation of Yen-LIBOR (detailed below) have revealed that securities-dealer subsidiaries of Yen-LIBOR panel members, including Defendant UBS, participated in manipulating Yen-LIBOR during the Class Period. In light of those facts, Plaintiffs have reason to believe the dealer entities identified above materially aided or contributed to the manipulation of USD-LIBOR. DEFENDANTS SUPPRESSED LIBOR DURING THE CLASS PERIOD 45.

Throughout the Class Period, Defendants conspired to suppress LIBOR below the levels it would have been set had Defendants accurately reported their borrowing costs to theBBA. Plaintiffs’ allegations that Defendants suppressed LIBOR are supported by (i) Defendants’ powerful incentives to mask their true borrowing costs and to reap unjustified revenues by setting artificially low interest rates on LIBOR-based financial instruments that investors purchased; (ii) an independent analysis by other plaintiffs’ consulting experts, comparing LIBOR panel banks’ daily individual quotes with the banks’ probability of default, as measured by Kamakura Risk Information Services, as well as by Plaintiffs’ consulting experts conducting analyses of the spread between LIBOR as reported and the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate; (iii) publicly available economic analyses, by prominent academics and other commentators, of LIBOR’s behavior during the Class Period compared with other well

accepted measures of Defendants’ borrowing costs, as well as the notable tendency of Defendants’ daily submitted LIBOR quotes to “bunch” near the bottom quartile of the collection of reported rates used to determine LIBOR; and (iv) revelations in connection with the numerous domestic and foreign governmental investigations into potential manipulation of USD-LIBOR and LIBOR for other currencies, most prominently Yen-LIBOR and Euroyen TIBOR. A.

Defendants Possessed Strong Motives To Suppress LIBOR 46.

Defendants each had substantial financial incentives to suppress LIBOR. First, Defendants were motivated, particularly given investors’ serious concerns over the stability of the market in the wake of the financial crisis that emerged in 2007, to understate their borrowing costs—and thus the level of risk associated with the banks. Moreover, because no one bank would want to stand out as bearing a higher degree of risk than its fellow banks, each Defendant shared a powerful incentive to collude with its co-Defendants to ensure it was not the “odd man out.” Indeed, analysts at Citigroup Global Markets—a subsidiary of Defendant Citigroup—acknowledged in an April 10, 2008 report: [T]he most obvious explanation for LIBOR being set so low is the prevailing fear of being perceived as a weak hand in this fragile market environment. If a bank is not held to transact at its posted LIBOR level, there is little incentive for it to post a rate that is more reflective of real lending levels, let alone one higher than its competitors. Because all LIBOR postings are publicly disclosed, any bank posting a high LIBOR level runs the risk of being perceived as needing funding. With markets in such a fragile state, this kind of perception could have dangerous consequences. 19 Strategists at entities affiliated with other Defendants likewise confirmed that banks suppressed LIBOR. Echoing the sentiment of the above analysts, William Porter, credit strategist a Defendant Credit Suisse, said in April 2008 that he believed the three-month USD-LIBOR was 19 Scott Peng, Chintan (Monty) Gandhi, & Alexander Tyo, “Special Topic: Is LIBOR Broken?,”April 10, 2008

0.4 percentage points – or 40 basis points – below where it should be. 20 And the next month, Tim Bond, head of asset-allocation research of Barclays Capital—a subsidiary of Defendant Barclays—observed that banks routinely misstated borrowing costs to the BBA to avoid the perception that they faced difficulty raising funds as credit markets seized up. 21 47.

Second, by artificially suppressing LIBOR, Defendants paid lower interest rates on LIBOR-based financial instruments they sold to investors during the Class Period. Illustrating Defendants’ motive to artificially depress LIBOR, in 2009 Citibank reported it would make $936 million in net interest revenue if rates would fall by 25 bps per quarter over the next year and $1.935 billion if they fell 1% instantaneously. JPMorgan Chase likewise reported significant exposure to interest rates in 2009. The bank stated that if interest rates increased by1%, it would lose over $500 million. HSBC and Lloyds also estimated they would earn hundreds of millions of additional dollars in 2008-2009 in response to lower interest rates and would lose comparable amounts in response to higher rates. These banks collectively earned billions in net interest revenues during the Class Period.48.

Defendants thus possessed reputational and financial incentives to manipulate LIBOR—which, as detailed below, they did B.

Independent Analyses By Consulting Experts Engaged by Plaintiffs and Other Plaintiffs In These Proceedings Strongly Indicate Defendants Artificially Suppressed LIBOR During the Class Period 49.

Plaintiffs’ consulting experts, as well as consulting experts engaged by other plaintiffs in these coordinated proceedings, have measured LIBOR against other recognized benchmarks for determining banks’ borrowing costs. Employing well-reasoned methodologies, these experts have demonstrated Defendants artificially suppressed LIBOR during the Class Period. The experts’ common conclusion is clear: during the Class Period, LIBOR did not 20 Carrick Mollenkamp, “Libor Surges After Scrutiny Does, Too,” The Wall Street Journal , April18, 2008. 21 Gavin Finch and Elliott Gotkine, “Libor Banks Misstated Rates, Bond at Barclays Says,” Bloomberg , May 29, 2008

opriately correspond with other measures of Defendants’ borrowing costs, as indicated by:(i) the spread between LIBOR and Eurodollar Deposit rates, and (ii) the difference between Defendants’ respective LIBOR quotes and their probabilities of default.50.

Additional independent expert analysis performed in connection with these proceedings indicates Libor suppression. At one date during the Class Period, when the BBA announced it would investigate the reporting of LIBOR, members of the LIBOR panel increased their rates in unison despite the lack of any market reason. The most plausible explanation for this movement is Defendants’ collective fear of detection of their LIBOR suppression. Bolstering this point is that since October 2011, when the European Commission raided most or all of Defendants in connection with the LIBOR probe, reported LIBOR has returned to its historic norm compared with the overall Eurodollar deposit market.1.

The Discrepancy Between LIBOR and the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate During the Class Period Suggests Defendants Collusively Suppressed LIBOR 51.

As demonstrated by the work of independent consulting experts retained by counsel in these actions, analysis of the Eurodollar market strongly supports that Defendants suppressed their LIBOR quotes and colluded to suppress reported LIBOR rates. Moreover, this analysis further supports that Defendants colluded to control the amount of suppression over the Class Period.52.

The U.S. Federal Reserve prepares and publishes Eurodollar deposit rates for banks (the “Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate”). These Eurodollar deposit rates are analogous to LIBOR in that they reflect the rates at which banks in the London Eurodollar money market lend U.S. dollars to one another, just as LIBOR is intended to reflect rates at which panel banks in the London interbank market lend U.S. dollars to one another. The Federal Reserve obtains its data from Bloomberg and the ICAP brokerage company. 22 Bloomberg Eurodollar deposit rate is similar to BBA’s LIBOR except that the sampling is not limited to the 22

See, footnote 8. Last visited on April 23, 2012

16 banks chosen by BBA. ICAP is a large broker-dealer in London in Eurodollar deposits. 23 ICAP surveys its client banks and updates its Eurodollar deposit rates about 9:30 AM eachmorning.53.

While Defendants could have access to the ICAP Eurodollar deposit rates prior to submitting their individual LIBOR quotes at 11:00 each day, they would not — absent collusion— have access to other bank LIBOR quotes, which are confidential until submitted. Thus, even within the context of a suppressed LIBOR, absent collusion, individual panel banks would not know what quote other panel banks intended to submit relative to the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate.54.

The consulting experts determined that because of the nature of the relationship between the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate and LIBOR (detailed below), it would be unusual even for one bank to submit a LIBOR bid below the Federal Reserve’s Eurodollar Deposit Rate. For all Defendants to submit bids below the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate would be extremely unusual, and strongly supports evidence of collusion among the banks.55.

Economic and statistical analysis strongly supports the use of the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate as a benchmark for measuring the validity of LIBOR as reported by the panel banks. To measure how well the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate and LIBOR move together, for the purposes of this analysis, the difference between the two rates, the “Spread,” is calculated as follows: Spread = BBA LIBOR – Federal Reserve Eurodollar DepositRate.56.

Since both LIBOR and the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate measure the 23

“ICAP is the world’s premier voice and electronic interdealer broker and the source of global market information and commentary for professionals in the international financial markets. The Group is active in the wholesale markets in interest rates, credit, energy, foreign exchange and equity derivatives. ICAP has an average daily transaction volume in excess of $1.5 trillion, more than 60% of which is electronic. ICAP plc was added to the FTSE 100 Index on 30 June 2006.For more information go to” See (last accessed on April 30, 2012

lending cost to banks of Eurodollar deposits, important market and financial fundamentals, suchas day-to-day changes in monetary policy, market risk and interest rates, as well as risk factors facing the banks generally (collectively “Market Fundamentals”), should be reflected similarlyon both variables, and therefore should not affect the Spread. The BBA’s LIBOR panel isintended to reflect the Eurodollar deposit market in London. By focusing on the Spread, the model therefore should be able to factor out normal and expected co-movements in banks’ LIBOR quotes that arise from changes in Market Fundamentals.57.

To analyze how well the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate captures changes in Market Fundamentals and absorbs variations in LIBOR that are driven by such fundamentals, consulting experts used regression analysis to measure the day-to-day changes in the Spread against changes in the T-Bill rate and the commercial paper rate. The evidence from these regressions strongly supports that day-to-day changes in the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate effectively capture day-to-day movements in LIBOR caused by Market Fundamentals. Thus, once the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate is subtracted to arrive at the Spread, remaining movements in LIBOR reflected in the Spread would be unrelated to movements in Market Fundamentals.58.

Because Market Fundamentals are fully captured by the Spread, absent manipulation, the Spread should always be zero or close to zero. Thus, as more fully discussed below, negative Spreads provide a strong basis to conclude that Defendants suppressed and colluded to artificially suppress LIBOR. 24 59.

Figures 1 and 2 show the relationship between LIBOR, the Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit Rate, and the Spread beginning in 2000 and ending in mid 2012. As can be seen, between January 5, 2000 and around August 7, 2007, Federal Reserve’s Eurodollar Deposit 24 It is important to note that to the extent panel banks submitting LIBOR quotes submit suppressed rates to the BBA, and these suppressed rates are also considered by Bloomberg or ICAP, then the resultant Federal Reserve Eurodollar Deposit rate would also be understated by the same suppression. Consequently, the Spread computed above could even understate the true magnitude of the suppression

Rate tracked LIBOR very closely and the Spread remained positive and very close to zero. This finding indicates that the Spread effectively captures shared risks of the banks sampled by BBA and by Bloomberg and ICAP. The validity of this finding is bolstered by the fact that the Spread remained very close to zero in the face of multiple major financial dislocations, including the bursting of the dot-com bubble in 2000, the terrorist attacks of September 2001, and the 2001U.S. economic recession. Likewise, the unusual downward movements in the Spread starting in August 2007 strongly evidences that LIBOR was being manipulated and suppressed during this period

The Spread only became consistently positive around the end of October 2011, just after the European Commission raided banks in connection with LIBOR

Pilgrim Society Member list


Windsor, Queen Elizabeth Mary II  patron 1926-alive    Queen of England since 1953, married to Prince Philip Mountbatten. The Queen has been, and might still be, a major stockholder in Rio Tinto and other large corporations. No official details are ever released.

[queen] ”Nobody, Paul has been as close to a member of my family as you have. There are powers at work in this country about which we have no knowledge.”

[Paul] “She wanted me to make sure my wife Maria and children remained safe. It was not a threat, it was sound advice. She had my interests at heart…No-one had never warned me like that. It made me suddenly realise the magnitude of the situation. It was obviously much, much bigger than I had ever thought.”

- The Queen and Paul Burrell in a 3-hour talk in November of 1997 at Buckinham Palace. Paul was the butler of Diana right up until her death on August 31, 1997. In January of 2001, Paul was accused of stealing some items from the Diana after her death. On November 1, 2001, the trial collapsed when the Queen herself stated that Paul had informed her of taking these items with him. (The Mirror in an interview with Paul Burrell - June 11, 2002)

Mountbatten, Prince Philip


Born in 1921 on the Isle of Corfu, Greece. Parents were evacuated from Greece after a revolution and both became depressed (father) or mentally instable (mother). Studied in Germany under Kurt Hahn and both came to Scotland in 1933. Played polo in his youth, often against Sir Evelyn de Rothschild. Philip is the Duke of Edinburgh, a Knight of the Order of the Garter, a Knight of the Order of the Thistle, Grand Master and First or Principal Knight of the Order of the British Empire, and was a prince of Greece and Denmark until he married. Patron or President of 814 organizations. His wife, Queen Elizabeth II is patron of the Pilgrims Society. Long career in the navy from the start of WWII as a midshipsman to commanding his own frigate, the HMS Magpie. William R. Denslow's 10,000 Famous Freemasons: "Philip was initiated in Navy Lodge No. 2612 of London on Dec 5, 1952. Present at the initiation were the Earl of Scarbrough, grand master, q.v., and Geoffrey Fisher, archbishop of Canterbury." Philip is a Master Mason, never having shown great interest in the organization, while his cousin, Prince Edward (b. 1935) is the grand master of the United Grand Lodge. He and his wife set off for a tour of the Commonwealth, with visits to Africa, Australia, and New Zealand in 1952. They went on to visit the remote parts of the Commonwealth in 1956. Gordon Creighton, a Foreign Service official and Intelligence officer, concluded his story about a reported 1960s UFO landing on the estate of Prince Philip with: "So there had been a landing on the estate of Mountbatten and there was Mountbatten's great interest." The entire testimony was made during an interview with the Disclosure Project in September 2000. Prince Philip supposedly had a drawer full of sketches and information on different types of UFOs. Philip co-founded the WWF International in 1961 with Julian Huxley and Prince Bernhard. He has been the long time president of WWF UK. Co-founded the 1001 Nature Trust and 1001 Club from 1971 to 1974, together with Anton Rupert and Prince Bernhard. Co-founded the Interfaith consultations between Jews, Christians, and Muslims in 1984, together with Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan and Sir Evelyn de Rothschild at Windsor castle. In August 1988, Prince Philip said to the West German Deutsche Press Agentur: "In the event that I am reincarnated, I would like to return as a deadly virus, in order to contribute something to solve overpopulation". He wrote something along similar lines in the foreword of the 1987 book 'If I Were An Animal', written by Fleur Cowles. Philip was supposedly hostile to Diana after she divorced Charles in 1996. Mohamed Al-Fayed claimed Prince Philip had ordered Diana's murder who was killed in a car crash on August 31, 1997. Queen Elizabeth II said to Diana's butler Paul Burrell in December 1997: "Nobody, Paul has been as close to a member of my family as you have... There are powers at work in this country about which we have no knowledge." She advised him to be cautious and to lay low. Unlike his son, Charles, Philip supports genetically modified foods. On June 7, 2000, The Guardian quoted the Duke of Edinburgh as saying: "Do not let us forget we have been genetically modifying animals and plants ever since people started selective breeding." Philip is known to be the head of the family; what he says, generally goes. He is still president emeritus of the WWF International.

Laurence, Princess Anne


HRH The Princess Royal. Daughter of Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II. Younger sister of Prince Charles. Attended a dinner of the Pilgrim Society on February 4, 2004 at 3:45 PM, Four Seasons Hotel, Hamilton Place, London. She is a member of the Order of the Garter.

Windsor, Prince Charles


Became Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Great Steward of Scotland and Knight of the Garter when Elizabeth II ascended to the throne. Studied in part under Kurt Hahn, invested as Prince of Wales in 1969, assumed a seat in the House of Lords in 1970, married Lady Diana Frances Spencer in 1981, divorced in 1996 and Diana died in a car crash in 1997, married Camilla Parker Bowles in 2005, heir to the British Throne. Anno 2005 he is listed as a member of the Advisory Board of The Pilgrims of the United States.

Windsor, Andrew Edward


Third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh. When he married he was created The Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh. He currently serves as United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.

Windsor, Arthur William Patrick Albert,



English prince, son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, brother of Edward VII. Trained for a military career, he served in Egypt (1882) and India (1886–1890) and as commander in chief in the Mediterranean 1907-1909. He was governor-general of Canada 1911-1916. His son, Prince Arthur of Connaught 1883-1938, was governor-general of South Africa 1920-1923.

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Adams, Charles Francis IV


Direct descendant of President John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Spent several years with his parents in St. Petersburg, Russia. Harvard College. Partner in Paine, Webber, Jackson, & Curtis banking firm 1937-1947. Director of Raytheon 1938-1942. U.S. Naval Reserve with active duty, commanding destroyer escorts in the Atlantic & Pacific theaters 1942-1945. Commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet 1945-1947. President of Raytheon (sales grew forty fold in his almost 40 years with the company) 1948-1960 & 1962-1964. Chairman of Raytheon 1960-1962 & 1964-1972. Retired as director of Raytheon in 1997. Director of the First National Bank of Boston, the Gillette Company, Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Sheraton Corporation, Bath Iron Works, Associated Industries of Massachusetts, the Boston Chamber of Commerce, Pan American World Airways, and the Massachusetts Higher Education Assistance Corporation. Chairman of the Board of Visitors of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. Trustee of the Children's Hospital, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Industrial School for Crippled Children, the Massachusetts Humane Society, the Naval War College Foundation and more. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Vice President of the Massachusetts Historical Society.

Acheson, Dean Gooderham


Yale Scroll & Key 1915. Harvard 1915-1918. Private secretary to the Supreme Court Justice 1919-1921. Became Under Secretary of the Treasury in 1933. U.S. Secretary of State under Harry S. Truman 1949-1953. Accused of being soft on Communism and had a dispute with General Douglas MacArthur. Mccarthy saw him as one the most dangerous Communists and believed that the "Acheson group had almost hypnotic powers over Truman". Member Council on Foreign Relations. His son, David C. Acheson ended up in the 1943 Skull & Bones class.

Acton, Lord


Born in Shropshire, England. Acton's family immigrated in 1948 to Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, where he was educated at St. George's College, Salisbury. Later he received his bachelor's and master's degrees in modern history at Trinity College, Oxford. In 1989, he took his seat in the House of Lords as the fourth Lord Acton, dividing his time between Iowa and London since his marriage to Patricia Nassif, a clinical professor at the UI College of Law. Later, the government of the United Kingdom put forth a proposal to restructure the House of Lords. This passed in November 1999, which resulted in the abolition of Acton's hereditary peerage. However, the Prime Minister appointed him as a Life Peer, and Acton returned to the House of Lords in April. Acton is also a writer whose articles have appeared in many American periodicals, including The New York Times Book Review, The North American Review, British Heritage, the Christian Science Monitor, The Chicago Tribune and The San Francisco Chronicle. In 1995, Acton and his wife wrote a book on the legal history of Iowa entitled, "To Go Free: A Treasury of Iowa's Legal Heritage," published by Iowa State University Press to commemorate Iowa's sesquicentennial. He also received the Iowa State Historical Society's Throne/Aldrich Award in 1995 for the best article on Iowa history published by The Palimpset. His articles have appeared in The Iowan and The Des Moines Register. His latest book is "A Brit Among the Hawkeyes," published by Iowa State University Press. Has spoken at the Iowa City Foreign Relations Council (ICFRC), which is in the neighborhood he often lives. He and his wife split their time between Ceder Rapids and London. He is a member of the Royal Africa Society and the Pilgrims Society. Lord Acton is writing a book about one his forefathers, Sir John Acton, who, according to him, ruled Naples and Sicily in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Adler, Julius Ochs


His family started the New York Times, received the Distinguished Service Cross, the Purple Heart, the Silver Star, Star with Oak Leaf Clusters, the French Legion of Honor and the French Croix de Guerre for his achievements as commander of a battalion of infantry on the Western Front in France in WWI, as a General he commanded the 77th Infantry Division, responsible for the defense of Hawaii from 1941 to 1944. After World War II, joined The New York Times as vice-president, later to become general manager, publisher of the Chattanooga Times, invited by General Eisenhower to visit the liberated concentration camps in 1945, which inspired him to write a bunch of articles on his experiences, appointed as major general in the Army Reserve in 1948.

Aiken, Alfred Lawrence

exec. committee


Graduated from Yale in 1891, president Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 1914-1917, president and chairman National Shawmut Bank of Boston 1918-1924, director New York Life Insurance Co 1924-1936, president of New York Life Insurance & Co. in 1936, trustee of Clark University and Wellesley College, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Aldrich, Herbert I.


This name was mentioned by J. Thorkelson, a U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940.

Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth


Nelson W. Aldrich. Private in the Rhode Island National Guard during the American Civil War. Elected to Rhodes Island city council 1869. Rhodes Island city council president 1872-1873. Republican Congressman 1879-1881. Senator 1881-1911. His daughter marries John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. in 1901. In 1906 Aldrich is accused of taking huge bribes from corporations in an article of Cosmopolitan. Attends the Jekyll Island meeting on November 22, 1910. Chairman Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, Committee on Rules, Select Committee on Corporations Organized in the District of Columbia, Committee on Finance, and the National Monetary Commission. Aldrich worked together with co-Pilgrim and congressman/banker Edward Butterfield Vreeland to establish the Federal Reserve.

Aldrich, Winthrop Williams


Winthrop W. Aldrich was the uncle of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller. The major stockholder in Equitable Trust Company (merged with Chase National Bank in 1930). President of Chase National Bank and later chairman of the board from 1930 to 1953 (Chase National Bank eventually became J.P. Morgan Chase). Ambassador to England from 1950 to 1953 and gave a speech to the English Pilgrims on March 19, 1953. Director of Westinghouse Electric, American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), International Paper, Discount Corporation of New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance, and American Society for the Control of Cancer.

Aldrich, Malcolm Pratt

born 1900

Yale Skull & Bones 1922. Cousin of Winthrop Aldrich. Head of the Commonwealth Fund.

Aldrich, Hulbert Stratton

born 1907

Cousin of Winthrop Aldrich, president of Greer School with mrs. David Rockefeller (1942/1947), vice chairman of Chemical Bank 1959-1972, director of Ametek Incorporated, IBM World Trade Corporation, Empire Savings Bank, George W. Rogers Construction Corporation, Peter Paul Incorporated, president of Commonwealth Fund (succeeded Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness), Royal Globe Insurance Group and Hill Samuel Group Limited, London.

Alexander, Charles Beatty


Grandson of a co-founder of Princeton Theological Seminary, trustee of Princeton University, married into the Crocker fortune of 40 million (1888) dollars, director of the International Banking Corporation, Mercantile Trust Company; Equitable Trust Company, Equitable Life Assurance, Society of the U.S., Tri-State Land Company, Windsor Trust, member of the Society of the Cincinnati.

Alexander, Henry Clay


Studied at Vanderbilt University and Yale where he graduated in 1923 and 1925, Trustee of Vanderbilt University, president J.P. Morgan & Company, chairman Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York in 1960, director General Motors & Johns-Manville Corporation

Anderson, Arthur Marvin

died 1966

Director of Northern Pacific Ry, director U.S. Steel Corporation, vice-chairman J.P. Morgan & Company, has a ship named after him.

Angell, Ernest


Lived from about 1890 to the 1970s, attended Harvard in 1907, New York lawyer, married Elizabeth Chapin of the American Motors fortune, national chairman of the A.C.L.U., member of the International Commission of Jurists meetings in Athens and New Delhi.

Angelson, Mark A.


Educated at Rutgers College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and at Rutgers Law School. Angelson began his career in 1975 as a lawyer with Sullivan & Cromwell. From 1982 through 1995, he practiced with Sidley & Austin, serving as Co-Chair of International Operations and Resident Managing Partner of the law firm's offices in Singapore, New York and London. During this period, he participated in the development of substantial, notably successful law practices in each of those cities, and served on the boards of various multinational companies and not-for-profit organizations. From 1996 until 2001, Mr. Angelson served in various capacities, including as Executive Deputy Chairman, at Big Flower Holdings (NYSE: BGF), a printing and advertising services holding company, and its successor, Vertis Holdings, Inc. At Big Flower, he was involved in approximately 30 printing industry acquisitions and related financings, and the $2 billion leveraged recapitalization and sale of control of the company to Thomas H. Lee Fund IV and Evercore Capital Partners. Before assuming his current position, Mr. Angelson served as Chief Executive Officer of Moore Wallace Incorporated (TSX, NYSE: MWI), the third largest printing company in North America. He was a principal architect of the merger between RR Donnelley and Moore Wallace, and of the earlier merger between Moore Corporation Limited (TSX, NYSE: MCL) and Wallace Computer Services, Inc. (NYSE: WCS). Prior to joining Moore as CEO, Mr. Angelson served as Moore's Non-Executive Chairman and Lead Independent Director. Previously, Mr. Angelson served as Deputy Chairman of Chancery Lane Capital, the New York-based private equity investment firm that led the Chancery Lane/GSC Partners L.P. investment in Moore and recruited the Moore management team. Today he is Chief Executive Officer of Chicago-based R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company (NYSE: RRD), the largest provider of printing and print-related services in the world, with approximately 43,000 employees, annual revenues of approximately $8 billion, nearly 600 locations around the globe and more than 40,000 customer relationships. The company provides these services to the catalog, retail, magazine, book, directory, advertising, financial, healthcare, telecommunications, automotive and many other industries. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (New York), a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (London), a Trustee of Northwestern University, a member of the Executive Committee of the Board of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, and a member of the Pilgrims of Great Britain, the Yale Club of New York City, The Economic Club of Chicago, the Chicago Club and the Civic Committee of the Commercial Club of Chicago.

Annenberg, Walter H.


Son of Moses Annenberg, publisher of The Philadelphia Inquirer. The story of Moses & Max (older brother) Annenberg is a tale of a hardworking immigrants and financial geniuses who got their start working alongside violent Chicago gangsters while employed by newspaper titan William Randolph Hearst at the turn of the last century. After some time, the owner of the Tribune, Bertie McCormick, decided to hire Moses Annenberg away from Hearst. For a while, the Annenberg brothers were sending out thugs to battle each other. Fifteen years later, Max Annenberg was alleged to be an associate and friend of Chicago crime boss Al Capone. In 1924, Moses Annenberg got involved with a racing news service in Chicago and Milwaukee. Soon there were reports that those who didn't take the Annenberg race wire service were themselves the victims of beatings, fire bombings and, on occasion, murder. The crime syndicates had come to be dependent on Moses Annenberg. Without his service they couldn't operate their illegal gambling rackets. In 1938, the Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes, traveled from Washington D.C. to give a speech in Philadelphia condemning Moses Annenberg, who, at that time, was backing the Republican candidate for governor of Pennsylvania. Ickes charged it was Annenberg's violent tactics during the Chicago newspaper wars that inspired gangsters like Al Capone. Ickes said that "the hiring of Moses Annenberg by Hearst was the beginning of the subsequent flood of lawlessness that almost engulfed law enforcement in the United States." Moses, Walter, and 2 other business associates were indicted in 1939 for evading more than $2 million in taxes and another $3 million in penalties and interest. Moses was later separately indicted for conspiring to bribe a Philadelphia detective. In April 1940, Moses Annenberg agreed to plead guilty to one count -- "willfully" evading $1,217,296 -- and to pay almost $9 million in fines and penalties. In exchange for his plea the government agreed to drop all charges against his son, Walter Annenberg. In the 1940s, Walter Annenberg established Triangle Broadcasting, which at its peak controlled 6 AM radio stations, 6 FM radio stations, and 6 TV stations. He is also the founder and owner of Triangle Publications, which owned the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Daily News, TV Guide and Seventeen Magazine. Received the Alfred I. DuPont Award (Pilgrim) in 1951. Received the Marshall Field Award (Pilgrim) in 1958. Founded The Annenberg School for Communication at The University of Pennsylvania in 1958. Ambassador to England 1969-1974. Founded The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California in 1971. In 1988, News Corp. acquired Triangle Publications, including TV Guide. Founder-trustee and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California. Annenberg also served as Trustee of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships and the Winston Churchill Traveling Fellowships. He was Emeritus Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, The University of Pennsylvania and The Peddie School. Annenberg received honorary degrees from many international universities. Annenberg was named Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. He was also named Officer of the French Legion of Honor, and presented with the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy. (received dozens of other awards and honors) He was a member of the Associated Press, the American Society of Newspaper Editors, International Press Institute, National Press Club, Overseas Press Club, American Newspaper Publishers Association, Sigma Delta Chi, the International Arts-Medicine Association, and the Inter-American Press Association. Has been awarded by the ADL. A former Commander of the United States Naval Reserve, Annenberg also was a member of the Navy League of the U.S. He also has his own foundation, the Annenberg Foundation. Walter Annenberg was a generous philanthropist who gave millions to universities, art museums, charities and PBS. He was a friend to kings and presidents.

Armour, Norman


Embassy secretary at Petrograd (then the capital of Russia) 1916-1918, ambassador to Haiti 1932-1935, Canada 1935-1938, Chile 1938-1939, Argentina 1939-1944, Spain 1945, Venezuela 1950-1951 and Guatemala 1954-1955. Married European nobility in the form of Princess Myra Kondacheff, member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Armstrong, Anne Legendre


Born in New Orleans. Daughter of an aristocratic New Orleans coffee merchant. Graduated from Vassar College. She married Tobin Armstrong, a Texas cattle rancher, in 1950, whom she met in 1942 on the 825,000 acre King Ranch. The King Ranch has been home to many international power elites including Prince Charles and Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis. Tobin was close friends with the Bushes. She served as vice chairman of the Texas Republican Party from 1966 to 1968. In 1971 and 1972, she was cochairman of the Republican National Committee. As counselor to the President, Armstrong was a member of the president's Domestic Council, the Council on Wage and Price Stability, and the Commission on the Organization of Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy. First American woman ambassador to Great Britain from 1976 to 1977. In 1977, Prince Charles visited the Armstrong Ranch to play polo with Anne's husband. Director of American Express (with Henry Kissinger and Vernon Jordan), Boise Cascade, General Motors, and Halliburton (with Cheney). She chaired the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board from 1982 to 1990 and was a trustee of Southern Methodist University and the Smithsonian Institution. She also chaired the Georgetown University's Center for Strategic and International Studies advisory board.

Astor, William Waldorf


Educated in Germany and in Italy and at the Columbia law school, member of the NY state assembly 1878-1879, senator 1880-1881, minister to Italy 1881–1885, heir to about 100 million dollars, reversed the family immigration by returning to England in 1890 and bought some large real estate, purchased the Pall Mall Gazette 1893, purchased the London Sunday Observer 1911, was made a baron in 1916 and a viscount (of Hever) in 1917, his elder son became leader of Tory democracy, his younger son bought a large share in The Times of London. His son, Waldorf Astor (unconfirmed Pilgrims member), was a chairman of the Royal Institute for International Affairs from 1935 to 1949 and had helped to establish it.

Astor, William Vincent


Heir of the John Jacob Astor fortune, Franklin D. Roosevelt supporter in 1932, New Deal supporter after WWII, director of Chase National Bank, Western Union Telegraph Company, Great Northern Railway Company, the United States Lines, New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital and other institutions and corporations, trustee of the New York Public Library and the New York Zoological Society, governor of New York Hospital, staff officer in the Navy during both World Wars, seemed to have a bit of competition from the English branch of the family. (He and his former wives had themselves or married to Huntingtons and Whitneys)

Astor, (Roberta) Brooke Russell


Daughter of USMC General John Henry Russell, wife of Vincent Astor, president Vincent Astor Foundation from 1959 and on, which gave away about 195 million in all, author of 2 fiction books.

Astor, Francis David Langhorne


Educated at Eton College he went on to Oxford University where he suffered a nervous breakdown and left university in 1933 without obtaining a degree, psycho-analyzed by Anna Freud, at Oxford in 1931 he met Adam von Trott zu Solz, later executed for the role he played in a failed assassination of Hitler, who had a lot of influence on him, during World War II David Astor was wounded in France, In 1936, he joined the Yorkshire Post newspaper where he worked for a year then joined his father's newspaper, The Observer where he would serve as editor for 27 years, He warned of the dangers of big government and of big business, influenced by his friend and employee of The Observer, George Orwell, he supposedly was anti-big government, very critical of corrupt politicians, pro-blacks, pro-life, etc, in 1977 The Observer was sold to Robert O. Anderson, the American owner of the Atlantic Richfield oil company. (had lots of aggressive competition)

Astor, Gavin


2nd Baron Astor of Hever, controlling shareholder Times Publishing Co. Ltd. This company controlled the The Times Book Co. Ltd., Issuing House Year Book Ltd., St. Paul's Engineering Ltd., The Review (Insurance) Ltd., The Times Pension Trusts Ltd., The Times London Incorporated. and The Gardeners' Chronicle Ltd. Director Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1952-1959, chairman Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1959-1966.

Astor, John Jacob, 8th


Better known under 3rd Baron Astor of Hever, educated at Eton College, Birkshire (England), Lieutenant in 1966 in the service of the The Life Guards, managing director of Honon et Cie in 1982, managing director of Astor France in 1989, Deputy Lieutenant of Kent in 1996, Chief Whip of the House of Lords 1998. Freemason.

Attlee, Clement Richard


Educated at Oxford, he was called to the bar in 1905. His early experience as a social worker in London's East End led to his decision to give up law and devote his life to social improvement through politics. In 1907 he joined the Fabian Society and soon afterward the Labour party. He was a lecturer in social science at the London School of Economics, and, after service in World War I, he became (1919) the first Labour mayor of Stepney. Attlee entered Parliament in 1922. In 1927 he visited India as a member of the Simon commission and was converted to views that strongly favored Indian self-government. He joined the Labour government in 1930 but resigned in 1931 when Ramsay MacDonald formed the National government. As leader of the Labour party from 1935, Attlee was an outspoken critic of Conservative foreign policy, objecting particularly to the government's failure to intervene in the Spanish civil war. During World War II he served (1940–45) in Winston Churchill's coalition cabinet, and on Labour's electoral victory in 1945 he became prime minister. Under Attlee's leadership, the Bank of England, the gas, electricity, coal, and iron and steel industries, and the railways were nationalized. His government also enacted considerable social reforms, including the National Health Service. Independence was granted to Burma (Myanmar), India, Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Palestine, and Britain allied itself closely with the United States in the cold war confrontation with the Soviet Union. The postwar economic crisis required stringent economic and financial controls, which reduced support for the government. Labour won the 1950 general election by a narrow margin, but in 1951, Attlee decided to go to the country again and was defeated. He was leader of the opposition until his retirement in 1955, when he received the title of Earl Attlee.

Bache, Jules Semon


American banker and art collector who made an enormous fortune on Wallstreet, organized the banking firm of J. S. Bache and Company, president and treasurer of Dome Mines Limited, director of Chrysler, Lake Superior Railroad, Louisiana Oil Refining, Tennessee Copper & Chemical, Southern Agricultural Company, U.S. Industrial Alcohol Company, New River Collieries, Cuba Distilling, American Indemnity, Anniston City Land, New Amsterdam Casualty, Ann Arbor Railroad, Empire Trust Company and others, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Bail, Ancell H.


This name was mentioned by J. Thorkelson, U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940. More info is not available.

Baker, George Fisher


Harvard. Fortune of the Baker family estimated at 500 million in 1924 and later grew to about a billion dollars. Chairman of Manhattan's First National Bank, First Security Co., and had directorships in at least 50 other companies. Close associate of J.P. Morgan who wanted him on every board of the companies he financed. Trustee of the Frick Collection (Frick was an associate of Andrew Mellon and was waging a war on his slave-workers). Donated $2,000,000 to Henry Pomeroy Davison (Pilgrim) when he needed money for Red Cross work during WWI. One of the largest philanthropist ever and never appeared in public.

Baker, George Fisher III


Great-grandson of the wealthy banker George Fisher Baker, Harvard, general partner of Baker, Nye Investments L.P. in New York City, member Woods Hole Oceanographic, member, director of The American Institute for Cognitive Therapy, director Quebec-Labrador Foundation/Atlantic Center for the Environment (QLF), philanthropist.

Baker, James Addison III


Graduated from Princeton University in 1952. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Allen Dulles, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3, 2005, Rense). Houston lawyer. Friend of the Bushes. Undersecretary of commerce 1975–1976. Deputy manager of the 1976 and 1980 Ford and Bush presidential campaigns. Joined the Reagan administration in 1981. White House chief of staff 1981–1985. Treasury secretary 1985–1988. Planned the 1988 campaign that won George H.W. Bush the presidency. Secretary of State 1989–1992. Played a prominent role in the Gulf crisis and the subsequent search for a Middle East peace settlement. Again White House Chief of Staff 1992-1993. United Nations special envoy to try and broker a peace settlement for the disputed territory of Western Sahara 1997. As an adviser to George W. Bush in the November 2000 presidential elections, he was influential in helping Bush secure the presidency by manoeuvring the disputed vote count in Florida to the Republican-leaning Supreme Court. Baker was the manager of the foreign debts of occupied Iraq since 2003. Senior counselor for the Carlyle Group and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Also a member of the Atlantic Council of the United States, the Bohemian Grove, and the Pilgrims Society. Honorary trustee of the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies.

Ball, George Wildman


Born on December 19, 1909 in Des Moines, Iowa. Grew up in Des Moines and Evanston, Illinois, where the family moved in 1922 after his father received a promotion to the Standard Oil Company headquarters located in Chicago. Graduated at the top of his class from Northwestern Law School in 1933. The law school dean nominated him for a position in the General Counsel's Office, under the direction of Herman Oliphant, in the newly established Farm Credit Administration. Ball moved to the Treasury Department in November 1933 upon the appointment of Henry Morgenthau (Pilgrims) as Secretary of the Treasury. When Franklin D. Roosevelt named Morgenthau to this post, Morgenthau brought along Oliphant as his legal advisor, and he, in turn, brought along Ball. Worked here from 1933-1935. Despite working on major New Deal policies, Ball felt his law training was lacking and returned to the Midwest in 1935 to "master the profession of law." He joined a Chicago law firm where he served as a tax attorney before moving to the prestigious firm of Sidley, McPherson, Austin & Harper in 1939. Ball's work involved the reorganization of railroads but more defining was the close relationship he developed with junior partner Adlai Stevenson while at the firm. It was also during this time that Ball started to become interested in foreign affairs. He began to attend Friday luncheons hosted by the Chicago Council on Foreign Affairs, which Stevenson chaired. Associate position in the General Counsel's Office of the Lend-Lease Administration under the guidance of Oscar Cox 1942-1944. Director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey in London 1944-1945. Ball was specifically responsible for assessing the effectiveness of the Allied bombing of German cities and transportation systems. In May 1945, Ball and John Kenneth Galbraith debriefed Albert Speer, the Nazi minister for armaments and war production, in an effort to confirm their speculations on the ineffectiveness of Allied bombings. Ball was awarded a Medal of Freedom for this work. General Counsel for the French Supply Council in Washington 1945-1946. Ball was finally able to join his firm, Cleary, Gottlieb, Friendly & Cox in July 1946. Monnet retained the firm to represent the French Government, and Ball soon found himself conferring with Monnet's deputy Robert Marjolin on the creation of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC, the later OECD). He continued to work with Monnet on establishing a European economic plan throughout 1949, and this preliminary work laid the foundation for the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). After the ratification of the Treaty of Paris in August 1952, Ball was retained as the ECSC's adviser and later served as an adviser to the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC). Talked Adlai Stevenson into running for president twice and acted as his campaign advisor (James P. Warburg was one of his aides). Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and became part of its steering committee. Still attended Bilderberg in 1993, the year before his death. Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs under JFK 1961-1962. Under Secretary of State 1962-1966. In his new position, Ball worked on issues regarding trade and tariffs, economic affairs, the Congo, and European integration. He worked closely with Secretary of State Dean Rusk (Rhodes Scholar; Pilgrims; chair Rockefeller Foundation; SMOM) and dealt directly with the President on these matters. Very much opposed to the Vietnam war and decided to resign because of it in 1966. Partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb 1966-1968. Served as chair of the committee investigating the U.S.S. Pueblo incident in 1968. Permanent U.S. representative to the United Nations 1968. Fearing a Nixon victory in the presidential election, Ball resigned in September to campaign for his friend Hubert Humphrey. Senior managing director and partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb 1969-1982. Chairman of the in 1975 launched Washington Institute for the Study of Conflict (WISC), of which its English branch stood in close contact with Le Cercle. Unofficial advisor to Jimmy Carter 1977-1981. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, and Pilgrims Society. Wrote a couple of books and articles on foreign affairs. His son, Alan Ball, is said to have been an MI5 operative and was a chairman of Tiny Rowland's Lonrho. Rowland worked with loads of Middle-Eastern terrorists, was a member of Le Cercle, and had MI6 agents like Nicholas Elliott on his board. In the 1990 book 'One Nation under Israel', Ball is quoted as having said: "When leading members of the American Jewish community give [Israel’s] government uncritical and unqualified approbation and encouragement for whatever it chooses to do, while striving so far as possible to overwhelm any criticism of its actions in Congress and in the public media, they are, in my view, doing neither themselves nor the U.S. a favor…They’ve got one thing going for them. Most people are terribly concerned not to be accused of being anti-Semitic, and the lobby so often equates criticism of Israel with anti-Semitism. They keep pounding away at that theme, and people are deterred from speaking out."

Barber, Charles Finch


CEO of American Smelting & refining, director Americas Society, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Barco, James William

born 1916

American ambassador to the United Nations 1960-1961, vice-chairman Atlantic Council of the United States, trustee American University in Cairo, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Barlow, Sir Clement Anderson Montague


Parliamentary Secretary of Labor. Involved with British empire building.

Barratt, J. Arthur


Organized the St. Louis World Fair and became Director General of the Pan American Union in Washington, the building for which was provided by Pilgrim Society member Andrew Carnegie.

Bartlett, Edmund


Chairman Schroder’s Limited NY.

Bayne, Stephen F., Jr


Married Lucie Culver Gould in 1934, appeared on 1969 Pilgrims list. Possibly a bishop.

Beck, James M.


Graduated Moravian College in Bethlehem. After an apprenticeship in law he was admitted to the bar in 1884 and entered the law office of William F. Harrity, with whom he formed a law partnership in 1891. Admitted to the bar of New York City in 1903, and in 1922 to the bar of England, he rose to be one of America's leading corporate lawyers. Assistant United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania 1888-1892, United States Attorney 1896-1900, joined the New York law firm of Shearman and Sterling, continued his law practices in New York, Philadelphia and Washington until 1921, appointed Solicitor General of the U.S. 1921-1925. As a Congressman he was the leading spokesman in the campaign against Prohibition and he tried to fight the principles and legislation of the New Deal. Reelected three consecutive times, he resigned in 1934. Beck was one of the first Americans to make a case for the Entente, the alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to World War I. His most famous book, "The Constitution of the United States" (1924), sold over fifty thousand copies.

Bell, Elliott V.


Reporter for The New York Times when the great depression hit in 1929, trustee Brookings Institution, director of Chase Manhattan Bank, treasurer Council on Foreign Relations 1952-1964, director Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1966, vice president and trustee John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation 1965-1972, chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, editor and publisher Business Week.

Belmont, August, Jr.


He was a son of August Belmont, the Rothschild agent that funded the North during the American civil war. The younger August Belmont was an 1875 graduate of Harvard University, served as director of the National Park Bank, and was an avid thoroughbred racing fan (owned Man O'War, one of the most famous race horses). Following the United States' entry into World War I, Belmont, at age 65, volunteered to assist and was sent to France by the U.S. Army. His widow Eleanor Robson Belmont died at 100 in 1979.

Benkard, Franklin Bartlett


He was graduated in 1925 at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, with his A.B. degree. He was graduated in 1928 at Colombia Law School with his L.L.B. degree. Joined Kelly Drye Newhall & Maginnis, New York in 1925. He was made a partner with Kelly Drye & Warren in 1941. He was director and treasurer of the Julliard School of Music from 1941 to 1977. He was appointed Associate Government Appeal Agent in 1944 Government Appeal Agent in 1945. He was in the Coast Guard Reserve patrolling the docks in New Jersey at night. After 1950, he became active in Head of the Harbor and did much to presence the zoning regulations. He was director of the Midnight Mission Society (an organization who helped 'unfortunate girls' i.e. unwed mothers). He was a member of: The Century Association Knickerbocker Club Bar, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, the American Bar Association, and the New York State Bar Association. Also a member of Holland Lodge No. 8 F. and A.M., the New York State Society of the Cincinnati, the Pilgrims of the United States, St Nicholas Society of the City of New York, and the Society of the Mayflower Descendants.

Bennet, Courtenay Walter


British Consul at New York in 1908.

Benton, William


Graduated from Yale University in 1921, part-time vice president of the University of Chicago 1937-1945, chairman Encyclopedia Britannica 1943-1973, assistant Secretary of State 1945-1947 (active in organizing the United Nations), Democrat senator 1949-1953, United States ambassador to (United Nations) UNESCO in Paris 1963-1968, trustee of University of Chicago, trustee of several schools and colleges.

Beresford, Charles William de la Poer



Baron. Became a Navy commander in 1875. Sat in Parliament as a Conservative 1875-1880. Bombarded Alexandria, Egypt in 1882. Aide-de-camp to the Prince of Wales 1875-1876. Accompanying him on a visit to India, became a close personal friend of King Edward VII. Again in Parliament 1885-1888 and resigned under protest, authored “The Break-up of China” (1899), his brother was Military Attaché at the British Embassy in Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1898-1903. In 1897 Beresford was promoted to rear-admiral and again entered Parliament, this time representing York. He retained this seat until 1900, although he spent much of his time in China representing the Associated Chambers of Commerce, and from 1900 onwards was second in command of the Mediterranean fleet. He returned to Parliament in 1902, this time for Woolwich, but resigned in 1906 when he was promoted to admiral and appointed chief of the Channel Fleet. He was in command of the Mediterranean Fleet from 1905 until 1907. The first Pilgrim dinner in New York was held in his honor.

Bernstein, Leonard


A well-known musical conductor, spoke these words about the 1963 Kennedy assassination on November 24, 1980, as written down by the Associated Press: "We don’t dare confront the implications. I think we’re all agreed there was a conspiracy and we don’t want to know. It involves such a powerful high force in what we call the high places, if we do know, everything might fall apart."

Biddle, David H.



Biddle, Francis Beverly


Secretary to Associate Justice O. W. Holmes 1912, became a successful corporation lawyer, chairman National Labor Relations Board 1934-1935, director Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 1938-1939, appellate judge National Labor Relations Board 1939-1940, Attorney General of U.S. 1941-1945, U.S. judge for the trial of war criminals at Nuremberg 1945-1946.

Biddle, Anthony J. Drexel, Jr.


Attended the Saint Paul's School in New Hampshire and later Temple University, rose in rank from private to captain during WWI, Minister to Norway 1934-1937, Ambassador to Poland in 1937, deputy ambassador to France after the Germans started invading Poland, US Ambassador to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Greece, Luxembourg, and Yugoslavia, who were in exile in London (considered to be one of the most important jobs during WWII) 1941-1944, resumed active duty in the Army as a Lt. Colonel, rising to the rank of Brigadier General in 1951. During those years he worked closely with General Eisenhower as deputy chief of SHAEF and as a representative to EUCOM and SHAPE. The 1950s found Biddle serving as Adjutant General of the State of Pennsylvania, on numerous Pennsylvania state boards and commissions, and as a trustee at Temple University. In 1961 President John F. Kennedy chose Biddle for his last diplomatic position, that of Ambassador to Spain, where he served until his death.

Bigelow, Robert W.



Bingham, Robert Worth


A member of a North Carolina family of aristocratic pretensions. Robert Worth Bingham rose to great heights as a newspaper publisher, political leader, philanthropist, and ambassador to Great Britain (1933-1937), but his life is surrounded by controversy to this day. Charges that he contributed to the death of his second wife (the richest widow alive at the time - of magnate Henry Flagler), an heiress whose bequest of five million dollars helped purchase the Louisville Courier-Journal and Times, followed him to the grave. For three quarters of a century the history of the Bingham family of Louisville, Kentucky, has been one of tragedy and controversy as well as wealth, power, and prestige. The breakup of the Bingham dynasty in 1986, vividly chronicled on CBS television's "Sixty Minutes" generated a flurry of books and articles on Bingham and his family, much of it portraying Bingham as a villain. In some accounts, Bingham drove his first wife to suicide and gave syphilis to the second before murdering her to gain control of her inheritance. Member American Bar Association; Society of Colonial Wars; Society of the Cincinnati; Sons of the American Revolution; Alpha Tau Omega; Phi Beta Kappa.

Bingham, Thomas Henry


After the 1992 collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), Lord Bingham of Cornhill was appointed to head an official inquiry into why the Bank of England failed to find out about the massive drug laundering going on at this bank. Bingham and a U.S. Senate inquiry castigated the Bank of England for its failures of supervision, but didn't conclude anything was done on purpose. Bingham was a member of the Privy Council since 1986, chairman Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts since 1994, trustee Pilgrim Trust (founded by Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness in 1930), president Seckford Foundation, member Advisory Council on Public Records, the Magna Carta Trust and the British Records Association, Lord Chief Justice of Great Britain 1996-2000. In 2002 wanted to legalize Cannabis. Became a member of the Order of the Garter in 2005.

Bissell, Pelham Saint George


President of the Sons of the Revolution, council of the Society of Colonial Wars, past commander, American Legion, Judge Advocate, Veterans of Foreign Wars and member of the League of Nations, served on the legislative committee of the Citizens' Union, vice-chairman of the Mayor's Fraternal Committee in 1922, president Justice of the New York Municipal Court 1934-1943.

Black, Eugene Robert


Yale Phi Beta Kappa, officer in the U.S. Navy in the Atlantic during WWI, vice-president Chase National Bank, president Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta 1928-1934, chairman Federal Reserve System 1933-1934, president World Bank 1949-1962, member Council on Foreign Relations, visitor of Bilderberg, trustee Ford Foundation in 1967, chairman Brookings Institution 1962-1968.

Bobst, Elmer Holmes


Re-organizer and head of the The American Cancer Society beginning in 1944. Chairman of Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical, CEO of the New Jersey pharmaceutical giant Warner Chilcott, and considered an architect of the modern pharmaceutical industry. He has also been the president of La Roche, a pharmaceutical company he admitted was involved in illegally selling morphine to the underworld. In the seventies, Pope John Paul II Center for Prayer and Study for Peace was located on his estate. Directors of this center were Kurt Waldheim (Secretary General of the United Nations, ex-nazi war criminal, friend of Arnold Schwarzenegger), Cyrus Vance (Secretary of State, Pilgrim) and J. Peter Grace (Pilgrim, head of the Knights of Malta in the United States). Bobst himself was a member of the Knights of Malta. Bobst once wrote to his close friend Richard Nixon (who started the 'War on Cancer' in 1971), "If this beloved country of ours ever falls apart, the blame rightly should be attributed to the malicious action of Jews." Bobst's granddaughters and great-granddaughters have accused him of sexually abusing them. All this didn't prevent that a huge library would be named after him.

Boron, Robert Lew



Boucher, Richard A.


He entered the Foreign Service in 1977. After studying Chinese, he served from 1979 to 1980 at the U.S. Consulate General in Guangzhou. In Washington he then worked in the State Department's Economic Bureau and on the China Desk, and returned to China with his wife from 1984 to 1986 as Deputy Principal Officer at the U.S. Consulate General in Shanghai. Upon his return to Washington in July 1986, he served as a Senior Watch Officer in the State Department's Operations Center. From August 1987 to March 1989, he worked as Deputy Director of the Office of European Security and Political Affairs. He started as Deputy Press Spokesman for the State Department under Secretary Baker in March 1989 and became Spokesman under Secretary Eagleburger in August 1992. Secretary Christopher asked him to continue as Spokesman until June 1993. United States Ambassador to Cyprus from 1993 to 1996. United States Consul General in Hong Kong 1996-1999. Spoke to the Asia Society on March 24, 1998. US Senior Official for APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, since July 1999. Spoke to the London Pilgrims on November 28, 2002. Has repeatedly condemned Israel's practice of killing terrorists and instead called for negotiations to settle the Palestinian-Israeli dispute. Supported the 2003 war against Iraq because it wasn't cooperating with the sactions. Member of the Bohemian Grove.

Brandi, Frederic H.


Father was a top coal executive in the German Steel Trust. Moved from Germany to the United States in 1926. CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. in the 1950s and 1960s, up until 1971. He was replaced by Nicholas Brady of the Bohemian Grove Mandalay camp at that time. Brandi was also a member of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay.

Brewster, Kingman, Jr.


Graduated from Yale in 1941, where he was chairman of the Yale Daily News. His junior year, he turned down an offer of membership in Skull and Bones. Brewster's first job in 1941 was as a special assistant in the governmental office of Nelson Rockefeller. In 1948, he received his law degree from Harvard Law School. After teaching at Harvard Law School from 1950 to 1960, he accepted the post of Provost at Yale, serving from 1960 to 1963. President of Yale from 1963 to 1977. His presidency was marked by the Black Panther trial and the admission of women as undergraduates. After leaving Yale, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James ( the United Kingdom) from 1977 to 1981 and later was Master of University College, Oxford, serving from 1986 until his death there in 1988. He was a member of the Century Association and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Brownlie, Ian G.M.


He graduated from St. Paul’s School in Garden City, N.Y., and the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey. In 1962, he earned an M.B.A. from NYU’s Business School. Brownlie served in the Marine Corps from 1954–56 and retired from the Marine Corps Reserve as a captain. Professionally, he worked in real estate, specializing in commercial leasing, beginning his career with Brown, Harris & Stevens and was later affiliated with the Joseph F. Bernstein Co. He became a principal with Wm. A. White & Sons, which became Wm. A. White/Tishman East and was subsequently sold to Grubb & Ellis. Brownlie was a member of the Gardiner’s Bay Country Club, Shelter Island Yacht Club, the Union League Club of New York, St. Anthony Hall of New York, Inc., and the Pilgrims of the United States. He was active in politics in the Village of Dering Harbor, Inc., serving in various capacities — trustee, deputy mayor, and mayor (1970–98).

Bryce, Viscount James



In 1886 he was made under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was President of the Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet in 1905 he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he was appointed British ambassador at Washington, D.C. (until 1913) and took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in Dublin, a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Augustine Birrell. Wrote a few books including "The American Commonwealth" (1888). In 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed. Meanwhile his academic honours from home and foreign universities multiplied, and he became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1894. In earlier life he was a notable mountain-climber, ascending Mount Ararat in 1876, and publishing a volume on Transcaucasia and Ararat in 1877; in 1899-1901 he was president of the Alpine Club. He was ennobled in 1914, becoming 1st Viscount Bryce. Following the outbreak of the First World War, Lord Bryce was appointed by Herbert Asquith to report on alleged German atrocities in Belgium. The report was published in 1915, and was damning of German behavior; Lord Bryce's reputation in America was important in influencing American opinion toward Germany before their entry into the war. Bryce was acquainted with the Vanderbilts, and had detailed documents about the 1915 Armenian extermination by the Turks. (Some have argued in the past century that these local tension were exploited by Grand Orient Masons, as to give the French Rothschilds unhampered access to the Baku oil fields.)

Bristol, Lee Hasting


Clergyman, vice-president (in 1932) and president of Bristol-Myers Inc., president of the Association of National Advertisers.

Brittain III, Alfred


Director Bankers Trust Company Director since 1966, chairman of the board of Bankers Trust New York Corporation and Bankers Trust Company 1975-1987, member of the Audit, Compensation and Corporate Employee Investment Committees, trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Brittain, Sir Harry

co-founder & chairman


Educated at Repton and Worcester College, Oxford, where he obtained a BA and an MA in law. Called to the Bar in 1897 but only practiced for a week before retiring from law in favour of business and journalism. Worked on the staff of both the Standard and the Evening Standard. Co-founded the Pilgrims Society in London and New York in 1902 and 1903, and became the first chairman of the UK Pilgrims. Secretary to Sir C. Arthur Pearson, owner of the Evening Standard. Worked with Pearson in the formation of the Tariff Reform League in 1903. The aims of the Commission were to examine and report on Chamberlains's fiscal proposals and their probable effects on British trade and industries. Director of numerous daily and weekly newspapers and other business concerns. Founded the Empire Press Union in 1909, which became the Commonwealth Press Union in 1950. Members of the CPU are newspapers of which there are currently over 700 from 50 Commonwealth countries in membership. These are represented by their proprietors, senior executives and editors. The Union's aim is to uphold the ideas and values of the Commonwealth and to promote, through the Press, understanding and goodwill among its members. British representative on the American Citizens Emergency Committee in 1914, serving on a special mission throughout the USA in 1915. Staff member of General Lloyd as captain of the London Volunteer Regiment, 1916, as Director of Intelligence National Service Department, and as the founder and chairman of the American officers club in London, 1917-1919. Member of the Executive Committee of the Economic League, a very secretive organization which was was set up in 1919 to fight Bolshevism and kept files on thousands of 'subversives' until it was wound up in 1994. In today's money, they millions of pounds every year working against the British left. After the war he was the originator and honourary life member of the Association of American Correspondents in London, 1919 and the president of the Anglo-American delegation to Holland for the celebration of the Pilgrim Fathers tercentenary, 1920. President of the British International Association of Journalists 1920-1922. Patron of the Society of Women Writers and Journalists from 1925, and was the originator and organiser of the first Imperial Press Conference, 1932. He was a member of the Anglo-American Brains Trust, 1942-1944 and was awarded the Silver Medal of Merit and Diploma by the Poor Richard Club of Philadelphia for his lifelong services to Anglo-American fellowship and understanding in 1958. Conservative MP for Acton 1918-1929. Member of the executive of the Empire Parliamentary Association from 1919 to 1929. Steered the Brittain Act for the protection of British birds through Parliament in 1925. Member of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association from 1929. Honorary president of Friends of Italy 1936-1939. Member of the central council of the Anglo-German Friendship Society (mirrored by the Deutsch-Englische Gesellschaft), together with Lord Walter Runciman and Lord McGowan. The driving force behind this foundation, founded in 1935, was Ernest Tennant, a merchant banker and friend of the Nazis international PR man von Ribbentrop since 1932. The group soon gathered 50 members of the House of Commons and House of Lords, 3 Directors of the Bank of England and "many generals, admirals, bishops and bankers". Pilgrims Lord Lothian and Lord Londonderry were among its council member. After the 1938 'Kristallnacht' 19 member resigned, including its president, Lord Mount Temple (Louis Mountbatten's father-in-law). On the other hand, 888 members did not withdraw. In 1939 a book called 'Tory MP': "At meetings of the Anglo German Fellowship leading Nazis advertise the merits of Germany's internal and foreign policy; the society recommends and advertises the writings of Nazi politicians; it shows Fascist films; it arranges a "German educationalist" to address teachers in this country; it arranges invitations for its members to attend the Nazi congress at Nuremberg." In 1936 Harry Brittain, Admiral Domville, Mount Temple and Sir Frank and Lady Newnes were "Ehrengaste" (guests of honour) at the Nuremberg Rally. The day before the official opening a reception was held to enable them to meet Hitler and his chief officials. Brittain was an executive member of the Anti-Socialist Union. Amongst his other honours, he was created KBE for public services in 1918, and CMG in 1924. He was a founder of the Commonwealth Press Union, organized the first Imperial Press Conferences, a Knight of the British Empire, and had a journalistic scholarship named after him in 1960. Carlton Club. Executive of the Anti-Socialist Union; Executive Committee, Economic League; Honorary President of the Friends of Italy; member, Anglo-German Friendship Society; Tory MP.

Brown, Franklin Q.

exec. committee


Listed in Who’s Who as a mystery individual listing no date or place of birth, no marriage, and no educational background. Involved with Redmond & Corporation, director of American Beet Sugar Company, American Light & Traction Company, S.A.L. Railway Company, J.G. White Engineering Corporation, Lima Locomotive Works, M. & Salt Lake Railroad, Cuba Grapefruit Company, Central Westchester & Fairfield Realty Company, Excess Insurance Company, and Insurance Securities Company, National Surety Company, president of Dobbs Ferry Bank, president of Independent Chemical Company, United States Railroad Administration.

Bruce, David Kirpatrick Este


Anglican/Episcopalian. State House of Representatives Maryland 1924-1926. State House of Representatives Virginia 1939-1942. American Red Cross Chief Representative in Great Britain 1940. OSS Agent stationed in London where he worked with the Vatican 1941-1945. U.S. Ambassador France 1949-1952, Germany 1957-59, Great Britain 1961-69 and China 1973-1974. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1976. Husband of Paul Mellon’s sister (richest woman in America at the time). Their daughter disappeared in 1967.

Bruce, James


In law of Paul Mellon and seems to be the brother of David K.E. Bruce, director National Dairy Products Corporation, director Federal Home Loan Bank of New York.

Bullock, Hugh



Son of Calvin Bullock who set up the very powerful Bullock banking trust (unique among large banking houses in that it was a proprietary business), which included the Canadian Investment Fund (one of the most powerful Canadian investment trusts in the thirties. People were joking why king George V hadn't joined), Nation-Wide Securities, Carriers & General Corp. and Dividend Shares. Calvin Bullock advertisements (father) never carry the firm's address and Calvin himself was quite reclusive. Calvin also had a lot of personal interest in Napoleon, Lord Nelson and their battles.

Burden, William A. Moale



Vice president of The Pilgrims at least in 1973, great great grandson of Commodore Vanderbilt, interests in National Aviation Corporation, Brown Brothers, Harriman & Company, William A.M. Burden & Company, investments; and was a director of Aerospace Corporation; Allied Chemical Corporation; American Metal Climax (AMAX); Columbia Broadcasting System; Lockheed Aircraft Corporation; Union Oil & Gas Corporation; Cerro de Pasco Corporation (mining interests) and Manufacturers Hanover Trust. Burden was a member of National Aeronautics & Space Council, 1958-1959; Ambassador to Belgium, 1959-1961; member U.S. Citizens Commission for NATO, 1961-1962; trustee Columbia University; Foreign Service Educational Foundation; French Institute in the U.S.; regent, Smithsonian Institution and director of the Council on Foreign Relations 1945-1974. Member of the Atlantic Council of the United States. Burden was decorated by Brazil; Germany; Peru; France; Italy and Belgium, in which countries, we may reasonably assume, the Vanderbilts have holdings. Reflecting his partnership with the British Crown in reuniting America and Britain, he was also a director of the Atlantic Council, which goal it seeks! The Vanderbilts intermarried with the Whitneys, partners in Standard Oil with the Rockefellers, and we note as of late 1973 John Hay Whitney was a vice president of The Pilgrims. Virginia Fair, daughter of Senator James Fair of California, a principal beneficiary of the Ophir Silver Mine, part of the Comstock Lode, married into the Vanderbilts.

Burger, Warren Earl


Floor manager at the 1948 and 1952 Republican conventions, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in 1955, Supreme Court Chief Justice in 1969, former Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution's Board of Regents, More than 800 dignitaties, including President Clinton, Attorney General Janet Reno and 13 sitting and retired Supreme Court justices attended the funeral services at Washington's National Presbyterian.

Burleigh, George W.


Lived from the second half of the 19th century until the first half of the 20th century in the New York area.

Burnham, Lord Edward Levy-Lawson


Jewish and a member of the B'naï B'rith. His father acquired the Daily Telegraph and Courier in 1855, a few months after it was founded by Colonel Sleigh. Edward Burnham became the co-editor of the newspaper from 1855 to 1873 and later took the paper itself. The Daily Telegraph is now owned by Conrad Black's Hollinger Group.

Burns, Arthur Frank


Born in Stanislau, Austria, earned all his degrees at Columbia University and did all his teaching there, economic adviser to president Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter, chairman of the Federal Reserve System 1970-1978, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Bush, Irving T.


Started to construct a 200 acre industrial park on the waterfront in Brooklyn in 1900, founder of the Bush Terminal Railroad, president of Bush Terminal Co., attended a 1908 Pilgrim meeting. He ordered the building of the London Bush House in 1919, which became the most expensive building at that time. It was meant to be an Anglo-American trade centre where buyers could purchase goods in one place. It lost it's original function after a few decades, but still exists today as an office to the BBC World Service. The main entrance is very grand, with two statues and four big columns reaching half the height of the nine-story building. Inscribed above the doors is the legend "To the friendship of English Speaking Peoples". Two statues symbolise Great Britain and America, they each hold a flaming torch and a shield which have the British lion and the American eagle on them. In between the statues is an altar embossed with a Celtic cross. Irving T. Bush has no known relation to the Presidential Bushes.

Butler, Nicholas Murray



Butler earned an A.B (1882), M.A. (1883) and Ph.D. (1884), all in philosophy, at Columbia, specializing in the writings of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. He studied for a year at the universities of Berlin and Paris. Became a staff member of the Department of Philosophy at Columbia College, later known as Columbia University. In 1882, Nicholas Murray Butler was appointed by Columbia president Henry Barnard to offer Saturday lectures for teachers. The turnout was enormous. Member New Jersey Board of Education from 1887 to 1895. Delegate to the Republican Convention 1888-1936. In 1891 Butler founded the Educational Review, a journal of educational philosophies and developments. He served as its editor until 1921. Organized the New York College for the Training of Teachers in 1892, affiliated with Columbia. Chairman the Paterson school 1892-1893. In these roles he led efforts to remove state political interference from local New Jersey school systems. In New York City, he did the same, spurring the creation of a citywide school board that emphasized professionalism and policy over political spoils (1895–1897). When New York City's consolidation was complete, New York State sought a similar reform with Butler's advice, completed in 1904. Participated in the formation of the College Entrance Examination Board in 1900. Had become a close friend of Pilgrims Society member Elihu Root by this time. President of Columbia University 1901-1945. Professor Carroll Quigley wrote in 'Tragedy and Hope': "J.P. Morgan and his associates were the most significant figures in policy making at Harvard, Columbia and Yale while the Whitneys and Prudential Insurance Company dominated Princeton. The chief officials of these universities were beholden to these financial powers and usually owed their jobs to them... Morgan himself helped make Nicholas Murray Butler president of Columbia." Robert A. McCaughey wrote in 'Stand Columbia: A History of Columbia University in the City of New York, 1754–2004': "A compulsive name-dropper given to self-puffery, Butler was nevertheless an effective administrator [of Columbia], and J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and E. H. Harriman sought to hire him to run their enterprises." Butler held the presidency in some of their railroad companies. President of the Germanistic Society of Columbia University in 1905-1906 and a director from 1908-1917. It organized and sponsored lecture series for German scholars in the United States. Travelled to Europe on occasion where he met with Kaiser Wilhelm and Mussolini in his early fascist days. Quote from the 1973 book 'The Glory and the Dream, a Narrative History of America, 1932-1972', by William Manchester, pages 67-68: "Nicholas Murray Butler told his students that totalitarian regimes brought forth "men of far greater intelligence, far stronger character, and far more courage than the system of elections," and if anyone represented the American establishment then it was Dr. Butler, with his 34 honorary degrees, and his thirty year tenure as president of Columbia University." (quoted by Charles Savoie) Supposedly Butler agreed with some of the Nazi racial theories about the superiority of the Teuton race. Another quote attributed to him is: "The history of American education and of our American contributions to philosophical thought cannot be understood or estimated with[out] knowing of the life work of Dr. William Torrey Harris." Harris, a supporter of Emmanuel Kant and Georg Hegel, shaped modern American education to a large degree. He also was highly influential in popularizing Hegel's philosophies in the second half of the 19th century. Established a friendship with Governor Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century. President University Settlement Society 1905-1914. Became a trustee of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 1905. President American Academy in Rome 1905-1940s. President of the American branch of International Conciliation, an organization founded in 1905 by a Nobel peace laureate, Baron d'Estournelles de Constant (from an "old aristocratic family which traced its genealogy back to the Crusades", whatever that means). Chairman of the Lake Mohonk Conferences on International Arbitration, which met periodically from 1907 to 1912. President American Scandinavian Society 1908-1911. Influential in persuading Andrew Carnegie (a Pilgrims member, Hegelian, and Social Darwinist) to establish the Endowment in 1910 with a gift of $10,000,000 he served as head of the Endowment's section on international education and communication, founded the European branch of the Endowment, with headquarters in Paris, and held the presidency of the parent Endowment from 1925 to 1945. In 1912, Roosevelt ran for the presidency as the candidate of the Progressive Party, which drew most of its strength from Republicans, against the nominees of the constituted party: Taft for the presidency and Butler for the vice-presidency. By splitting the national vote, they permitted the Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, to win the election. President France-America Society 1914-1924. Nicholas Murray Butler, in an address delivered before the Union League of Philadelphia, Nov. 27, 1915: "The peace conference has assembled. It will make the most momentous decisions in history, and upon these decisions will rest the stability of the new world order and the future peace of the world." Both Nicholas Murray Butler and Elihu Root were staunch supporters of the League of Nations that would emerge after WWI. In 1916 Butler failed in his attempt to secure the Republican presidential nomination for Root. President American Hellenic Society 1917-1940s. William Bostock paper (University of Tasmania), 'To the limits of acceptability: political control of higher education' (2002): "On October 8, 1917, the famous historian Charles A. Beard resigned from Columbia University in protest over the dismissal of two colleagues, Professors Cattell and Dana, for having publicly opposed the entry of the United States into World War I. Cattell and Dana urged opposition to the draft, incurring the censure of Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler and the Columbia Board of Trustees. There had also been a history of conflict over academic leadership and governance between Butler and Cattell, a distinguished psychologist." Michael Parenti, 'Against Empire' (1995), chapter 10: "A leading historian, Charles Beard, was grilled by the Columbia University trustees, who were concerned that his views might "inculcate disrespect for American institutions." In disgust Beard resigned from Columbia, declaring that the trustees and Nicholas Murray Butler sought "to drive out or humiliate or terrorize every man who held progressive, liberal, or unconventional views on political matters." Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR director) founded the Institute for International Education in 1919. Failed to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1920. During the 1920s Butler was a member of the General Committee of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, chaired by Thomas W. Lamont, a Rockefeller banker and Pilgrims Society member. John D. Rockefeller, Sr. once wrote a public letter to Butler explaining why he supported the prohibition movement. According to Richard Koudenhove-Kalergi in his 1958 book 'Eine Idee erobert Europa. Meine Lebenserinnerungen' (translated): "One of my most energetic American friends and patrons was the president of the Columbia University, Nicholas Murray Butler, the president of the Carnegie Endowment at the same time. He wrote the foreword to the American edition of Paneuropa." Kalergi's Paneuropa movement was set up and funded by Max Warburg and Louis Rothschild in 1923. Paul and Felix Warburg were promoting the movement in the United States and Rothschild-ally Leopold S. Amery was a major supporter from the United Kingdom. Stephen P. Duggan, the CFR director and co-founder of the Institute for International Education, became the president of the American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union (he held this position from 1925 to 1940). In 1927 Butler assisted the U.S. State Department in developing the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Failed to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1928. President of the Pilgrims Society 1928-1946. Visitor of the Bohemian Grove and an honorary member by 1929. Butler gave the core members of the Frankfurt School’s Institute for Social Research a home in exile at Columbia University in 1934. These people were supporters of Georg Hegel, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, and Max Weber. Among these people was Herbert Marcuse, a Jewish Marxist Hegelian, who became the 'father of the New Left' in the 1960s. President Italy-America Society 1929-1935. Director of the New York Life Insurance Corporation 1929-1939. Nobel Peace Prize 1931. Received a gold medal from the National Institute of Social Sciences at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria in 1932, together with J.P. Morgan. On November 19, 1937, Butler attended a meeting where Pilgrims Society member Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, received a Nobel Prize for his work in establishing the League of Nations. Both Butler and Lord Cecil held speeches about the role the League of Nations should have. Although it is only a rumor, Butler is supposed to have said at this meeting (in private) that communism was a tool of the British financial powers to knock down national governments and to bring about a world government in the future. Chairman Carnegie Corporation of New York 1937-1945. Vice-president International Benjamin Franklin Society in 1939. Governor Pan American Trade Committee in 1939. Governor of the Metropolitan Club, founded by J.P. Morgan in 1891, and which counted among its members two Vanderbilts, three Mellons, five Du Ponts, and six Roosevelts. He was a governor Honorary president American Society of French Legion of Honor from 1944 on. Decorated by China, France, Dominican, Republic, Cuba, Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Belgium, Poland, Italy, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Holland, Chile and other countries. Quigley has quoted Butler as saying "The world is divided in to three classes of people: a very small group that makes things happen, a somewhat larger group that watches things happen, and the great multitude which never knows what happened."


Cadbury, Laurence John


Order of the British Empire, treasurer of the Population Investigation Committee in 1936, governor of the Bank of England 1936-1961, vice president of the Eugenics Society 1951-1952 and a long time fellow, managing director of Cadbury Bros. Ltd., including what is now Cadbury Schweppes, a $6 billion business in beverages, confections and other items. His two sons have taken over the business empire and one of them has also been governor of the Bank of England. His nephew, George Woodall Cadbury, wrote "Population changes and economics" (1941) and "The Case for Voluntary Euthanasia" (1971). There have been more Cadbury's busy in the eugenics/population control movement.

Carlton, Newcomb


President and chairman Western Union (During the 20s and 30s he was involved with laying the first transnational phone lines). In a Senate subcommittee hearing Carlton and others admitted that British (Naval) Intelligence was spying on the company and that this was the most common thing in the world. This practice went back to at least the first half of the 19th century. Carlton also was director International Acceptance Bank, Chase National Bank, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., American Express Co., the American Sugar Refining Co., American Telegraph and Cable Co., American International Corporation (very involved with the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917), World Cable Systems, member Newcomen Society.

Carnegie, Andrew


Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, in 1835. His father, William Carnegie was a master handloom weaver like his father and grandfather before him. Went to school at the age of 8. His family moved to America in 1848 to seek a better life and ended up just north of Pittsburgh. Carnegie went to work as a bobbin boy in a local textile mill owned by a fellow Scot. He made $1.20 a week. Shortly thereafter he got a better paying job in a bobbin factory of yet another expatriate Scot. His job was dipping the bobbins into an oil bath and firing the factory boiler. He also got to work in the Company office on occasion where he decided he needed to learn double-entry bookkeeping. Consequently, in addition to working 12 hour days, he went to night school across the river in Pittsburgh. He got a job at the O'Reilly Telegraph Company as a messenger boy. Carnegie delivered messages to all the important businesses in the city and soon knew a great deal about Pittsburgh's commercial affairs. In 1851 he became a full time telegraph operator. Became a protege for Thomas A. Scott in 1853, who was president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Carnegie had come to Scott's attention because of his reputation as being the best telegraph operator in town and Scott needed a personal telegrapher and secretary. Scott established the first holding company, which was illegal at the time due to the corporate containment laws of the revolution. Scott's influence in politics was huge, thereby breaking another containment law, that of corporate involvement in politics. Scott hired members of the Ku Klux Klan as board members to his companies. He did this in order to stop the attacks by the Klan on the railroad work crews of newly emancipated slaves. To avoid bad publicity as much as possible, Scott was buying up newspapers in the North and South forcing editors to censor his critics. His railroads were also important during the Civil War, turning the tides of different battles. In 1856 Scott persuaded Carnegie to buy some stock and even loaned him the money to do so. Carnegie bought the stock primarily because he admired Scott and regarded him as a father figure. The experience of receiving dividends changed Carnegie's attitude and he became an enthusiastic investor. In 1859 Carnegie was appointed Superintendent of the Pittsburgh Division, the most important and difficult Division of the railroad. Co-founded the successful Columbia Oil Company in 1861, but grew tired of the messy oil business and got out in 1865. Went into the iron business with his partner Thomas Miller in 1861. Carnegie, Miller, and two other partners founded the Cyclops Iron Works in Pittsburgh in 1864. Carnegie quit the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1865 to start up the Keystone Bridge Company, since many bridges were destroyed during the Civil War. In 1868 Carnegie establishes the Keystone Telegraph Company with several associates from the railroad. The company receives permission from the Pennsylvania Railroad to string telegraph wire across the railroad's poles, which stretch across the entire state. This is such a valuable asset that Keystone is able to merge almost immediately with the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company, allowing Keystone's investors to triple their return. Carnegie writes himself a letter in 1868 in which he outlines his plans for the future. He determines to resign from business at age 35 and live on an income of $50,000 per year, devoting the remainder of his money to philanthropic causes, and most of his time to his education. He will change his mind. In 1869 Carnegie met Junius Morgan (J. P. Morgan's father and a George Peabody business partner since 1854; Peabody is said to have been an agent of the Rothschild family) in London. Junius Morgan was one of the leading investment bankers in London and his word "was as good as gold". If Morgan endorsed a bond issue, it would be easily placed. Carnegie made substantial fees (typically 2.5%) selling bonds in Europe. He placed issues for various bridge construction projects and several railroads. In 1870 he built his own blast furnace to guarantee supplies of pig iron that he controlled. In 1872 Carnegie came back from a trip to England convinced that the future was steel. While in England in 1872-1873, on one of his frequent trips to Great Britain, he met Henry Bessemer and saw the Bessemer process of making steel. This convinced him that steel was the future of the railroad industry. He then organized Carnegie, McCandless & Company (with some new partners as some of his earlier iron partners weren't convinced yet) in the United States and built a new steel plant named the Edgar Thompson Steel Works. Unfortunately some of his partners were unable to come up with their shares in the project because of the financial depression of 1873. At the same moment his mentor and friend Thomas Scott wanted Carnegie to bail out his troubled company. Carnegie (wisely) refused, Thomas went bankrupt, and their friendship ended. To keep his enterprise afloat Carnegie took his partner Holley with him to London in the summer of 1874 and the two were, with the aid of Junius Morgan (the Peabody banker and father of J.P. Morgan), able to sell $400,000 worth of bonds to London investors. The Edgar Thomson works were completed in 1875 and the business was an immediate success. In 1877 they already had a 13% share in the steel rail market, which had risen to 29% by 1897. Because Carnegie always had majority control in the partnership, he insisted upon plowing almost all the profits back into improving the works, always upgrading, always in search of the littlest efficiencies. He was always concerned more with building and improving than spending dividends. In October 1883 Carnegie bought the Homestead Works from a group of Pittsburgh investors. In 1886 Carnegie made Charles M. Schwab (at the age of 24; later Pilgrims Society member and known as a "master hustler") general superintendent of the Homestead Works. Married Louise Whitfield of New York in 1887 and they had one child, Margaret. Came up with the idea of Carnegie Hall in 1889 and provided the funds to build it. It was opened in 1891, although construction work continued until 1897. The Carnegie family owned the music hall until 1924 and it is still legendary for its acoustics. In 1892 Frick persuaded Carnegie to merge Carnegie Brothers and Carnegie, Phipps, Company into one vast company, Carnegie Steel. It had an initial capitalization of $25,000,000 which was far below the actual value of the company. Carnegie owned 55%, Frick 11%, Phipps 11%, and nineteen other partners 1% each. In 1895, Andrew Carnegie presented the people of Pittsburgh with the Carnegie Institute. It housed a library, a music hall, an art gallery, and a museum of natural history. It's important to note that Carnegie always (also in the future) funded the building of the actual libraries, but required local governments to legislate commitments to fund ongoing maintenance, staff, and book purchases from public coffers. Carnegie was a generous financial supporter and one of the many vice presidents of the Anti-Imperialist League, which was formed in June 1898 to fight U.S. annexation of the Philippines, citing a variety of reasons ranging from the economic to the legal to the racial to the moral. The league died after the Treaty of Paris was signed in December of that same year. Carnegie consolidated his holdings into Carnegie Steel Co. in 1899 at which moment he controlled 1/4 of American steel production.. In 1900 Carnegie provided $1 million to the Carnegie Technical Schools in Pittsburgh which developed into the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912. Sold Carnegie Steel in 1901 to J.P. Morgan for $480 million and used the money to retire. Morgan renamed the company to U.S. Steel. Carnegie had been a director of American Express, Illinois Central Railroad, United States Trust Company of New York, Western Union Telegraph, City & Suburban Homes, and Cuban-Dominican. Gave the New York Public Library $5.2 million for 65 branch libraries in 2001. Created the Trust for the Universities of Scotland in 1901. The gift of $10 million that endowed the trust was larger by several orders of magnitude than the assistance provided by the government of the day to the four ancient Scottish Universities. Established the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1902, an organization for scientific discovery. His intention was for the institution to be home to exceptional individuals - men and women with imagination and extraordinary dedication capable of working at the cutting edge of their fields. The first president of the institution was Daniel Coit Gilman (incorporated Skull & Bones into the Russell Trust). The Carnegie Teachers' Pension Fund was established in 1905 and Carnegie endowed the fund with $10 million. It was incorporated in the following year as the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and did a lot to improve the level of education in the US. Member of the Philippine Independence Committee in 1904 and a vice president of the Filipino Progress Association 1905-1907. Established the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission in the US in 1904 to help people that had been struck by some kind of disaster. It was established in Britain in 1908 and was soon followed by nine Funds on the European continent: France, Germany (doesn't exist anymore), Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. Funded the first 'Temple of Peace', known as the Bureau of American Republics in Nicaragua, which was ready in 1908. Funded the second 'Temple of Peace', known as the Central American Court of Justice, which was ready in 1910. Contributed to the building of the 'House of the Americas' in Washington D.C. in 1910, which became the headquarters of the Pan American Union. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was set up in 1910 at the initial direction of Pilgrims Society member Nicholas Murray Butler (of the Pilgrims). The first president of the Carnegie Endowment was Elihu Root (1910-1925; Pilgrims), who became a primary founder of the Council on Foreign Relations in later years. The Carnegie Endowment publishes Foreign Policy magazine since 1970, which was established by Samuel P. Huntington (who wrote ‘The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World'). The Endowment conducts programs of research, discussion, publication, and education on international affairs and US foreign policy. Today it is funded by the Rockefeller, Luce, and Ford Foundations, AIG, Boeing, Citigroup, and other corporations. Andrew created the Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1911, which is the grant-making organization. Funded the third 'Temple of Peace', known as the Palace of Peace at the Hague, which was ready in 1913 and is owned by the Carnegie Foundation. The Dutch Royals were present at the inauguration. Created the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust in 1913. It was involved in the restoration of some 3,500 church organs throughout the British Isles and the creation of the more than 2800 Carnegie libraries in the United States, Canada, the British Isles, and many countries of the British Commonwealth. 660 of these libraries were located in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The Church Peace Union (today known as the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs) was established at a meeting at the home of Andrew Carnegie in 1914 with an endowment of over $2 million. When WWI broke out in 1914, Carnegie left Scotland. The Carnegie Endowment established the American Council of Learned Societies in 1919. Elihu Root prepared the final will of Carnegie on March 31, 1919. When he died that same year, Carnegie had given away over $350 million. He was known as a Social Darwinist (supporting the work of Darwin and Herbert Spencer) and a follower of William Torrey Harris, the highly influential American educator who popularized the theories of Georg Hegel and Emmanuel Kant.

Today the Carnegie Endowment is one of the driving forces of the globalization process and funds numerous United Nations programs. The Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsors the CFR on a continuous basis with grants ranging from $25,000 to $900,000 annually and the Atlantic Council of the United States with $25,000 to $100,000 annually. It donated $200,000 to the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 2003. The American Red Cross receives several hundred thousand dollars a year. The Staten Island Zoological Society and the Museum of Jewish Heritage (the ‘Living Memorial to the Holocaust') each receive $100,000 a year. Some other organizations that receive large amounts of grants are the Institute of Semitic Studies, the Center for Jewish History, the American Assembly, the American Museum Of Natural History (Charles Darwin), the American Foreign Policy Council, and the Moscow School of Political Studies. The Carnegie Corporation makes (globalist) research grants to almost, if not all the major universities in the United States and southern Africa. These grants add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars annually to even several million a year to some of the larger universities. The universities in the United States that receive these grants are: America, Arizona, Bradford, Boston, Brigham Young, California, Carnegie Mellon, Catholic, Chicago, Cincinnati, Claremont, Colorado, Columbia, Connecticut, DePau, Dillard, Duke, Emory, Fort Hare, Georgia, Georgetown, George Washington, Harvard, Illinois, Indiana, Johns Hopkins, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Northwestern, Notre Dame, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Princeton, Queens, Rutgers, Stanford, Syracuse, Temple, Tennessee, Texas, Tufts, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Yale. The universities in southern Africa that receive Carnegie grants are: Cape Town, KwaZulu-Natal, Pretoria, Witwatersrand, Western Cape, Makerere, Dar es Salaam, Ghana, Obafemi Awolowo, Jos, Ahmadu Bello, Stellenbosch, Rand Afrikaans, Rhodes, and Makerere. Many of these South African universities receive $2 million a year. Other universities that receive Carnegie research grants are the University of the Pacific, the Central European University (chaired by George Soros), the American University of Beirut, and the Australian National University. The Carnegie Corporation also funds several umbrella organizations in the international education system. Among them are the American Association of University Professors, the American Forum for Global Education, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, and the Association of African Universities. The Carnegie Corporation works closely with the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and others.

Carrington, Lord Peter Rupert



Carrington was educated at Eton and RMA Sandhurst. In 1938 he succeeded his father as 6th Baron Carrington and took his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday in 1940. In WWII he served as a major in the Grenadier Guards and was awarded the Military Cross. Went into politics and joined the Conservatives. Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry for Agriculture and Food 1951-1954. Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Defence 1954-1956. High Commissioner to Australia 1956-1959. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1959. First Lord of the Admiralty 1959-1963. Minister without Portfolio and Leader of the House of Lords 1963-1964. Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords 1964-1970. Defence Secretary 1970-1974. Chairman of the Conservative Party 1972-1974. Secretary of State for Energy from January to March 1974. Stepped temporarily out of politics in 1974. Has been a director of Rio Tinto, Barclays Bank, Cadbury Schweppes, Hollinger International, Amalgamated Metal, British Metal, and Hambros Bank. Attended the Trilateral Commission in the 1970s. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Royal Institute for International Affairs. One of the few who was in the loop of Brian Crozier's (Le Cercle) Shield Committee that succeeded in getting Margaret Thatcher elected in 1979. British Foreign Secretary for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 1979-1982. Resigned over the Falkland crisis although he expressed his opinion that much of the criticism was unjustified. President of the Pilgrims of Great Britain since 1983. Joined Kissinger Associates in the 1983-1984 period. Secretary General of NATO 1984-1988. Member of the Order of the Garter since 1985. Identified as a governor of the Atlantic Institute for International Affairs in 1987. Chairman of Bilderberg 1989-1998. Governor of the Ditchley Foundations.

Cates, Louis S.


Chairman American Mining Congress, chairman Phelps-Dodge Corporation (the world's number two leading producer of copper and molybdenum and is the world's largest producer of continuous-cast copper rod) 1930-1947. The Phelps-Dodge company was a main financier of the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. The vice president of Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Cleveland Dodge, was one of the Crusaders' National Advisors, who were working together with The American Libert League to turn public opinion pro-fascist. They worked together with the du Ponts, Morgans, Harrimans and many other wealthy influential families, many of them Pilgrims.

Cates, John Martin, Jr.


Member of the executive committee of the Wolf’s Head Society of Yale, worked at the United States Mission to the United Nations and worked close with McGeorge Bundy and George Wildman Ball, president Center For Inter-American Relations in New York, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Catlin, George Edward Gordon


Educated at St Paul's School, New College, Oxford, and Cornell University, where he was professor of politics 1924-1959. He was lecturer at various universities, including Yale, Calcutta, Columbia, Peking and Berkeley. An Assistant Professor of Politics at Cornell by the age of 28 and subsequently twice acting chairman. In 1925 Catlin wrote the first of many articles advocating the closest Anglo-American cooperation on every level, in fact organic union. In 1926 he was appointed Director of the National Commission (Social Research Council) to study the impact of prohibition in the United States. Between 1928 and 1931 Catlin was attached to the personal staff of Sir Oswald Mosley, a period before Mosley had made his final break with the Labour Party. From 1929 onwards Catlin attempted to win a suitable Labour Party nomination and he unsuccessfully stood for Brentford in 1931 and for Sunderland in 1935. In 1929 he assisted H.G. Wells, Arnold Bennett and other literati in establishing The Realist magazine and between 1935 and 1937 he served on the executive of the Fabian Society. During the 1930s Catlin traveled abroad extensively, journeying to Germany where he witnessed the Dimitrov trial, with its sinister foreshadowing of what Nazism was to become, to Russia for a prolonged examination of the newly established Communist regime and to Spain during the depths of the Civil War. Throughout this period Catlin wrote a large number of journalistic pieces, principally for the Yorkshire Post. He served on the campaign team of Presidential candidate Wendell Wilkie during 1940 and his book, One Anglo-American Nation appeared in 1941. In 1931 Catlin met Gandhi for the first time in London and he became an early advocate of Indian independence, visiting the sub-continent in 1946 and again in 1947 and publishing his tribute to the assassinated leader, In the Path of Mahatma Gandhi, during 1948. He lectured in Peking in 1947, served as Provost of Mar Ivanios College in Indiana in 1953-54 and a Chairman and Bronfman Professor in the Department of Economics and Political Science at McGill University between 1956 and 1960. His autobiography, on which he had worked sporadically since the end of the First World War, was finally published in 1972 as For God's Sake, Go.

Catto, Henry Edward, Jr.


Graduate of Williams College, deputy representative to the Organization of American States 1969-1971, U.S. ambassador to El Salvador 1971-1973, chief of protocol of the White House and Department of State 1974-1976, U.S. representative to the United Nations Offices in Geneva 1976-1977, assistant secretary of Defense for Public Affairs and Pentagon spokesman 1981-1983, vice chairman and president of Broadcast Group at H & C Communications 1983-1989 (operator of network television stations Houston, Orlando-Daytona Beach, San Antonio), U.S. ambassador to Great Britain 1989-1991, director of the United States Information Agency 1991-1993, partner in the insurance firm Catto & Catto, diplomat-in-residence at the University of Texas at San Antonio, member of the Smithsonian National Board, vice-chairman of the Aspen Institute, member of the Council on Foreign Relations, chairman of the Atlantic Council of the United States since 1999.

Calhoun, John Calwell


Was with the Confederate Army at the Battle of Fort Sumter. His wife, Linnie Adams, was grandniece of Richard M. Johnson, vice president of the U.S., 1837-1941. After the war he had agricultural interests in Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas and was part of the management of the Cotton Exposition in 1884 at New Orleans. He was special ambassador to France in 1897, sent by the S.A.R.---Sons of the American Revolution (France assisted the Colonies in becoming free from the British). Calling himself a "financier" (perhaps the Erlangers put him in business) in the 1897-1942 volume, he was president of the Baltimore Coal Mining & Railroad Company and “Albertite Oilite & Cannel Coal Co. Ltd."

Caulcutt, Sir John

born 1876

Director of large companies. No other info.

Cave, Viscount George



Having served as standing Counsel to Oxford University for two years as well as Attorney General to the Prince of Wales, in 1915 Cave was appointed Solicitor General and knighted. The following year, he was made Home Secretary in Lloyd George's coalition government, a post he held for three years. In 1918, Sir George Cave was ennobled as Viscount Cave, of Richmond in the County of Surrey. The following year, he became a Lord of Appeal, and chaired a number of commissions, including the Southern Rhodesian commission and the Munitions Enquiry Tribunal. In 1922, he became Lord Chancellor in Bonar Law's government, and again served in this capacity in Baldwin's first administration. Having been made GCMG in 1921, he was also elected Chancellor of Oxford University in 1925.

Cecil, Lord Robert Gascoyne


Member of the very powerful Cecil family that has produced numerous members of the Order of Garter and the Privy Council, starting with Sir William Cecil in the 1500s. They intermarried with elite blue blood families as de Vere, Arundel, Plantagenet, and Cavendish. William Cecil and his protégé Sir Francis Walsingham devised an intricate spy network during the latter years of Elizabeth I's reign that succeeded in uncovering numerous Catholic plots against the monarch. Sir William Cecil's daughter, Anne, married Edward de Vere, the 17 th Earl of Oxford and a member of what was quite possibly the bluest of blue blood families in existence. De Vere had worked for William Cecil and the throne since a young age and was later rumored to have written the works of Shakespeare. Lady Diana Cecil married the 18th Earl of Oxford.

Third son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who was a member of the Order of the Garter and the Privy Council. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury was the Chancellor of Oxford University from 1869 to 1903, a fellow of All Souls, and a British prime minister for 14 years. Carrol Quigley described the Rhodes secret society and the Round Table Group (All Souls, Oxford) as the 'Cecil Bloc'. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury and his family were really the prime movers behind this network. Robert grew to like Benjamin Disraeli, who he had previously distrusted as a Jew. Disraeli eventually became a housefriend to the family and was invested into the Order of the Garter. Baron Lionel de Rothschild was another close friend of Disraeli. One of Cecil's sisters was the mother of Arthur J. Balfour (An occultist who wrote a letter to Lionel de Rothschild in November 1917 declaring that the British government stood behind zionist plans to build a Jewish national home in Palestine) and Gerald W. Balfour. Even today, the Hatfield House is the Hertfordshire home of the family, built between 1609 and 1611 by the1st Earl of Salisbury; a Privy Councillor and Knight of the Garter who was the Chief Minister to James I.

Robert Cecil, the third son of 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, was educated at home until 1877, which he considered superior to his later college education. Went to Eton College and Oxford where he studied law and turned out to excel at debate. Admitted to the Bar in 1887. Married Lady Eleanor Lambton in 1889. Law career from 1887 to 1906. Member of the Coefficients diner-debate Club which organized monthly meetings between 1902 and 1908. Other members were H.G. Wells, Arthur Balfour (a cousin of Cecil), Alfred Milner, Halford Mackinder, Earl Bertrand Russell (often with a different, but not more humane opinion than the others), Viscount Edward Grey, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, and Leopold Amery (Rothschild associate). Member of the Conservative Party to the House of Commons 1906-1910. Set up the RT Group in 1910 with Lionel Curtis and others. Independent Conservative member House of Commons 1911-1923. Worked for the Red Cross 1914-1915. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1915. Assistant Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1915-1916. Minister of Blockade from 1916 to 1918, being responsible for devising procedures to bring economic and commercial pressure against the enemy. Assistant Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1918-1919. Chancellor of Birmingham University 1918-1944. Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council of the Versailles Peace Treaty in 1919 and one of the principal draftsmen of the League of Nations Covenant. Co-founder and first chairman of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920. Became the first 1th Viscount of Chelwood in 1923. Lord Privy Seal 1923-1924. President of the British League of Nations Union 1923-1945. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1924-1927. In 1985 John Coleman named Robert Cecil as the brainchild behind the Unity of Science Conferences that ran from 1929 to 1941. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937 for his work in establishing the League of Nations. During this meeting he and co-Pilgrims Society member Nicholas Murray Butler spoke in favor of expanding the role of the League of Nations. Present at the final meeting of the League of Nations in 1946 and ended his speech with the words: "The League is dead, long live the United Nations." Cecil's autobiography, 'All the Way', was published in 1949. Member Pilgrims Society. Today, his great great nephew, 7th Marquess of Salisbury, is a member of Le Cercle and the Privy Council.

Chadbourne, William Merriam

born 1879

New York lawyer, vice president of the China Society of America.

Chaffee, Adna Romanza


A General in the United States Army. Chaffee took part in the Indian Wars, played a key role in the Spanish-American War, and was instrumental at crushing the Boxer Rebellion in China. He also fought in the Philippine-American War in 1901 and 1902. Chaffee was the Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1904 to 1906, overseeing far-reaching transformation of organization and doctrine in the Army.

Chamberlain, Arthur Neville


he first half of his career was spent in business and, after 1911, in the city government of Birmingham, of which he became lord mayor in 1915. In 1917 he was director of national service, supervising conscription, and the following year, at the age of 50, he was elected to Parliament as a Conservative. During the 1920s he served both as chancellor of the exchequer (1923–24) and minister of health (1923, 1924–29). In the latter position, he enacted a series of important reforms that simplified the administration of Britain's social services and systematized local government. In 1931 he again became chancellor of the exchequer and held that office until he succeeded Stanley Baldwin as prime minister in 1937. During the 1930s, Chamberlain's professed commitment to avoiding war with Hitler resulted in his controversial policy of “appeasement,” which culminated in the Munich Pact (1938). Although contemporaries and scholars during and after the war criticized Chamberlain for believing that Hitler could be appeased, recent research argues that Chamberlain was not so naive and that appeasement was a shrewd policy developed to buy time for an ill-prepared Britain to rearm. After Germany's invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939, he pledged military support to Poland and led Britain to war in September. After the British debacle in Norway, he was forced to resign in May, 1940. He was lord president of the council under Winston Churchill until Oct., 1940, and died a few weeks later.

Charles, Michael Harrison

He was educated at Jacksonville Episcopal High School, the University of Florida, Florida State University and New York University. Mr. Charles is a well-known interior designer having worked for several major architectural firms before founding Michael H. Charles Associates in 1985. Member of the Advisory Council of the Hereditary Society Community of the United States of America (researches history and genealogy). His designs have been published in numerous magazines and books over the years and he was the recipient of the prestigious Wool Bureau Award for fabric design. Michael H.Charles Associates maintains offices in New York City and St. Augustine, Florida. Mr. Charles is a member of the Pilgrims of the United States, New York, as well as The Honourable Company of Freemen of London.. He is also a member of St. Thomas Church of Fifth Avenue wherehe serves as Head Usher, and on the Choir School Benefit Committee, as Acquisitions Chairman, and on the Stewardship Committee. He is a life member of the Society of Mary; Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament; Guild of All Souls; Society of St. King Charles the Martyr; and the Church Club of New York where he also serves as a member of Events Committee. Mr. Charles is Worshipful Master of the Masonic Independent Royal Arch Lodge #2 F&AM, of New York City. He has served as Junior Warden and Master of Ceremonies. Mr. Charles is also a member of Long I Grotto; Scottish Rite, Valley of New York, 32 degree; Ancient Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, New York City; Columbian Council, Cryptic Masons, New York City; Morton Commandery, Knights Templar, New York City; Paumonock Council, Knight Masons, New York City; Quartro Coranotti Lodge, London, England. He is a member of the Ponte Vedra Club of Jacksonville, FL; the Royal Scottish Automobile Club of Glasgow, Scotland; and the Lansdowne Club of London of London, England. Society of the Cincinnati in the State of Virginia (life member); General Society of Colonial Wars (Secretary and life member of the New York Society; regular member of the Florida Society Society; Gentleman of the Council in New York and Florida Societies); Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York (life member; Member of the Council); Colonial Order of the Acorn (life member); Order of the Indian Wars of the United States (life member); General Society Sons of the Revolution (member in the States of New York and Pennsylvania; life member of NY Society; Fraunces Tavern Museum Board Member); Saint Andrews Society of New York (life member) Saint David Society of New York (life member); Saint George's Society of New York (life member; Board member; Chairman Activities; Chairman - Queen's Jubilee 2002; Ball Committee); Society of the Sons of Saint George of Philadelphia (life member); Military Society of the War of 1812 (life member); Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York (life member); The Huguenot Society of America (life member; Registrar General; Member of the Membership Committee); Colonial Society of Pennsylvania Military Order of the Stars and Bars (life member; Commander of the New York Society); Order of the Southern Cross (life member); Dutch Settlers Society of Albany (life member); Huguenot Society of Pennsylvania (life member); National Society Sons of the American Colonists (life member; former Vice President General); Society of the Descendants of the ColonialClergy (life member); Hereditary Order of the Descendants of Colonial Governors (life member; Third Vice President General); Order of Americans of Armorial Ancestry (life member); Flagon and Trencher (life member); Descendants of the Founders of New Jersey (life member); National Society Descendants of Early Quakers (life member); Friendly Sons of St. Patrick of Philadelphia (life member); Order of Descendants of Colonial Physicians & Chirurgiens (life member); Sons and Daughters of the Colonial & Antebellum Bench and Bar 1585-1861 (life member); National Society Sons of the American Revolution (Florida State, Past Regional Vice President; Organizing President, St. Augustine Chapter; First Continental Chapter, New York City, Member of the Council); General Society of the War of 1812 (former Florida State President); National Society Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims (Florida and New York; Councilor - New York Branch); Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (Officer); Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem (Prior of St. Michael & St. George New York City Priory; Silver Pilgrim Shell); Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Cavalieri)

Choate, Joseph H.


A Rockefeller attorney, present as a chairman at an 1882 meeting where they unanimously denounced the Jewish persecution in Russia (an Anson Phelps-Stokes was also a chairman. His son was a S&B member in 1896, just as many other Phelps), president of the 1892 Constitutional Convention working close with later Pilgrim Elihu Root, successfully challenged the Income Tax Act of 1894 (saw it was Communist), ambassador to Britain 1899-1905, U.S. delegate to the International Peace Conference at The Hague in 1907, attended a 1908 Pilgrim meeting.

Christopher, Warren M.


Studied law at Stanford, deputy attorney general under President Lyndon Johnson, deputy secretary of state under President Jimmy Carter (he was the chief American negotiator in the 1981 talks that ended the Iranian hostage crisis), director Council on Foreign Relations 1982-1987, vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1987-1991, Stanford University trustee, Secretary of State 1993-1997 (particularly involved in seeking Arab-Israeli peace agreements and in negotiating a peace in Bosnia), chairman of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, director of Chevron-Texaco, Lockheed, Southern California Edison and First Interstate Bancorporation. Anno 2005, Chairman of the Carnegie Corporation in New York.

Chrysler, Walter Percy


Founder of the Chrysler Corporation (now part of DaimlerChrysler A.G.). He began as a machinist’s apprentice and rose within the industry to become vice president in charge of operations at General Motors in 1919. In 1920 he undertook the reorganization of the Willys Overland and Maxwell companies. In 1924 he brought out the first Chrysler car and within a short time he made the company one of the largest automobile manufacturers.

Church, Elihu

hon. secretary


Multimillionaire, rose to a major during WWI, engineer of Transportation of the Port Authority of New York.

Churchill, Sir Winston


The son of Lord Randolph Churchill, who was (very) close to Nathaniel de Rothschild, and an American mother. He was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. After a brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member of Parliament in 1900. He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915. In May, 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and remained in office until 1945. He took over the premiership again in the Conservative victory of 1951 and resigned in 1955. However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election. Queen Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter in 1953. Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963. Chancellor of the University of Bristol 1929-1965. Churchill was an ordained Druid and very interested in spiritualism.

Clarke, Sir Caspar Purdon


Architect, archaeologist and museum director, had been on purchasing expeditions on behalf of the Victoria and Albert Museum to Turkey, Syria, Greece, Spain, Italy and Germany. He spent two years as a special commissioner in India, which is when he acquired the Hamzanama (painting of an uncle of the prophet Muhammed).

Clarkson, Robert


Royal Globe Insurance Group in the first part of the 20th century. All the information available.

Clews, James B.


Stayed at the Waldorf-Astoria. All the information available.

Clover, Richardson


In 1897-1898 he was chief of the Office of Naval Intelligence; member of the Board on Construction of Vessels, 1897-1899; member War and Strategy board, 1898; commanded U.S.S. Bancroft, May 1, 1898, until end of Spanish-American War; served as Naval Attaché in London, 1900-1903; commanded as Rear Admiral, the U.S.S. Wisconsin, Asiatic region, 1904-1905; and served as president of the Board of Inspection, 1906-1908.

Coleman, Charles P.

born 1865

Lehigh Valley Railroad (Vanderbilt and Rockefeller ownership), director American-Russian Chamber of Commerce from its founding in 1922. Father of Leighton H. Coleman.

Coleman, Leighton Hammond


Emeritus director of RJ. Reynolds Industries. Son of Charles P. Coleman.

Coleshill, Lord Vincent of


Richard (Dick) Vincent was born in London in 1931 and educated at Aldenham and The Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham. His command appointments have included a battery in the Commonwealth Brigade in Malaysia, Regimental Command in Germany and the United Kingdom (with an operational tour in Northern Ireland), Command of an Infantry Brigade and, as a Major General, Commandant of the Royal Military College of Science. Starting in 1983, Lord Vincent served for four years on the Army Board as the member responsible for the acquisition of new land weapon systems and equipment and he took up his first Chief of Staff appointment as Vice Chief of the Defence Staff in 1987. In this latter appointment he was directly involved in initiating high level military contacts with the former Soviet Union, where he travelled widely in response to the Gorbachev reforms. Lord Vincent was promoted Field Marshal and appointed Chief of Defence Staff in April 1991. He was then elected to the NATO appointment of Chairman of the Military Committee from 1993 to 1996 at a time when The Alliance forged closer relationships with the nations of central and eastern Europe and became increasingly involved with operations in former Yugoslavia, ultimately launching the NATO led IFOR operation in 1995. In addition to his military qualifications, he holds a DSc (Hons) from Cranfield University, is a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Royal Aeronautical Society, Imperial College London and The City and Guilds of London Institute. He is a Freeman of the City of London, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Wheelwrights, an Aldenham School Governor and a Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. He is a member of the Jordanian Order of Merit and the United States Legion of Merit in the rank of Commander. Since finishing his full-time military career in 1996, he has been created a life peer and held the appointment of Master Gunner, St James's Park until 2001. He is also Chairman of the Council of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Chairman of Insys Limited (formerly Hunting Defence Limited), and a Director of Vickers Defence Systems. He became President of The Defence Manufacturers Association in 2000 (Vice-President 1996) and President of the Council of University Military Education Committees in 1999. In 1998 he became Chancellor of Cranfield University and is President of the Cranfield Trust and Patron of the INSPIRE Charity Foundation. He is a Member of The Pilgrims. Has received the Order of the British Empire and is a Knight Commander of the British Empire. Today he is a Chancellor of Cranfield University.

Collier, Barron Gift


One of the founders of INTERPOL and largest landowner in Florida, for whom is named Collier County. Collier senior was chairman of Police Magazine; special police commissioner for New York, 1922-1928; treasurer, American Electric Railway Association, director, Empire Trust Company; Baltimore Commercial Bank; Bank of the Everglades; Florida Trust & Banking Company; Waldorf Astoria Incorporated; First National Bank of Arcadia, Florida; Inter-County Telephone & Telegraph Company; Manhattan Mercantile Corporation; Florida Railroad & Navigation Corporation; Florida Gulf Coast Hotels; Street Railways Advertising Company; and others. Collier was a governor of the George Washington/Sulgrave Institution and chaired the executive committee of James Monroe Memorial Association and Foundation.

Collins, Richard Henn


One of the leading judges at turn of the century. Justice of the Court of Appeals, Supreme Court of the Judicature, and member of the Privy Council. Master of the Rolls from 1901 to 1907.

Collins, Robert Moore

born 1867

A reporter for several important newspapers and worked as an editor in the Washington and New York offices of the Associated Press. He did chiefly political work for the Associated Press. He was the chief newsman for Reuters and the Associated Press for many stories coming out of the Orient.

Connelly, Joan Breton

A.B. in 1976 (Classics) from Princeton University. M.A. in 1979 of Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. in 1984 (Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology). Affiliations: Society for the Preservation of the Greek Heritage, Trustee; Society of Anitquaries of London; Royal Geographical Society, Explorers Club; Society of Women Geographers; Archaeological Institute of America; Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute (former trustee); Oxford Philological Society; Pilgrims of the United States. Fellowships/Honors: Honorary Citizenship, Peyia Municipality, Republic of Cyprus; Lillian Vernon Chair for Teaching Excellence, New York University; Appointed to the United States Cultural Property Advisory Committee by President George W. Bush, (February 2003); John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship; Visiting Fellowships All Souls College, Magdalen College and New College, Oxford; Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Fellowship; New York University Presidential (Mellon) Fellowship; New York University Golden Dozen Teaching Award; Metropolitan Museum of Art Classical Fellowship and Norbert Schimmel Fellowship.

Corbin, Henry Clark


Was a Northern Civil War combatant as a brigadier General of volunteers. He was detailed for duty in March 1877 at the Executive Mansion (White House) and was secretary of the Sitting Bull Commission. According to page 260 of the 1897-1942 Who Was Who, Corbin was "with President Garfield at the time he was shot and at his bedside at Elberon, where he died. In recognition of his services, and the part he took in war with Spain, Congress conferred upon him the rank of major General commanding the Atlantic Division, 1904."

Cornwallis, Lord


Knight of the British empire, directly descended from the original Lord Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805), who invaded America at the direction of the British Crown and fought many battles, some directly against George Washington. (Although he seemed to have opposed the heavy taxes England imposed on the Colonies) The most recent (3rd) Baron Cornwallis is Fiennes Neil Wykeham Cornwallis, born in 1921. The name on the Pilgrim probably referred to the second Baron Cornwallis.

Coudert, Frederic René


His father fled France during the revolution to escape the guillotine. Coudert and his brothers founded Coudert Brothers LLP in 1853 in NY. It would become a powerful law firm, which would still exist anno 2005. Coudert became a leading figure in New York’s legal, social and diplomatic circles. It is believed that he twice turned down appointments to the Supreme Court of the United States. He is also credited with helping to bring the Statue of Liberty to New York Harbor, raising funds and intervening to smooth over diplomatic entanglements. Today the firm has 27 offices in 18 countries.

Coudert, Frederic René, Jr.


Attended Browning and Morristown Schools in New York City; was graduated from Columbia University in 1918 and from its law school in 1922; served as a first lieutenant in the One Hundred and Fifth United States Infantry, Twenty-seventh Division, with overseas service, in 1917 and 1918; was admitted to the bar in 1923 and commenced practice in New York City; assistant United States attorney for the southern district of New York in 1924 and 1925; unsuccessful Republican candidate for district attorney of New York County in 1929; delegate to the Republican State conventions from 1930 to 1948; delegate to the Republican National Conventions 1936-1948; member of the State senate 1939-1946; elected as a Republican to the Eightieth and to the five succeeding Congresses (1947-1959); was not a candidate for renomination in 1958 to the Eighty-sixth Congress; engaged in the practice of law in New York City; member of State Commission on Governmental Operations of the city of New York 1959-1961; retired from the practice of law due to ill health and resided in New York City, where he died May 21, 1972.

Coudert, Alexis Carrel


Kid brother of Frederic Coudert Jr. Law clerk at the U.S. Supreme Court 1938-1939. Law professor at Columbia University. Director of French-American Banking Corporation, Peugeot Motors, Pellon Corporation, Unity Fire & General Insurance, and Planned Parenthood of Manhattan. 25 year managing partner of the Coudert Brothers.

Crankshaw, Sir Eric Norman Spencer


Army Lieutenant-Colonel, secretary of the Government Hospitality Fund, Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. Heavily involved with British empire building surrounding WWII. He met with many Pilgrims and organized some dinner parties.

Cromwell, William Nelson


Prominent lawyer in New York, accountant with the New York law firm of Algernon S. Sullivan, partner in Sullivan and Cromwell 1879, established the William Nelson Cromwell Foundation. Could be one of the direct descendant of Oliver Cromwell, who is said to have been sponsored by the money changers in western Europe to take the throne of England in 1649.

Crossley, Sir Julian

hon. treasurer


Long-time chairman of the Barclay’s Bank.

Crowe, William J., Jr.


At the beginning of the Great Depression, Crowe's father moved the family to Oklahoma City. Crowe's Naval career began at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, from which he graduated in 1947. From 1954 to 1955 he served as Assistant to the Naval Aide of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. From 1956 to 1958 Crowe served as Executive Officer of the submarine USS Wahoo. In 1958 he served as an aide to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations. In 1960 Crowe took command of USS Trout, homeported in Charleston, South Carolina, and served as Commanding Officer of that boat until 1962. From there, Crowe earned a Master's Degree and Ph.D. from Princeton University, returning to service in 1966 to take command of Submarine Division 31, homeported in San Diego, California. Appointed Senior Adviser to the Vietnamese Navy Riverine Force in 1970. Promoted to Rear Admiral and made Deputy Director, Strategic Plans, Policy, Nuclear Systems and NSC Affairs Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations in 1973. Director, East Asia and Pacific Region, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense 1975-1976. Commander Middle East Force 1976-1977. Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans and Policy 1977-1980. Commander in Chief, Allied Forces, Southern Europe 1980-1983. Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command 1983-1985. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1985-1989. Chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board 1993-1994. Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1994-1997. Chairman of two Accountability Review Boards charged with investigating the bombings of the embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam 1998-1999. He has sat on the Boards of Texaco, Merrill Lynch, Pfizer, Norfolk Southern Corporation, General Dynamics, and GlobalOptions, Inc. At present, Crowe serves as the Chairman of the Board of Visitors for the International Programs Center of Oklahoma University. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations' Task Force on Emergency Responders. Received the Medal of Freedom.

Cullman, Hugh


Unconfirmed Pilgrim, but his cousin is. Hugh has been vice chairman of Philip Morris Company, director of United Virginia Bancshares, president Richmond Corp., the Foreign Policy Association, and the International Chamber of Commerce.

Cullman, Joseph F. III


Trustee Bank of England 1958-1970, president and CEO Philip Morris Company (sixties), director Ford Motor Company, IBM, Bankers Trust Company and others. Cullman is well-known for stating categorically "I do not believe that cigarettes are hazardous to one's health", which he said in a 1971 interview after the TV tobacco advertising ban was begun. He is a member of the Peace Parks foundation.

Curzon, Lord George


A brilliant student, at Eton College he won a record number of academic prizes before entering Oxford University in 1878. He was elected president of the Oxford Union in 1880 and although he failed to achieve a first he was made a fellow of All Souls College in 1883. A member of the Conservative Party, Curzon was elected MP for Southport in 1886. It was a safe Tory seat and Curzon neglected his parliamentary duties to travel the world. This material provided the material for Russia in Central Asia (1889), Persia and the Persian Question (1892) and Problems of the Far East (1894). In November, 1891, Marquis of Salisbury appointed Curzon as his secretary of state for India. Curzon lost office when Earl of Rosebery formed a Liberal Government in 1894. After the 1895 General Election, the Conservative Party regained power and Curzon was rewarded with the post of under secretary for foreign affairs. Three years later the Marquis of Salisbury granted him the title, Baron Curzon of Kedleston, and appointed him Viceroy of India. Curzon introduced a series of reforms that upset his civil servants. He also clashed with Lord Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master), who became commander-in-chief of the Indian Army, in 1902. Arthur Balfour, the new leader of the Conservative Party, began to have doubts about Curzon and in 1905 he was forced out of office. Curzon returned to England where he led the campaign against women's suffrage in the House of Lords. In 1908 he helped establish the Anti-Suffrage League and eventually became its president. In 1916 the new prime minister, David Lloyd George, invited Curzon into his War Cabinet. Curzon served as leader of the House of Lords but refused to support the government's decision to introduce the 1918 Qualification of Women Act. Despite Curzon's objections, it was passed by the Lords by 134 votes to 71. Curzon was appointed foreign secretary in 1919 and when Andrew Bonar Law resigned as prime minister in May, 1923, Curzon was expected to become the new prime minister. However, the post went to Stanley Baldwin instead. He continued as foreign secretary until retiring from politics in 1924.

Cutting, Robert Fulton


Chairman City & Suburban Homes Co., surrounded by other Pilgrims in daily life.

Davis, John William


Democratic congressman from West Virginia 1911-1913. U. S. Solicitor general 1913-1918. Ambassador to Great Britain 1918-1921. Present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference. President of the American English-Speaking Union. Chairman Davis, Polk and Wardwell law firm (clients included J.P. Morgan and Company, and U.S. Steel). Founding president of the Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1933. Other founders of the CFR were Elihu Root and Paul Warburg. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1933-1955. Rejected appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court 1922. Democratic presidential candidate 1924. President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1931-1932. Director American Telephone & Telegraph. Trustee Rockefeller Foundation. Davis supported the Crusaders, which was one of the Fascist front groups trying to overthrow FDR and his New Deal. The main organization was American Liberty League. He was also a main organizer of the anti-New Deal Liberty league against FDR.

Davison, Henry Pomeroy


Jekyll Island meeting 1910. His son was in the Skull & Bones class of 1920, just as a couple of other members of the Davison family. This family is intermarried with the Aldrich, Rockefeller, Peabody and Stillman family (all Pilgrims). Involved with the Red Cross during WWI and received at least one 2 million dollar donation from co-Pilgrim George F. Baker.

Dawes, Charles G.

exec. committee


Comptroller of the Currency 1897-1901, organized the Central Trust Company of Illinois at Chicago in 1902, chairman of the General Purchasing Board of the Allied Expeditionary Forces during World War I (decided who got the contracts), the 1924 Dawes plan to save Germany's economy from total collapse was named after him, Nobel Peace Prize 1925, vice President of the United States 1925-1929, ambassador to Great Britain 1929-1932, chairman Reconstruction Finance Corporation starting in 1932

Dean, Arthur Hobson


John Dulles' Law Partner in Sullivan & Cromwell. Special Ambassador to Korea (1953-1954). Director Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1972. Attended the 1957 Bilderberg meeting. Chairman of the U.S. Delegation on Nuclear Arms Testing, Geneva, Switzerland in 1962. Vietnam War hawk. Member of Committee for An Effective and Durable Peace in Asia. New York Social Register. Century Club. Pacific Union Club. Member of the Foreign Policy Association. Director of the UN Association and Lazard Funds, Inc. Trustee Carnegie Foundation. Director or trustee of the Japan Society.

Debs, Richard A.


CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; member of the FED's Federal Open Market Committee; Founding president of Morgan Stanley International and continues as a member of its International Advisory Board; vice chairman of the US Saudi Arabian Business Council; chairman and a member of the New York Stock Exchange International Committee; member of the Group of Thirty; U.S. chairman of the Bretton Woods Commission; served as an advisor to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and the Russian American Bankers Forum; trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; chairman of the Board of Trustees of the American University of Beirut until 2005 (joined in the board in 1976); chairman emeritus of Carnegie Hall, where he continues to serve on the Executive Committee, and a trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Institute of International Education, Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, and director of several international business and financial corporations. Trustee of the Institute of International Education; He is also a member of the Economic Club of New York, Japan Society, American Council on Germany, and Council on Foreign Relations. He was a Fulbright Scholar in Egypt and a Ford Foundation Fellow, and holds a PhD from Princeton, a JD from Harvard Law School and an AMP from the Harvard Business School.

Depew, Chauncey Mitchell



Yale Skull & Bones 1856, admitted to the bar 1858, United States Minister to Japan, twice elected U.S. senator from New York, colonel and judge advocate of the fifth division of the New York National Guard 1873-1881, president of the New York Central & Hudson River railroad 1885-1899 and it's later chairman, co-founder Pilgrim Society.

Dillon, Clarence


Harvard, studied the methods of the money changers as Rothschild and Morgan, American Together with James Forrestal (president of Dillon, Read & Company 1938-1940, later MJ-12?) he set up Foreign Securities Corporation in 1915 to finance the French Government’s purchases of munitions in the United States, established National Cash Register, bought Dodge Brothers, saved Goodyear from bankruptcy, joined W.A. Read and Company, which evolved into Dillon, Read & Company. Dillon, Read & Company was one of the comapnies that made large loans to Nazi Germany in the 1930s. It became one of the largest investment companies in the mid-20th century.

Dillon, Clarence Douglas


Born on a business trip in Geneva, went to Harvard, his daughter became Princess Joan de Luxembourg, director of United States & Foreign Securities Corporation and United States & International Securities Corporation, 1937-1953 (and from 1971 on again), US Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France 1953-1957, United States treasury secretary 1961-1965, director Council on Foreign Relations 1965-1976, vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1976-1978, chairman Brookings Institution 1968-1975, member Atlantic Council of the United States, director Chase Manhattan Bank and American Telephone & Telegraph, vice president, then director, then chairman of the board of Dillon Read and Company, owner of France’s Haut-Brion vineyards, received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1989.

Dilworth, Joseph Richardson


Yale Skull & Bones 1938, chairman of Rockefeller Center, Rockefeller Family & Associates since 1958, director Chase Manhattan Bank, International Basic Economy Corporation, Selected Risk Investments, R.H. Macy, Squibb Pharmaceuticals, Omega Fund and Diamond Shamrock Corporation, trustee of both Yale University and Rockefeller University, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Dinkey, Alva Clymer


From water boy in the steel mills to self-made millionaire, first job was in the Edgar Thompson Works, one of the plants of the Carnegie Steel Company, became a telegraph operator, a machinist and electrician, president of the Carnegie Steel Company 1903-1915, president of the Midvale Steel Company at Nicetown.

Dorrance, John Thompson, Jr

died 1989

Chairman of Campbell Soup Corporation (founded by his father). Today he and his family are multimillionaires and billionaires.

Douglas, Donald


Donald Wills Douglas, the second son of an assistant cashier of the National Park Bank, was born in Brooklyn, New York, April 6, 1892, and started his education at Trinity Chapel School in New York City. At the age of 17, Donald Douglas entered the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis where he spent much of his time building and testing model airplanes. Left the Naval Academy in 1912. He soon realized he needed to learn more about his chosen career field and completed the four-year bachelor of science program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in only two years. Because of his academic performance, Douglas was immediately hired at MIT as an assistant professor in aeronautics. Worked for different aircraft companies. Eventually, in 1921, he founded Douglas Aircraft, which became a world leader in the aircraft building industry. In 1932, he started building the DC-1 and launched his career as a builder of transports. By 1940, sales of DC-2 and DC-3 transports and their military derivatives rose to nearly $61 million. Co-founder of the RAND Corporation in 1948, a not-for-profit private institute created out of Douglas Aircraft. Produced some 45,000 aircraft in WWII. Donald Wills Douglas Sr. was company president until 1957, when his son, Donald Douglas Jr., took over that position. Donald Douglas Sr. remained chairman of the board. At the age of 75, on April 28, 1967, Douglas merged his company with the McDonnell Aircraft Company and retired. He remained honorary chairman of the McDonnell Douglas board until his death on Feb. 1, 1981.

Douglas, Lewis Williams


Fought in WWI in the artillery from 1917 to 1919, instructor of history at Amherst College in 1920, engaged in mining and general business, member of the Arizona State house of representatives 1923-1925, elected as a Democrat to the Seventieth Congress, reelected to the three succeeding Congresses 1927-1933, director of the budget by President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1934, vice president and member of the board of a chemical company 1934-1938, principal and vice chancellor of McGill University, Montreal, Canada 1938-1939, president of an insurance company 1940-1947, director Council on Foreign Relations 1940-1964, chairman of the board on leave of absence 1947-1959, deputy administrator of the War Shipping Administration 1942-1944, United States Ambassador to Great Britain 1947-1950, director General Motors Corporation 1944-1965, chairman and director, Southern Arizona Bank & Trust Company 1949-1966, appointed by the President to head Government Study of Foreign Economic Problems in 1953, member, President’s Task Force on American Indians 1966-1967, director International Nickel Company of Canada, director Continental Oil Company. His daughter, Sharman Douglas, supposedly had a 2-year lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret Windsor. She also married Pilgrim Andrew Hay from 1968 to 1977.

Drum, Hugh Aloysius


Graduated from Boston College in 1898. Joining the Army, he was made a second lieutenant in the 12th infantry. Climbing quickly up the ranks, he became assistant Chief of Staff to General Pershing in France. In 1918 he was promoted to colonel, and became Chief of Staff of the First Army, AEF. Following the war Colonel Drum was engaged in various military schools. He was promoted to Major General by 1931 and sent to Honolulu to serve as commander. In 1940 he was promoted to Lieutenant General in charge of the New York national guard. From 1944 until his death, he was the president of Empire State Inc. During his career he was awarded the Silver Star, Distinguished Service Medal, and the Croix de Guerre.

Duke, James Buchanan


James Buchanan Duke goes to New York to develop the new industry of pre-rolled, packaged cigarettes. He establishes the American Tobacco Company with money from New York city financiers, especially Oliver Payne (advisor - intermarried with the Whitneys) and William Collins Whitney (Skull & Bones 1863 - comes from a family of Pilgrims) and starts buying out the competition. Duke made a deal with British Tobacco companies not to invade the European market and the British promised not to invade the American market. This deal lasted until about 1901. In 1905, James Duke co-founded the Southern Power Company, now known as Duke Power, one of the companies making up Duke Energy, Inc. Within two decades, this company is supplying electricity to more than 300 cotton mills and various other factories, electric lines, and cities and towns primarily in the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina. In 1911, the United States Supreme Court orders the dissolution of the tobacco trust.

Duke, Angier Biddle


From the family who owns or owned the American Tobacco Company, Duke Power, Duke Endowment and Duke University. Angier has been ambassador to El Salvador 1952-1953, chief of protocol to JFK and LBJ, ambassador to Spain 1965-1968, Denmark 1968-1969, Vietnam 1973, and Morocco 1979-1981, chairman U.S.-Japan Foundation 1981-1986, became president of the Council of American Ambassadors in 1992, decorated by Great Britain, France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Morocco and Greece.

Dulles, John Foster


Brother of Allen W. Dulles; Princeton and George Washington University; special agent for Department of State in Central America in 1917; Captain and Major in the United States Army Intelligence Service 1917-1918; assistant to chairman War Trade Board 1918; present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference; Polish Plan of Financial Stabilization 1927; American representative of the Berlin Debt Conferences 1933; member of the United States delegation to the San Francisco Conference on World Organization 1945; adviser to Secretary of State at Council of Foreign Ministers in London 1945; Moscow and London 1947 and Paris 1949; representative to the General Assembly of the United Nations 1946-1949; chairman of the United States delegation in Paris 1948; trustee of Rockefeller Foundation; chairman of the board of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; member of the New York State Banking Board 1946-1949; Republican to the United States Senate July 7, 1949 to November 8, 1949; United States representative to the Fifth General Assembly of the United Nations 1950; consultant to the Secretary of State 1951-1952; appointed Secretary of State by President Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1959.

Dulles, Allen Welsh


Brother of John F. Dulles. Princeton up to 1916. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Donald Rumsfeld, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3, 2005, Rense). Sent to Bern, Switzerland to work under State Department senior Hugh Wilson (Skull & Bones 1909) to collect political information on Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1916-1918. Joines his older brother, John Foster Dulles (Pilgrim), and David Bruce (Pilgrim) as members of President Woodrow Wilson's staff at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. Became a partner in Sullivan & Cromwell from 1927. Director of Schroder Co. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1933. Secretary Council on Foreign Relations 1933-1944. In May 1941 he urges the U.S. to enter World War II. Recruited by OSS intelligence chief and Knight of Malta Colonel William J. Donovan 1941. Sets up and runs a spy post in Bern, Switserland 1942-1945. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1944-1946. Said to have been involved in Operation Paperclip where about many German scientists and their families were secretly imported into the United States and placed into the Military-Industrial complex. President Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1950. Director Central Intelligence Agency 1953-1961. Member of President Johnson’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy 1963-1964 (forerunner of the Warren Commission). Primary United Fruit Company shareholder. Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C. is named after him. Member of the Pilgrims Society, and the Order of Malta. Seems to have been a member of the 'Knight's Templar' (together with Kermit Roosevelt and Frank Wisner), an elite intelligence group within the CIA.

Duncan, William Butler



Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, New York banker 1851-75, president of Great Western Insurance Company during the American civil war, sat together with J.P. Morgan on the Advisory Committee of Robinson & Cox (attorneys for United States Lloyds, one of the most powerful institutions of the City of London), the only American member of London's exclusive club, the Travelers (since 1868, when relations between the U.S. and England were strained over the Alabama claims), president and later chairman of the board of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, didn't attend a 1908 Pilgrim dinner (as president) due to sickness.

Dunn, Gano

exec. committee


president American Institute of Electrical Engineers 1911- 1912, president J.G. White Engineering Corporation in 1913 (founded by a Pilgrim), member War Department Nitrate Commission 1916-1918, chairman State Department Special Committee on Submarine Cables 1918, chairman National Research Council 1923-1928, executive committee member World Power Conference 1936, director Guaranty Trust Company, Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company and Radio Corporation of America and National Broadcasting Company, member U.S. Patent Office advisory committee, trustee Greenwich Savings Bank, trustee of Barnard College, consultant National Defense Committee, president of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science, vice-president of the Pan American Society of the U.S.

Du Pont, Lammot (Copeland)


Harvard, worked in the laboratory of the Fabrics and Finishings Department at DuPont’s Fairfield. In 1942 he replaced his father, Charles Copeland, on DuPont’s Board of Directors and was appointed to the Board’s Finance Committee. He served on the Development Department’s postwar planning board during World War II and became secretary in 1947. Copeland was named vice president and chair of the Finance Committee in 1954 and was appointed to the Executive Committee in 1959. Copeland served as DuPont’s 11th president from 1962 to 1967. Copeland retired as president in 1967. He remained as chairman of the Board of Directors until 1971 and continued to sit on the board until 1982. Du Pont was also a director of Wilmington Trust Company, a director of Christiana Securities, father in law to James Biddle, who married his daughter Louisa. James Biddle is a direct descendant of Nicholas Biddle, head of the British affiliated (Rothschild-Windsor) second Bank of the United States. The du Pont family was the largest funder of The American Liberty League, the main institute behind the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. Lammot, for example, donated at least 15.000 dollar to The American Liberty League and another 5.000 dollar to similar organisations.


Eells, Richard


Received A.B., M.A. and LL.D. degrees from Whitman College and Princeton University and is presently Professor of Business (Emeritus) at Columbia University, and Special Advisor to the President of Columbia University; also special advisor to the president of the New York Botanical Garden. During his past 15 years service at Columbia University he was Director of Studies of the Modern Corporation, adjunct professor of Business, and councillor to the Dean of Graduate School of Business. Previously, manager of Public Policy Research, General Electric Company (NYC) for ten years. Field director, Near East College Association (AUB and others). Following military service in the USAF, he was Chief of the Division of Aeronautics and Holder of the Guggenheim Chair of Aeronautics, The Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.). He has received grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and Sloan Foundation and has served as consultant to IBM, General Electric, Rockefeller Bros. Fund, and others. He is the author and co-author of fifteen books on corporate social policy matters (and spionage) and the editor of thirty-five volumes on business matters.

Ekblom, Harry E.


Retired as chairman and CEO of European-American Banking Corporation in 2002. He had been a member of the board since 1984. Partner in Ekblom & Ekblom LLC and president of Harry E. Ekblom & Co. Inc. He is the former vice chairman of A.T. Hudson & Co. Inc. Director Harris & Harris Group Inc.

Eliot, Ellsworth, Jr


Yale; joined the surgical staff of Presbyterian Hospital in 1893; he remained at the Hospital as an Attending Surgeon until 1918 and was thereafter consultant in surgery until his death. He was Chief of Surgery of Vanderbilt Clinic of P&S from 1895 to 1900 and at various times held surgical professorships at both P&S and the Cornell University Medical College.

Esher, Viscount Reginald


Usually described as "secretive" or "mysterious" together with "lot's of influence". Wrote confidential memoranda for Queen Victoria. Supposedly had bizarre sexual interests and stood in contact with the Rothschild family. A British statesman who stood in close contact with Pilgrim Henry Morgenthau Jr.'s father.

Evans, James H.


University of Chicago Law School, high positions at Reuben H. Donnelley Corp., Dun & Bradstreet Inc., and the Seamen's bank for Savings, in the navy during WWII, chairman 1965 Red Cross Campaign for Greater New York, chairman of the Union Pacific Corporation, director Citicorp, AT&T, Bristol-Myers, General Motors Corp. and Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., governor Foreign Policy Association, trustee Rockefeller Brothers Fund, University of Chicago and the American Youth Foundation, Bohemian Grove visitor.

Fairhaven, Lord


Had mining and railroad interests in the United States, which were created by his father. Much of the American fortune, which the 1st Lord Fairhaven inherited, was energetically deployed in the collection of works of art and the Abbey is now the permanent home of an outstandingly rich collection of furniture, pictures and art objects. Lord Fairhaven was also involved with landscape gardening.

Farish, William Stamps III

born 1939

Farish is an American millionaire. Owner of a trust company in Houston, Texas called W.S. Farish & Co. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 2001-2004. Member of the Council of American Ambassadors. Horse-breeder. Chairman of Churchill Downs. Major Republican Party donor and a family friend of President George W. Bush for several decades. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Kentucky in 2003. When George Bush was elected vice president in 1980, Texas mystery man William Stamps Farish III took over management of all of George Bush's personal wealth in a "blind trust." Known as one of the richest men in Texas, Will Farish keeps his business affairs under the most intense secrecy. Only the source of his immense wealth is known, not its employment. Will Farish has long been Bush's closest friend and confidante. He is also the unique private host to Britain's Queen Elizabeth: Farish owns and boards the studs which mate with the Queen's mares. That is her public rationale when she comes to America and stays in Farish's house. On March 25, 1942, U.S. Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announced that William Stamps Farish (grandfather of the President's money manager) had pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis. Farish was the principal manager of a worldwide cartel between Standard Oil of New Jersey and the I.G. Farben concern. The merged enterprise had opened the Auschwitz slave labor camp on June 14, 1940, to produce artificial rubber and gasoline from coal.

Faulkner, Sir Eric Odin


Educated at Bradfield and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Artillery, chairman Union Discount Co. 1959-1970, chairman Glyn, Mills & Co., chairman of Lloyd’s Bank (City of London), governor Hudson's Bay Co., director of Vickers, advisory director of Unilever, negotiated with rebel Rhodesian leader Ian Smith in 1965 at the directions of the Prime-Minister of England, chairman British Bankers' Association 1972-1973 and 1980-1984, chairman Committee of London Clearing Bankers from 1972-1974, chairman Industrial Society 1973-1976, Order of the British Empire 1974, organized the formation of the City Communications Organisation in 1976 (City of London interests).

Field, Marshall


Owned Marshall Field & Company which had factories in the U.S., Europe, China and Australia. He owned stocks and bonds in about one hundred and fifty corporations, and he was a director of many. He owned many millions of bonds and stocks in railroads. The history of many of them reeked with thefts of public and private money; corruption of common councils, of legislatures, Congress and of administrative officials; land grabbing, fraud, illegal transactions, violence and oppression not only of their immediate workers, but of the entire population. He owned Baltimore & Ohio stock; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe; Chicago & Northwestern, and tens of millions more of the stock or bonds of fifteen other railroads. He also owned an immense assortment of the stocks of a large number of trusts. The affairs of these trusts have been shown in court, at some time or other, as overflowing with fraud, the most glaring oppressions, and violations of law.

Flagler, Henry Morrison


His mother was from the Harkness family, worked at L.G. Harkness and Company, partner in the newly organized D. M. Harkness and Company in 1952, married married Mary Harkness in 1853, founded the Flagler and York Salt Company in 1862, the end of the Civil War caused a drop in the demand for salt and the Flagler and York Salt Company collapsed, bringing him heavily into debt, after borrowing money he reentered the grain business as a commission merchant and became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, Rockefeller, Andrews and Flagler start Standard Oil in 1870 (with a loan from National City Bank of Cleveland) and two years later it will dominate the US oil market, Flagler later goes into the railroad business and becomes the second largest land owner in Florida.

Forbes, Malcolm Stevenson, Sr.


Son of the Forbes Magazine founder. A 1941 graduate of Princeton University. Publisher of Forbes magazine 1964-1990. Legendary for his lavish lifestyle, his private Capitalist Tool jet, his Highlander yachts, and huge art collection. Has a substantial collection of Harley Davidson motorbikes. Member of the Bohemian Grove and the Pilgrims Society. Member of the American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

Forbes, Malcolm Stevenson "Steve", Jr.


Princeton. President and editor-in-chief Forbes Magazine. Director Americas Society. Lost the 1996 presidential nomination to Bob Dole. Lost the 2000 presidential nomination to George W. Bush.

Forbes, Christopher

Christopher Forbes received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from Princeton University in 1972. Director of Forbes, Inc. since 1977. Corporate Secretary at Forbes 1981-1989. Appointed to the Board of Regents of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. in 1987. Vice-chairman of Forbes Inc. since 1989. He is responsible for Forbes’ advertising and promotion departments. Director of Senesco Technologies since 1999 (genetech). Director of Raffles Holdings. Sits on the Boards of The New York Historical Society, The Newark Museum, The Business Committee for the Arts, The Brooklyn Museum, The Friends of New Jersey State Museum, The New York Academy of Art, The Victorian Society in America, The Princess Margarita Foundation and the Prince Wales Foundation. He is also a member of the Board of Advisors of The Princeton University Art Museum, a National Trustee of the Baltimore Museum of Art, and serves on the Advisory Committee of the Department of European Decorative Arts of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Member of the Knickerbocker, The Century Association, The Brook, Essex Hunt, Grolier, American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.

Franklin, George S., Jr.


His father was a CFR director. Franklin Jr. attended Harvard University and was a roommate of David Rockefeller. Franklin was a Council on Foreign Relations executive director from 1953 to 1971. Franklin was the first secretary of the Atlantic Council of the United States, co-founded by Pilgrim Dean Acheson. Franklin was a co-founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973, together with David Rockefeller, and became a secretary of this Commission in later years.

Fraser, Leon

exec. committee

born 1889

Law professor and trustee at Columbia University 1914-1917. Director NY Federal Reserve Bank. President of the First National Bank of New York. President of the Bank for International Settlements. Director of General Electric, U.S. Steel, and Mutual Life Insurance of New York. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1936-1945

Fréchette, Louise

Guest speaker


Received a Bachelor of Arts degree from College Basile Moreau. She earned a degree in history from the University of Montreal in 1970 and a post-graduate diploma in economic studies at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium in 1978. Ms. Fréchette began her career in 1971 in Canada's Department of External Affairs. She was part of her country's delegation to the General Assembly in 1972, and then served as Second Secretary at the Canadian Embassy in Athens until 1975. From 1975 to 1977, Ms. Fréchette worked in the European Affairs Division in Canada's Department of External Affairs. Returning to Europe, she served as First Secretary at the Canadian Mission to the United Nations in Geneva from 1978 to 1982. During that period, she participated in a session of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Madrid from November 1980 to July 1981. After serving as Deputy Director of the Trade Policy Division in the Department of External Affairs from 1982 to 1983, Ms. Fréchette became Director of the European Summit Division from 1983 to 1985. She received her first ambassadorship in 1985, serving as Canada's ambassador to Argentina with concurrent accreditation to Uruguay and Paraguay. Ms. Fréchette was named Assistant Deputy Minister for Latin America and the Caribbean in the Department of External Affairs and international trade in October 1988. In that capacity, she directed a review of Canada's relations with the region, which led to Canada's entry into the Organization of American States (OAS). In January 1991 she became Assistant Deputy Minister for Economic Policy and Trade Competitiveness. She served as Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations from 1992 to 1995. Deputy Minister of National Defence of Canada from 1995 to 1998. Became the first Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1998. Also chairs the steering committee on U.N. Reform and Management Policy. In 1998, she was appointed Officer of the Order of Canada. Spoke to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs in 1998. In 1999, when corruption in the oil-for-food program was rampant, Frechette intervened directly to stop United Nations auditors from forwarding their investigations to the U.N. Security Council. She and he assistant Iqbal Riza were hiding and shredding years of documents. In 2000 she attended a Bilderberg meeting. Gave a speech to the annual luncheon meeting of the Pilgrims of the United States in New York on April 25, 2001.

Funston, George Keith


A banker's son, he worked his way through Trinity College and Harvard Business School before becoming a salesman for American Radiator, and later, Sylvania. President Trinity College 1945-1951. President New York Stock Exchange 1951-1967. Chairman Olin Mathieson Chemical Co. 1967-1972. Director Illinois Central Industries, National Aviation Corporation, Putnam Trust Company, Chemical Bank, IBM, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Republic Steel, Winn Dixie Stores, Avco Corporation, Paul Revere Investors, and more.

Gallatin, Eugene


Great grandson of Albert Gallatin (1761-1849 - born in Geneva in an old noble family), who was a U.S. Treasury Secretary between 1801 and 1814. During the War of 1812, Albert made it possible for his associate, John Jacob Astor, to transport his furs across the battle lines. Albert also was a U.S. diplomat to England and France. Eugene Gallatin was a professional art collector.

Gardner, John W.


B.A. and M.A. in psychology from Stanford University, Ph.D. from the University of California, analyzed enemy propaganda broadcast to Latin America 1942-1943. Marine Corps and the OSS 1943-1945. Joined the Carnegie Corporation in 1946. President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 1955-1965. Founder and chairman of Common Cause (lobby force of private citizens). Edited a volume of JFK's speeches and position papers. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1964. Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under LBJ 1965-1968. Chairman of the National Urban Coalition (group of leaders who came together to tackle the problems of race and poverty that underlay the nationwide riots of 1968). Governor Nelson Rockefeller asked Gardner to fill Kennedy's vacant Senate seat (he declined) 1968. Trustee Stanford University 1968-1982. Founder and chairman of Independent Sector 1980-1983 (lobby force of private citizens). Director Institute of Medicine. Member of The Scientific Advisory Board of the Air Force. Member of the Advisory Board of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Director or advisor of Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Rockefeller University, Shell Oil Company, American Airlines, the Enterprise Foundation and National Center for Action. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Founding member of the national advisory board of the Haas Center. John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities was established at Stanford University in 2000.

Gates, Thomas Sovereign, Jr.


Son of an investment banker. Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1928 and joined the investment banking firm of Drexel and Company in Philadelphia. Became became a partner in 1940. Rose to the rank of lieutenant commander in the Navy 1940-1945. Under-secretary of the Navy 1953-1957. Secretary of the Navy 1957-1959. Secretary of defense 1959-1961, who authorized U-2 reconnaissance flights. Director and president Morgan Guaranty Trust Company 1961-1965. CEO and chairman of Morgan Guaranty Trust Company in 1965. Nixon appointed him chairman of the Advisory Commission on an All-Volunteer Force, which presented its influential report in November 1969. Ambassador to China 1976-1977. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Member Pilgrims Society. Member Bohemian Grove.

Gerard , James W.



Lawyer, New York state Supreme Court justice 1908-1913 (Hearst's newspapers opposed his appointment), ambassador to Germany 1913-1917 and expelled when the submarine war against the U.S. began, treasurer of the Democratic National Committee 1914-1932, again New York state Supreme Court justice 1917-1921, delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York in 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1944 and 1948.

Giffard, Lord Hardinge Stanley


A leading barrister, politician and government minister, serving as Solicitor General and Lord Chancellor (1886-1892 and 1895-1905) of Great Britain. His lasting legacy was the compilation of a the complete digest of "Laws of England" (1905-1916), a major reference work published in many volumes and often called simply "Halsbury's". "Halsbury's Laws" was followed by a second multiple-volume reference work in 1929, "Halsbury's Statutes", and later by "Halsbury's Statutory Instruments". During the crisis over the Parliament Act of 1911, Halsbury was one of the principal leaders of the rebel faction of Tory peers that resolved on all out opposition to the government's bill. Giffard was also President of the Royal Society of Literature, Grand Warden of English Freemasons, and High Steward of the University of Oxford.

Gifford, Walter S.


Undergraduate from Harvard. President of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) from 1925 to 1949. Videoconferencing was first introduced in 1926 when Walter S. Gifford used Video Teleconferencing to speak with the Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1950-1953.

Gilpatrick, Roswell L.


Deputy Secretary of Defense under Kennedy, special adviser to Kennedy and part of his "Special Group" (on Cuba), director CBS, trustee Rockefeller Brothers Fund, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Gordon, Albert Hamilton


Received his MBA at Harvard, one of the old banking titans, acquired the investment banking house of Kidder, Peabody & Co. in 1931 and chaired it until 1968, opened offices of this company in Hong Kong and Japan, director of Sloan Kettering Hospital, Paine Webber Inc., The Americas Society, and the New York Road Runners Club, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Gould, Edwin


Jay Gould’s son (famous for being extremely cruel), chairman of the St. Louis & Southwestern Railroad which owned the Arkansas & Texas Railway, director Paragould & Southeastern Railway, director Bowling Green Trust Company, consolidated competition into the Diamond Match Company in 1899, member Jekyll Island Georgia Club, member of the Pilgrims of New York in 1903.

Gould, Samuel B.


M.A. degree from New York University 1936, during World War II he served as an officer in the Navy, president of Antioch College for five years, president Boston University for six years, first chancellor of the Santa Barbara State College 1959-1962, director of National Commercial Bank & Trust, American Council on Education, chairman of the Institute of Man and Science, chairman Research Foundation of the State University of New York, trustee John D. Rockefeller III Fund, Salk Institute Educational Records Bureau Kettering Foundation, and other positions.

Grace, J. Peter


Bachelor of Arts from Yale University in 1936, president and CEO of the chemical giant W.R. Grace & Co. 1945-1992 (also big in South-America), director Citibank, chairman of the Order of the Knights of Malta in the United States, chairman National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, president Catholic Youth Organization for the Archdiocese of New York, member Willard Garvey's International conference on privatizing education, chairman of the American Institute for Free Labor Development, involved in Project Paperclip 1945, trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (Pilgrim Heinz II also), involved with Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe in which Fascists and the CIA were involved, chairman President’s Private Sector Survey on Cost Control (under Reagan), chairman Advisory Committee of AmeriCares 1982-1995 (involved with Bush, Brzezinski & Powell), director Friends of the Democratic Center in Central America (involved the Iran-Contra affair), member and governor Council for National Policy, member Council on Foreign Relations, member 1001 Club, member Newcomen Society.

Graham, William J.


News message about his death: William J. Graham, long a prominent actuary and outstanding insurance executive, died February 11, 1963, in Southside Hospital, Bay Shore, Long Island, at the age of 85. Mr. Graham's name became almost synonymous with the development of group insurance during the first half of the century. He was frequently re- ferred to as the, "Father of Group Insurance," for he played a key part in the 1911 discussions with the Montgomery Ward Company which led to the first of the modern forms of group insurance. From that point on, Mr. Graham crusaded for the use of group insurance in industry and commerce, and he was personally responsible for much of its spectacular growth and en- largement into the fields of annuities and health. Mr. Graham was born in Louisville, Kentucky, September 23, 1877. A graduate of Xavier College in Louisville, he also held an M.A. from St. Fran- cis Xavier College in New York. In 1938 he was awarded an honorary LL.D. from Hobart College. His mathematical aptitude early led him into the actuarial field. He be- came an Associate of the Actuarial Society of America at 21, and four years later became a Fellow. Later, he became a Charter Member of the Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the British Institute of Actuaries. Mr. Graham started his insurance career as an actuary with the Sun Life Insurance Company of America (Louisville) in 1898, and from 1902 to 1905 he served on the actuarial staff of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. In 1905 his career gained considerable momentum through the service he rendered as consulting actuary (jointly with S. Herbert Wolfe) to the investi- gation of the life insurance companies of New York conducted by a group of state insurance departments. Almost simultaneously, he was invited to help reorganize the Northwestern National Life Insurance Company, which he served'as a vice-president, actuary, and director from 1905 to 1911. Mr. Graham joined the Equitable as western superintendent of agencies in 1911. When the Equitable established a Group Insurance Department the following year, he was made its superintendent. He thereafter rapidly rose, becoming vice president in 1929. He was elected a member of the Equitable's Board of Directors in 1937 and given charge of all agency activities, both group and ordinary. After more than 37 years of service with the Equitable, he retired on June 30, 1948, continuing, however, to serve on Equitablc's Board until December 31, 1958. Among Mr. Graham's innumerable writings was an insurance bestseller entitled The Romance of Life Insurance. Appearing first as a series of arti- cles in the 1908 issues of The World Today, it told a constructive story of life insurance which was much needed in those post-investigation days. Mr. Graham's broad human sympathies caused his interests to spread far beyond his employment and even beyond the insurance field. He headed the Insurance Institute of America and served as vice-president of the New York Chamber of Commerce; president of the American Management Association (which he helped to found); director of the American Arbitration Associa- tion; chairman of the Group Association; member of the Insurance Commit- tee of the United States Chamber of Commerce; governor of the National Industrial Conference Board; and a member of the New York Southern So- ciety. His New York club memberships included the Links, Nassau County, and the Pilgrims. He was also a member of the Pendennis Club in Louis- ville; the Royal Societies in London, England; and the Kentuckians. An imaginative, courageous, and dedicated master builder, Mr. Graham has left an indelible imprint not only on the insurance world, but on the social and economic life of our country. A hard taskmaster, he commanded and en- joyed great admiration, respect, and loyalty on all sides. His engaging, attrac- tive personality, and his endless drive and enthusiasm won him high praise not only as an expert technician but as one of the best all round salesmen in the insurance world. Mr. Graham is survived by a daughter, Mrs. William S. Adams, Jr., and four grandchildren.

Greenwood, Lord Hamar



Canadian-born Liberal member of parliament 1906-1922. Secretary of the Overseas Trade Department 1919-1920. Chief Secretary for Ireland 1920-1922. Conservative Member of parliament 1924-1929. Treasurer Conservative Party. Baron since 1929. Viscount since 1937. Director of one of England's greatest steel firms - Dorman, Long, and Company. President British Iron and Steel Federation 1938-1939.

Grenfell, Lord William Henry



Lord Desborough. Athlete, sportsman, and public servant. He filled almost all the offices in local government and local justice which were open to him in Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, and it has been calculated that at one time he was actually serving on no fewer than 115 committees, where his services were recognized as of real value. During the war of 1914-18 he was president of the Central Association of Volunteer Training Corps which passed more than a million men into the regular army and was eventually taken over by the War Office. In 1915 he represented the minister of munitions in France. Appointed chairman of the British Olympic Association in 1905. Chairman of the London Pilgrims 1919-1929. In 1921, he declined for family reasons, to become Governor-General of Canada.

Grenfell, Sir William (Max-Muller)


A British diplomat. This person was a member from the Grenfell family of Grenfell & Company, a British merchant bank, that merged with Morgan to become Morgan, Grenfell & Company. These days it still exists as Morgan Grenfell Asset Management, which is owned by Deutsche Bank. Pilgrim Lord Desborough was also a Grenfell.

Grey, Lord Edward



1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon. Educated at Winchester College and at Balliol College, Oxford. Elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal in 1885, having previously succeeded to his grandfather's baronetcy in 1882. He served under Lord Rosebery as Parliamentary Undersecretary for the Foreign Office in Gladstone's last government, from 1892 to 1895. During the Boer War (1899-1902), when the Liberals split between radical Pro-Boers and Liberal Imperialists, Grey stood decidedly on the side of the Imperialists like Rosebery and Herbert Henry Asquith. Foreign Secretary 1905-1916. In 1914, Grey played a key role in the crisis leading to the outbreak of World War I. His attempts to mediate the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia by a "Stop in Belgrade" came to nothing due to the tepid German response, and when Germany declared war on France (3 August) and invaded Belgium (4 August), Grey was able to muster enough support to bring Britain into the war on August 4, 1914, despite initial radical wariness. In the early years of the war, Grey negotiated several important secret treaties, bringing Italy into the war (1915) and promising Russia the Turkish Straits. He maintained his position as Foreign Secretary when the Conservatives came into the government to form a coalition in May 1915, but when the Asquith government fell due to machinations between Lloyd George and the Tories, Grey went into opposition. Liberal Leader in the House of Lords in 1923-1924. Presided over a 1930 Pilgrims dinner attended by the international delegates of the London Naval Conference. He is probably best remembered for a remark he supposedly made to a friend one evening just before the outbreak of the First World War, as he watched the lights being lit on the street below his office: "The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime."

Grosvenor, Gerald Cavendish


6th Duke of Westminster. His wife can be traced directly to the Russian Peter the Great, personal fortune is estimated at 5 billion pounds, chairman Grosvenor Group, owns over 300 acres of the best property in downtown London, plus large land holdings in Canada, Australia, Hawaii and elsewhere, possibly a partner of the Royal Bank of Scotland through the National Westminster Bank, Knight of the Order of the Garter.

Guthrie, Lord


General Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank. He was educated at Harrow School and went to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1957 and was commissioned into the Welsh Guards in 1959. He served with his Regiment as a young officer in the United Kingdom, Libya, Germany and Aden. In 1966 he joined the SAS and served in the Middle East, Malaysia and East Africa. In 1970 he returned to the Welsh Guards and for two years commanded an armoured infantry company in Germany. After a year as a student at the Staff College, he served in the Ministry of Defence as the Assistant to the Head of the Army, the Chief of the General Staff. From 1975-1977 he was the Brigade Major of the Household Division and from 1977-1980 he commanded the Welsh Guards in Berlin and Northern Ireland. He was appointed as a Colonel to the branch overseeing operations worldwide and during his time there became briefly the Commander British Forces New Hebrides (Vanuatu) and recaptured the island of Espirito Santo, which had been taken over by insurgents. Awarded the Order of the British Empire in 1980. In 1981 he was appointed Commander of the 4th Armoured Brigade in Munster, West Germany, following which he was Chief of Staff, Headquarters 1st British Corps in Bielefeld. He became the General Officer Commanding the 2nd Infantry Division and North East District in 1985. In 1986 he became Colonel Commandant of the Intelligence Corps. Knighted in 1990. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 1994. After a further tour in the Ministry of Defence he became in succession the Commander of the 1st British Corps, the Northern Army Group, the British Army of the Rhine before becoming the Chief of the General Staff and finally the Chief of the Defence Staff (1997-2001). CFR/MORI report 2001: "In his valedictory speech to the Pilgrims Society in London in May of this year, the outgoing Chief of the British Defence Staff, Field Marshall Lord Guthrie, stated that the USA was the most important ally Britain had ever had, and that NATO was its most important alliance." Colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick to the Queen in 1999 and Colonel Commandant of the SAS in 2000. Became Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank in June 2001. Joined N.M. Rothschild & Sons at the latest in 2002. Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since 2002. Member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Member of the steering committee of the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS). Member of the European Council of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. In December 2002, Blair sent Lord Guthrie and Jack Straw to Turkey as an unofficial military envoy to shore up support for an invasion of Iraq and to discuss plans to remove Saddam Hussein from power. Became a non-executive special advisor of Aon Special Risks in 2004, a leading Counter-Terrorism, Political Risks and Kidnap and Ransom insurance broker and risk consultant. Freeman of the City of London, a member of the Knights of Malta, and a Commander of the Legion of Merit USA. Member of the House of Lords. In May 2004 Guthrie said at a conference on terrorism that terrorists might kill millions in the future due to biological or even nuclear weapons. He also said that he did not think that Iraq had nuclear weapons, but that this was an understandable mistake of the Bush Administration. In that same year he stated that Syria was one of the largest supporters of terrorism and has been exploiting Lebanon for a long time. Attended a discussion of the Windsor Leadership Trust in 2005. October 7, 2001, The Observer: "Lord Guthrie, the suave former British Chief of Defence Staff, has been a close friend of [Pakistani president] Musharraf for more than 20 years."


Hacking, Lord David


Son of another Pilgrims Society member. Baron Douglas David Hacking. Served in Royal Navy Reserve 1954-1964; in active service in Royal Navy 1956-1958; retired in rank of Lieutenant RNR; Worked as a barrister-at-law in London 1964-1975; US Attorney and Counselor-at-Law 1975-1976; Solicitor of the Supreme Court 1977-1999; Barrister, arbitrator and mediator in Littleton Chambers since 1999. Appointed as Arbitrator/Mediator by the ICC, the AAA, the LCIA, Hungarian Court of Arbitration, GAFTA, The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and others. Acts as Arbitrator/Mediator in all commercial arbitrations/mediations with specialist knowledge of aviation, commodities, construction and pharmaceutical industries; Parliament: Independent Peer 1972 - 1992, Conservative Peer 1992 - 1998, Labour Peer 1998 - 1999; Member of the Joint Committee (of House of Commons and Lords) on Consolidation Bills: 1973-1975 and 1999; Member of the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities: Sub Committee E (Law and Institutions) 1989-1995, 1996-1999 and Sub Committee F (Justice and Home Affairs) 1999; Participated in Committee in House of Lords in numerous Public Bills including the Arbitration Bill 1979, the Financial Services Bill 1986, the Latent Damage Bill 1986, the Courts and Legal Services Bill 1990, the Competition and Service [Utilities] Bill 1992, the Maastricht Bill 1993, the Civil Aviation [Amendment] Bill 1996, the Arbitration Bill 1996, the Access to Justice Bill 1999 and the Contracts [Rights of Third Parties] Bill 1999 and conducted through the House of Lords various Private Bills; Freeman of the City of London, President of the Civil Court Users Association, Member of the British American Parliamentary Group, Member of the Pilgrims, and Trustee of Carthusian Trust.

Haggard, Sir Godfrey Digby Napier

exec. committee


Order of the British Empire, British Consul-General at New York.

Halifax, Lord Edward Wood


Elected to the House of Commons to represent Ripon in 1910. A member of the Conservative Party, he served in the cabinet as president of the Board of Education (1922-24) and Minister of Agriculture (1924-25). In 1925 he was appointed Viceroy of India, a position he held for six years. When Stanley Baldwin replaced Ramsay MacDonald as prime minister in 1935 he appointed Lord Halifax as his war secretary and as leader of the House of Lords. In 1936 Halifax visited Nazi Germany for the first time. Halifax's friend, Henry (Chips) Channon, reported: "He told me he liked all the Nazi leaders, even Goebbels, and he was much impressed, interested and amused by the visit. He thinks the regime absolutely fantastic." In November, 1937, Neville Chamberlain, who had replaced Stanley Baldwin as prime minister, sent Lord Halifax to meet Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels and Hermann Goering in Germany. In his diary, Lord Halifax records how he told Hitler: "Although there was much in the Nazi system that profoundly offended British opinion, I was not blind to what he (Hitler) had done for Germany, and to the achievement from his point of view of keeping Communism out of his country." In December, 1940, Lord Halifax was replaced as foreign secretary by his long-term opponent, Anthony Eden. Halifax now became British ambassador to the United States. Lord Halifax was the British delegate to the San Francisco Conference in March 1945, and attended the first session of the United Nations in 1945. He resigned as ambassador to the United States in May, 1946.

Hambro, Rupert N.


Educated at Eton College and Aix en Provence University. Hambro began his distinguished business career in 1962 with Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co in Manchester and London. He then joined Hambros Bank in 1964, trained in Denmark (1964), Canada (1966) and the USA (1968), became a Director in 1969, Deputy Chairman in 1980 and Chairman in 1983. He left in 1986 to form JO Hambro with his father and two brothers. JO Hambro engages in private client investment management through JO Hambro Investment Management and investment management through JO Hambro Capital Management Ltd. Current directorships include JO Hambro Ltd (Chairman); Rupert Hambro & Partners Ltd (Chairman); Mayflower Corporation Plc (Chairman); Pioneer Holdings Plc; Telegraph Group Ltd (director); Wiltons (St James’) Ltd (Chairman); Longshot Ltd (Chairman); Chatsworth House Trust Ltd, and Woburn Golf & Country Club Ltd (Chairman). Other involvements include the International Advisory Board of Montana AG, Vienna; member of United States Information Agency, International Council, Washington; Treasurer, National Art Collections Fund; Chairman of Govenors of Museum of London; Chairman of Trustees, The Silver Trust (co-founded in 1987); Chairman, Society of Merchants Trading to the Continent; Chairman of the Trustees, The Square Mile Charitable Trust; Chairman of the Trustees, The Boys’ Club Trust; Hon. Fellow of the University of Bath; Fellow of the RSA; Hon. President, The Anglo-Danish Society, and Vice-Patron of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. In addition, Rupert Hambro is a Member of the Court of the Company of Goldsmiths; a Member of the Company of Fishmongers, the Corporation of London, and The Pilgrims Society of Great Britain.

Harbord, James G.


Born in Illinois, he grew up near Bushong in Lyon County, and graduated from Kansas State Agricultural College in 1886. After a short teaching career he enlisted in the army as a private and in 1891 he received a commission. His first overseas experience came as a member of the occupation army in Cuba after the Spanish American War. That was followed by 12 years service in the Philippines. He was on the Mexican border with General John J. Pershing in 1916 and when the United States entered the European conflict he went to France as Pershing's chief of staff, which won him a promotion to brigadier general. When the American marine commander in France became ill, Harbord replaced him and directed the marine action at Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood, operations which smashed the German offensive directed at Paris in June 1918. In August 1918 the necessity for greater efficiency in troop and supply movement became apparent and Harbord was recalled from the front and put in charge of supply. This was described as the largest business undertaking that was ever conducted by one man in all history. His success won him Allied praise and the Distinguished Service Medal. At the end of the war he was commissioned a major general in the regular army and commanded at Camp Travis, Texas. When Pershing was appointed chief of staff, Harbord became his deputy. In 1922 General Harbord retired from the army and assumed the presidency of the Radio Corporation of America. He served as president of the Radio Corporation America for seven years and then as chairman of the board until 1947, the year of his death. Member of the Newcomen Society and decorated a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.

Harbord, John O.


Likely a family member of James G. Harbord, chairman Radio Corporation of America. Attended a Pilgrim meeting in 1939.

Harcourt, Viscount William Edward


Supposedly a descendants of William the Conqueror, Executive director of the IMF and the World Bank 1954-1957.

Harkness, Edward Stephen


Yale, Family fortune was estimated at $800 million in 1924, one of the largest stockholders in Standard Oil, large amount of stocks in many of the largest companies in the world as Michigan Central Railroad, New York Central Railroad, West Shore Railroad, C.C.C. & St. Louis Railroad, P. & L.E. Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad, married Mary Stillman (Pilgrim family) in 1904, first president of the Commonwealth Fund (Harkness Fellowship), founded the Pilgrim Trust in 1930, which helped build Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. Edward was a philanthropist who wasn't on the board of many companies and avoided to much publicity.

Harriman, Edward Henry


Railroad executive and financier, director Newsweek, controlled at various times the Illinois Central, chairman Union Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad, lost a fight with James Hill to gain control of the Northern Pacific Railroad in a struggle that contributed to the stock market panic of 1901. James Hill, Edward Harriman and J. P. Morgan combined forces in 1906 to create a monopoly, the Northern Securities Company, but the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a government order to break up the firm. Edward was a director of Union Banking Corporation, which was a Nazi holding company. UBC did business with the Nazis up to 1943, when it was seized by the U.S. government under the trading with the enemy act.

Harriman, William Averell


Yale Skull & Bones 1913, scion of the Harriman railroad family, director Guarantee Trust Company (merged with J.P. Morgan), formed the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation in 1917 (became the largest merchant fleet), together with his brother he formed W.A. Harriman & Company in 1922, acquainted with Fritz Thyssen during his trip to Germany in the early 1920s, Brown Brothers Harriman / traded with the Soviets 1925-1929, chairman New York State Committee of Employment 1933, Administrative Officer of Roosevelt's NRA 1934, Union Banking Corporation, Secretary of Commerce, Ambassador to Russia during World War II, director Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1955, governor of New York 1955-1958, chief negotiator on the Vietnam Talks, confidential adviser to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon and Carter, organized the H. Smith Richardson Foundation, which participated in MK-ULTRA.

Harrison, George Leslie

exec. committee


Lawyer and financial expert, assistant general counsel and counsel Federal Reserve Bank of Washington D.C.1914-1920, counsel and deputy governor Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1920-1928, governor and president Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1928-1941, special consultant to the Secretary of War, president and chairman New York Life Insurance 1941-1953, chairman Interim Policy Committee on Atomic Energy, active on behalf of the American National Red Cross, trustee Columbia University.

Hartford, Huntington III


Owner of The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (founded by his grandfather), owner Oil Shale Corporation, owner Paradise Island in Nassau, the Bahamas, director Institute for British American Cultural Exchange in 1961, director New York World Fair 1964-1965, member of the United States Committee for the United Nations and the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, established the Huntington Hartford Gallery of Modern Art.

Harvey, George


After a career in journalism and insurance, he became involved in the construction and administration of electric railroads, a venture that brought him a fortune. In 1899 he bought the North American Review, and, with the backing of J. P. Morgan, he assumed control (1901) of Harper's Weekly. Harvey retired (1913) from the editorship of Harper's Weekly but later (1918) founded Harvey's Weekly as a medium for virulent attacks on Woodrow Wilson (his former friend and protégé) and the peace negotiations. After the election of Warren G. Harding, Harvey was appointed ambassador to Great Britain (1921-1923).

Hauge, Gabriel


Harvard, senior statistician Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1939, Princeton University economics professor 1940-1942, Navy reserve 1942-1946, chief Division of Research and Statistics New York State Banking 1947-1950, assistant chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 1950-1952, assistant to president Eisenhower for Economic Affairs 1953-1958 (opposed Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist crusade and favored liberalized foreign trade policies), director Trust company 1959, treasurer Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1981, Bilderberg Steering Committee, chairman Manufacturers Hanover Bank 1971-1979 (joined in 1958 - 4th largest bank of the US at that time).

Hay, Andrew "Anthony" MacKenzie


Married Pilgrim daughter Sharman Douglas from 1968 to 1977, who, according to ITV (competitor of the BBC), had a 2-year lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret Windsor. Andrew Hay is only described as a "food importer".

Hayes, Alfred

died 1989

Harvard, Yale, Oxford, Rhodes Scholar, analyst in the investment department of the City Bank Farmers Trust Company 1933-1940, bond department of the National City Bank 1940-1942, assistant secretary in the investment department New York Trust Co. 1942-1944, served as a naval lieutenant in financial planning for military government, and in the office of the Foreign Liquidation Commissioner in Washington and Rome 1944-1946, vice-president New York Trust in 1946, New York Trust Co. foreign division board 1947-1956, trustee Lignan University in Canton, China 1947-1954 (Mao’s Communist takeover was in 1949), president Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1956-1975, chairman Morgan Stanley International 1975-1981, director National Distillers & Chemical, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Healy, Harold Harris, Jr.


Son-in-law of Eli Whitney Debevoise (Pilgrim), Yale 1943, Phi Beta Kappa & Order of the Coif, U.S. Army Field Artillery landing in France 1943-1946, partner in Debevoise, comment editor and executive editor of the Yale Law Journal, executive assistant U.S. Attorney General 1957-1959, Plimpton Lyons & Gates, U.S. counsel for N.M. Rothschild & Sons, advisory council Ditchley Foundation, member of the Council on Foreign Relations, executive council American Society for International Law 1977-1980, trustee, treasurer and chairman of Vassar College 1977-1986, long-time member of the American Bar Association, first president of the Internationale des Avocats, persuaded the American Bar Association to join the previous organisation, director and president Legal Aid Society, director Metropolitan Opera Association, director Academy of American Poets, French Legion of Honor 1984.

Heard, George Alexander


University of California and Columbia, appointed chairman of the Commission on Campaign Costs by JFK, Chancellor of Vanderbilt University 1963-1972, chairman Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's study of presidential elections in America in 1982, director Time Incorporated, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Heinz, Henry John II


Yale Skull & Bones 1931. Chairman of the family's firm H.J. Heinz Company (very large international food manufacturer). Chairman Howard Heinz Endowment. Very close with Carnegie and Mellon interests. Trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (together with Pilgrim and Knight of Malta head J. Peter Grace). Member Council on Foreign Relations. Went to the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954. He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended, National Review, March 27, 1987: "He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended." He is the father of Teresa Heinz Kerry's (born in Mozambique, brought up in South Africa, Carnegie trustee, global environmentalist sponsor, and considers herself a "world citizen") first husband, John Heinz III (who died in a plane crash). Teresa remarried with 1966 Skull & Bones member John F. Kerry, who became the main presidential opponent in 2004.

Hepburn, Alonzo


Chairman of the New York State Assembly. First chairman of the Economic Club of New York. In 1879 he organized a committee to investigate malpractices and the plausible existence of a monopoly in the oil industry. During the hearings, a witness testified that "nine-tenth of the refiners in the country were in "harmony" with Standard Oil." The committee's report focused mainly on the railroad companies and their illegal favoritism to certain companies in terms of transportation of oil, but it also noted that Standard Oil was a "mysterious organization." Indeed, Rockefeller had managed to become one of the wealthiest man in America without attracting the attention of the public, unlike other industrialists such as Jay Gould who were despised by the American people.

Herbert, Sir Michael


British Ambassador to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. On January 24, 1903 U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Michael H. Herbert created a joint commission to establish the Alaskan border. On October 20, 1903, the joint commission (6 members, 3 from each side) ruled in favor of the United States in a boundary dispute between the District of Alaska and Canada. Sir Michael Herbert was a son of Baron Sidney Herbert, British War Minister from 1845-1846 and 1852-1855.

Hewart, Viscount Gordon


Oxford, called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1902, member of parliament for Leicester 1913-1922, Solicitor General 1919-1922, Lord Chief Justice of England 1922-1940.

Hewitt, William A.


Lieutenant commander on the battleship California in WWII on which his Cabin Mate was co-Pilgrim Gabriel Hauge, married into the Deere fortune of Deere & Company (heavy agricultural machinery), chairman Deere & Company, director of Continental Illinois National Bank, Continental Oil Company, A.T.&T. and the United Nations Association, director of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic Council, director of the National Council for U.S.-China Trade, advisor Chase Manhattan Bank, trustee Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, life trustee Caltech, member Trilateral Commission, Americas Society, Asia Society, Council on Foreign Relations, Committee for Economic Development, National Corporation for Housing Partnerships, Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, International Executive Service Corps, California Institute of Technology and Stanford Research Council, openly loyal to the King of England.

Hill, John Warren


Member of the finance committee for New York county of the American Legion 1927-1928, member of the Joint Legislative Committee on Interstate Cooperation 1946, director of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene.

Hill, James J.


He and others purchased the nearly bankrupt St. Paul and Pacific Railroad in 1878, which he and his partners made into one of the most successful railroad companies of the U.S. In a later stage of his life, Hill was also involved with coal and iron ore mining, Great Lakes and Pacific Ocean shipping, banking and finance, agriculture and milling. He owned many million acres of land and immense iron ore deposits in Minnesota. He amassed a personal fortune of about 63 million dollars. He was one of the initial directors of American International Corporation, formed in November 1915. Temporary offices were opened in the National City Bank Building.

Hoffman, Paul Gray


President Studebaker Corporation 1935-1948, founder and chairman Committee for Economic Development 1942-1948, president Ford Foundation 1950-1953, chairman Studebaker Corporation 1953-1956, delegate to the United Nations 1956-1957, managing director UN Special Fund (UN Development Program) 1959-1972, director Encyclopedia Britannica

Hogan, Frank J.


Georgetown University law degree 1902, founded Hogan & Hartson (D.C. area major law firm), became a nationally famous trial lawyer, among his clients were Theodore Roosevelt and Andrew Mellon, president of the American Bar Association in 1939, addressed the Pilgrims in 1939.

Hogg, Douglas McGarel



British lawyer and politician, Queen's Privy Council 1922, attorney general 1922-1928, Lord Chancellor in the UK conservative government 1928-1929, Secretary of State for War 1931-1935, U.K. Leader of the House of Lords 1931-1935.

Holt, Hamilton


Yale and Columbia University, disappointed with the traditional education of lecture and recitation, president Rollins College, assisted in the formation of The League of Nations, Holt was a founder of the Italy-America Society and the Netherlands-America Foundation (Carnegie was acquainted with the Royal Dutch house of Orange-Nassau, interlocked with his patrons, the British Crown).

Hornblower, Henry II


Owned Hornblower & Weeks, Hemphill-Noyes investment bankers, founded the Plimoth Plantation, trustee of another Pilgrim Society, founded in 1820, which is a genealogical and historical organization at Plymouth, Mass, member of the American Antiquarian Society.

Hoving, Walter


Chairman Hoving Corporation. Bought a controlling interest in Tiffany & Company (originated from New York) in 1955 and became its chairman.

Houghton, Alanson Bigelow, Jr.


His grandfather founded Corning Glass Works, was initially successful, but went bankrupt in 1868. His sons Amory and Charles revived the firm and turned it into a great success. Alanson, a son of Amory, was an undergraduate of Harvard. Vice-president of Corning Glass Works from 1903 to 1910 and president from 1910 to 1918. During this time, Houghton tripled the size of Corning Glass. It produced about 40% of the bulbs and tubing for incandescent electric lights and 75% of the railway signal glass used in the U.S. It was one of the largest glass producers in the industry. Member of Congress from 1919 to 1922. US Ambassador to Germany 1922-1925. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1925-1929. Involved in the Dawes Plan (1924), the Locarno Treaties (1925), and the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). His son, Amory Houghton Sr., was Eisenhower's ambassador to France. And his son, Amory Jr., has been a Republican member of Congress since 1987.

Hughes, Billy


Australia’s Prime Minister Billy Hughes. Present at a 1918 Pilgrims dinner in 1918. In 1919, Hughes and former Prime Minister Joseph Cook travelled to London to attend the Versailles peace conference. He remained away for 16 months, and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Australia - the first time Australia had signed an international treaty. At Versailles Hughes demanded heavy reparations from Germany and frequently clashed with President Woodrow Wilson of the United States. He succeeded in securing Australian control of Germany's colonial possessions in New Guinea.

Hughes, Charles Evans


Brown University and Columbia University, trustee Rockefeller’s University of Chicago, uncovered gas rate fraud in NY in 1905 and was appointed to investigate the insurance industry, governor of New York 1907-1910, declined vice-presidential nomination by William Howard Taft in 1908, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 1910-1916, defeated by Woodrow Wilson in 1916 presidential race, favored the ratification of the treaty creating the League of Nations in 1920, Secretary of State under Warren G. Harding & Calvin Coolidge 1921–1925, served as a judge of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague, The Netherlands in the second half of the twenties, president of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1927-1929, Chief Justice of the United States 1930-1941, led the fight against Franklin Delano Roosevelt's attempt to pack the Supreme Court after they regarded the New Deal as unconstitutional. At a London Pilgrim meeting in 1924, Hughes was photographed sitting next to the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Connaught.

Hyde, James Hazen


Harvard, vice president of Equitable Life Assurance Society 1899-1905, involved in an insurance scandal and fled to Versailles, France, co-founders Alliance Française, awarded the Grand Cross of the French Legion of Honor.

Inge, Lord Peter



Army Officer 1956-97; Commissioned Green Howards 1956; Served Hong Kong, Malaya, Germany, Libya and UK; ADC to GOC, 4 Division 1960-61; Adjutant, 1 Green Howards 1963-64; Student, Staff College 1966; Ministry of Defence 1967-69; Company Commander, 1 Green Howards 1969-70; Student, Joint Services Staff College 1971; BM, 11 Armoured Brigade 1972; Instructor, Staff College 1973-74; CO, 1 Green Howards 1974-76; Commandant, Junior Division, Staff College 1977-79; Commander, Task Force C/4 Armoured Brigade 1980-81; Chief of Staff, HQ 1 (BR) Corps 1982-83; Colonel, The Green Howards 1982-94; GOC, NE District and Commander 2nd Infantry Division 1984-86; Director General, Logistic Policy (Army), Ministry of Defence 1986-87; Commander, 1st (Br) Corps 1987-89; Colonel Commandant, Royal Military Police 1987-92; Commander, Northern Army Group and C-in-C, BAOR 1989-92; ADC General to HM The Queen 1991-94; Chief of the General Staff 1992-94; promoted to the rank of Field Marshal in 1994; Chief of the Defence Staff 1994-97; Constable, HM Tower of London 1996-2001; Raised to the peerage as Baron Inge, of Richmond in the County of North Yorkshire 1997; President of the British-German Officers' Association; Member of the Board and Council of St. George's House at Windsor Castle; Deputy Chairman of Historic Royal Palaces; Member of Council of Marlborough College; Member of the Council of the Interfaith Dialogue; Commissioner of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea; Member of the Council of King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes; Freeman of the City of London; Member of the Order of the Bath; Member of the Order of the Garter; Member of the Privy Council since 2004; He was a member of the Butler Inquiry team, chaired by Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, that determined that the intelligence used to declare Iraq's possession of "Weapons of Mass Destruction" was flawed. When Inge was appointed to sit in judgment on whether our spies were wrong about Iraq or whether their messages were distorted, he was still a member of the Hakluyt Foundation, a supervisory board for Hakluyt, a firm which hires former MI6 agents to work for private companies like Shell and BP. Today, Lord Inge is also a consultant to BAE Systems, Vickers plc., Investcorp (a Middle Eastern bank), and OWR AG (a German firm making gas masks, protective suits, decontamination trailers and other specialist protection against nuclear, biological and chemical warfare). Since 2003, the year it was created, Lord Inge is the non-executive chairman of Aegis Defence Services, a London-based company which offers mercenaries and related services to governments at war. Aegis was awarded a $293 million contract by the Pentagon in May 2004 to act as the "coordination and management hub" for the fifty-plus private security companies in Iraq. They also contributed seventy-five teams of eight armed civilians each to assist and protect the Project Management Office of the United States and provided protection for the Oil-for-Food Program inquiry. The CEO of Aegis is Lt. Col. Tim Spicer, a former officer of the SAS and a former CEO of Sandline International. Sandline has been

Jackson, N. Baxter


Vanderbilt University graduate who became a trustee, chairman Chemical Bank in 1946, director American Chain & Cable Company, Home Life Insurance, French-American Banking Corporation, General Reinsurance Corporation, North Star Reinsurance, and Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical, member Newcomen Society.

Jenkins, Roy Harris

exec. committee


Baron, Labour minister in 1964, home secretary 1965-1967 and 1974-1976, chancellor of the Exchequer 1967-1970, president European Commission 1977-1981, co-founder Social Democratic Party, SDP member of parliament 1982-1987, chancellor Oxford University in 1982 and made a life peer, president of the Royal Society, minister of aviation, leader House of Lords. In 1997 he was appointed head of a commission, set up by the Labour government, to recommend, in 1998, a new voting system for elections to Parliament. Jenkins has contributed frequently to British newspapers and periodicals and is a distinguished writer whose biographical subjects have included Henry Asquith, Harry Truman, Clement Attlee, and Stanley Baldwin.

Johnson, Joseph Esrey


Seems to have had a honorable grandfather, Johnson studied at Harvard University, where he earned his bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. His first teaching position was as a professor of history at Bowdoin College in 1934 and 1935. From there he moved on to Williams College in Massachusetts in 1936, where he was an assistant professor of history until 1947, and a full professor from 1947-1950. During the years from 1943-1947, however, Johnson was on leave from Williams College, and served in a variety of positions with the State Department and United Nations. Initially Johnson was appointed chief of the international affairs division in the State Department. While in this post, he played a role in the creation of the United Nations, attending both the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in 1944 as well as the San Francisco Conference in 1945. Johnson later served as an adviser to the U.S. delegation at the first U.N. General Assembly at Lake Success, New York in 1946, and assisted the U.S. representative to the Security Council, which met in London. Johnson returned to Williams College in 1947, yet his time in academia proved to be short-lived. In 1950 he was appointed to be a trustee, and then president, of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he was able to apply his growing expertise in the field of brokering peaceful solutions to international disputes. Although he served as a consultant at numerous international conferences, and was an alternate U.S. delegate to the United Nations General Assembly in 1969, he is perhaps best remembered for his role on the U.N. Conciliation Commission for Palestine in 1961. As part of the commission Johnson was named a special envoy, and traveled throughout the Middle East, meeting with various governments in search of a means of providing Palestinian refugees with a homeland of their own. Johnson’s final report recommended that refugees who were forced out of their homes by the 1948 war be allowed to return to their former homes in Israel. However, neither side accepted Johnson’s proposals. Johnson was also a director of the Council on Foreign Relations between 1950 and 1974, Bilderberg visitor.

Kahn, Otto Hermann


Born in Mannheim, Germany. Emigrated to U.S. in 1893, partner Kuhn, Loeb & Co., together with Jacob Schiff (later Pilgrim) and Paul Warburg (later Pilgrim), NY 1897-1934 and it's main stockholder from 1908 and on. Chairman and president Metropolitan Opera Company of NY 1911-1931, trustee Carnegie Institute of Technology, director Italy-American Society, director Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1934, Knight Order of Charles II, Order of the Crown (Italy), order of the Rising Sun, vice-president English-Speaking Union. His attempt to become President of the English-Speaking Union was defeated by the timely exposure of his role in financing the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. His house was a meeting place for Soviet agents as Nina Smorodin, Claire Sheridan, Louise Bryant and Margaret Harrison.

Kellogg, Frank B.


After five years on the farm, he entered a law office in Rochester, Minnesota, supporting himself as a handyman for a Rochester farmer and teaching himself law, history, Latin, and German with the aid of borrowed textbooks. Having passed the state bar examination in 1877, he became the city attorney for Rochester and two years later the attorney for Olmsted County. A cousin, Cushman Kellogg Davis, the leading lawyer of St. Paul and later a United States senator, recognizing Frank Kellogg's energy, tenacity, and skill, invited him, in 1887, to join his law firm. In the next twenty years Kellogg earned a substantial fortune. He became counsel for some of the railroads, the iron mining companies, and the steel manufacturing firms that developed the rich Mesabi iron range in Minnesota and, consequently, a friend of some of the great business figures of the day, among them, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and James J. Hill. Despite such associations, Kellogg achieved national fame as a 'trustbuster'. He won an antitrust victory against E. H. Harriman and the Union Pacific Railroad, and another in 1911 against John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company in one of the most dramatic legal battles of the pre-World War I era. In 1912 he was named president of the American Bar Association. Kellogg was a member of the National Committee of the Republican Party from 1904 to 1912 and a delegate to its national conventions in 1904, 1908, and 1912. In 1916 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, taking his seat on March 4, 1917, in time to vote for America's entry into World War I on April 6. He always supported Woodrow Wilson. Tried hard to obtain senatorial ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Covenant of the League of Nations. A poor campaigner, Kellogg lost his try in 1922 for a second term in the Senate. In March, 1923, President Harding sent him on his first diplomatic mission as a delegate to the fifth Pan-American Conference, which was held in Chile. When he came back he was appointed ambassador to Great Britain. The most important diplomatic affair in which he figured in his fourteen months in England was the London Reparations Conference convened to accept the Dawes Committee report. In 1925 Kellogg succeeded Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state in Coolidge's cabinet, holding the position until 1929. In pursuance of his faith in the efficacy of the legal arbitration of international disputes, Kellogg arranged for the signing of bilateral treaties with nineteen foreign nations. Of the eighty treaties of various kinds which he signed while in office - a total breaking the record set by William Jennings Bryan from 1913 to 1915 - none was so important to him as the Pact of Paris, commonly called the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). Kellogg returned to St. Paul early in 1929 and during the months that followed traveled extensively in America and in Europe to receive many honors, among them the Nobel Peace Prize, the French Legion of Honor, and honorary degrees from many universities. In 1930 he filled Hughes's unexpired term on the Permanent Court of International Justice and was then elected to a full term of his own. Because of failing health, however, he was forced to resign from the Court in 1935.

Kemmerer, Edwin Walter


Professor of Economics at Princeton University, president of the Economists National Committee on Monetary Policy in 1937, according to The Commercial & Financial Chronicle Kemmerer (1938) Kemmerer was one of 60 economics who signed a resolution at a summit against silver coinage, director of U.S. & Foreign Securities Corporation and U.S. & International Securities Corporation from 1947. He wrote more than a dozen books, the most well-known was "The ABC of the Federal Reserve System" (1918), which ran to twelve editions.

Kennedy, Joseph Patrick


Harvard graduate. He engaged in banking, shipbuilding, investment banking, and motion-picture distribution before he served as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1934 and 1935, chairman U.S. Maritime Commission 1935-1937, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain 1937-1940, supported the overtures of the Chamberlain government to Hitler and was generally noninterventionist, informal adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, went back in (successful business after this) Knight of Malta, 2 of his 3 sons were publicly murdered. The last son is a member of the CFR.

Kerr of Kinlochard, Lord John


MA from Oxford University. Member of the UK Diplomatic Service from 1966 to 2002. Ambassador to the European Union from 1990 to 1995. Ambassador to the US from 1995 to 1997. From 1997 to 2002 he was Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Head of the Diplomatic Service, making him the first member of the Service to hold its three top jobs. In 2000 he became the most senior UK official to visit Tripoli (Libya) since 1984. From 2002 to 2003 he was Secretary-General of the European Convention, which prepared the EU Constitutional Treaty (rejected by the Dutch and French citizens in 2005). Ennobled in June 2004. Member of the Advisory Board of the Centre for European Reform. Director of Rio Tinto Plc and Rio Tinto Australia since 2003. Director of Shell Transport and Trading who was a key architect of the plan to merge the company with Royal Dutch Shell in 2005. Director of the Scottish American Investment Trust. Since 2004 he is chairman of the Court and Council of Imperial College, London. Here he followed up Lord Vincent of Coleshill, another Pilgrim. Trustee of the Rhodes Trust. Trustee, National Gallery. Honorary governor of the Glasgow Academy. Honorary fellow of the Pembroke College, Oxford. Honorary president of the Universities Association for Contemporary European Studies. Member of the House of Lords. Member of the Trilateral Commission at least since 2002. Visited Bilderberg in 2004 and 2005. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation anno 2005. Chaired the 2004 Ditchley discussion group 'The future direction of an enlarged Europe'. Knight of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Kerr, Lord Philip Henry


Served on various government commissions in South Africa and was a member of Viscount Alfred Milner's (Pilgrims Society) "kindergarten" 1905-1910. Co-founder and editor of a liberal scholarly journal called the "Round Table" 1910-1916. David Lloyd George's private secretary 1916-1921. Active at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Important member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Secretary of the Rhodes Trust since 1925. Inherited the title of 11th Marquess of Lothian in 1930. Represented the Liberal party in the National government as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster 1931-1932. British Ambassador to the United States. Chairman of the India franchise committee 1932. Advocated appeasement of Nazi Germany until 1939 when he came round to a vigorous advocacy of resistance to Adolf Hitler. Invited to a Pilgrim banquet held in his honor at Hotel Plaza, New York City, October 25, 1939.

Keswick, William Johnston


Governor Hudson’s Bay Company 1952-1965 (chartered in 1670 by Charles II of England), governor Bank of England as of the late 1960’s, director British Petroleum Sun Alliance, London Insurance, British Shipping Mission at Washington in WWII.

Kirk, Grayson Louis



Advised the State Department on international politics in the 1940s, helped create the United Nations, professor Columbia University 1940-1949, provost Columbia University 1949-1953, president Columbia University 1953-1968 (successor to Dwight D. Eisenhower), trustee of Columbia University after 1968, appointed Bryce Professor of the History of International Relations during his Columbia presidency, director Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1964, president Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1971, in 1968 he made a strong and widely reported appeal to the government to get out of Vietnam as quickly as possible, vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1971-1973. Kirk was the author of several works on international relations and was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and Phi Beta Kappa. He was president of the American Society of the French Legion of Honor and vice president of the Pilgrims of the United States (right from his Columbia University biography). He was a director or trustee of the Academy of Political Science, the Tinker Foundation, the Asia Foundation, the French Institute, the Institute of International Education, and of Consolidated Edison Company of New York, IBM and the Greenwich Savings Bank. Kirk received numerous international awards from universities and other institutions.

Kissinger, Heinz "Henry " Alfred


Henry Kissinger was born in the Bavarian city of Fuerth. He was a son of Louis and Paula Stern Kissinger. The elder Kissinger was a school teacher and after Hitler's rise to power, the family immigrated to London in 1938. After a short stay, they moved to Washington Heights in New York City. Recruited by Fritz Kraemer during WWII. Served in the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps 1943-1946. Captain in the Military Intelligence Reserve 1946-1949. Executive director Harvard International Seminar 1951-1969. Consultant to the Operations Research Office 1950-1961, a John Hopkins University think tank about psychological warfare and under contract to the Department of the Army. Director Psychological Strategy Board 1952. Member of the Department of Government, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1954-1969. Consultant Operations Coordinating Board 1955. Study director of nuclear weapons and foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1956. Director Special Studies Project for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund 1956-1958. Author of 'Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy', released in 1957. Consultant Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1959-1960. Consultant National Security Council 1961-1962. Consultant RAND Corporation 1961-1968. Consultant United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency 1961-1968. Consultant to the Department of State 1965-1968. Nixon's National Security Advisor 1969-1973. Secretary of State 1973-1977. Made two secret trips to China in 1971 to confer with Premier Zhou Enlai. Negotiated the SALT I and ABM treaty with the Soviet Union. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973. Made other secret trips to China in later years to make extremely sensitive intelligence exchanges. Robert C. McFarlane was among those who went to China with Kissinger, in his case between 1973 and 1976. Negotiated the end of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Said to have played a role in the 1973 Augusto Pinochet coup. Approved President Suharto's invasion of East-Timor in 1973, which resulted in a bout 250,000 dead communists and socialists. Suspected of having been involved in Operation Condor which started around 1975 and was an assassination and intelligence gathering operation on 3 continents. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1977-1981. Annual visitor of Bilderberg since at least the 1970s. Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since the late 1970s. Visited Le Cercle. Member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society. Visitor of Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Founder of Kissinger Associates in 1982, a secretive consulting firm to international corporations. Some of the first members to join Kissinger Associates were Brent Scowcroft (vice-chairman), Lawrence Eagleburger (president), Lord Carrington, Lord Roll of Ipsden, Pehr Gyllenhammar, and Viscount Etienne Davignon. Some served until 1989, others were still active for Kissinger Associates in the late 1990s. Chairman National Bipartisan Commission on Central America 1983-1984. Appointed chairman of AIG's advisory council in 1987. Director of the Atlanta branch of the Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) from 1985 to 1991. This was during the 1989 BNL Affair in which it became known that the Atlanta branch had made $4 billion in unreported loans to Iraq. After the revelation, the money was said to be used by the Iraqis to buy food and agriculture equipment, but in reality they were buying loads of military equipment. Founded the America-China Society in 1987, mainly with co-Pilgrims Society member Cyrus Vance. His aide Robert C. McFarlane also played a role. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Member of the Council of Advisors of the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce. Trustee of the Center Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Arthur F Burns Fellowship, the Institute of International Education, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Honorary Governor of the Foreign Policy Association. Patron of the Atlantic Partnership and the New Atlantic Initiative. Chairman of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Nixon Center, and the American Academy in Berlin. Co-chairman of the Editorial Board of 'The National Interest' magazine. Chancellor of the College William and Mary. Honorary chairman World Cup USA 1994 (Kissinger has attended football matches with his friend and colleague Etienne Davignon). Named Honorary Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George, 1995. Director Freeport-McMoRan 1995-2001. Director of Conrad Black's Hollinger International Inc. Member of J.P. Morgan's International Advisory Council. Former member of the Advisory Council of Forstmann Little & Co. and American Express. Advisor to China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC). Member of the Europe Strategy Board of Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst. Director of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and Revlon. Chairman of the International Advisory Board of the American International Group (AIG), a partner of Kissinger Associates. Also chairman of the Advisory Boards of AIG Asian Infrastructure Funds I & II and a director of AIG Global. In 2000 Henry Kissinger was quoted by Business Wire: "Hank Greenberg, Pete Peterson and I have been close friends and business associates for decades." Maurice Greenburg is head of AIG and Peter G. Peterson is head of The Blackstone Group, which is the other major partner of Kissinger Associates. Peterson is also a former chairman of Lehman Brothers. Kissinger is a friend of Lynn Forester and introduced her to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild at the 1998 Bilderberg conference. They would soon become married. When Henry Kissinger is invited to speak at the United Nations Association on April 11, 2001 Lord Jacob Rothschild is flanking his side. Picked as the initial head of the 9/11 investigating committee in 2003, although he turned out to be too controversial to remain in that position. Henry Kissinger is a trustee of the Open Russia Foundation since 2001, together with Lord Jacob Rothschild. The Foundation was set up by Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a controversial oligarch, later locked up by Putin. Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. Because of previous international attempts by European and South American judges to question him, he is known to take legal advice before traveling to certain countries in either continent.

Kitchener, Lord Horatio H.


Member of the Order of the Garter, the Order of Saint Patrick, the Order of the Bath, the Order of Merit, the Order of the Star of India, the Order of the Indian Empire, the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, and the Privy Council. Also an Aide de Camp to Queen Victoria. Kitchener was born in Ballylongford, County Kerry in Ireland. Educated in Switzerland and at the Royal Military Academy, he offered to fight with the French in the Franco-Prussian War before he joined the Royal Engineers in 1871. In 1874 Lt. Horatio Kitchener was appointed as assistant to Lt. C.R. Conder, on the Survey of Western Palestine. During 1874 and 1875, along with their team of Royal Engineers N.C.O.s and enlisted men, they surveyed large areas of the country. In 1882, Kitchener served with the British forces in Egypt during the suppression of the nationalist revolt led by Col. Arabi. In 1883, he took part in the Survey of the Wady Arabah and northeastern Sinai with Professor Edward Hull, on behalf of the Fund. After duty in Palestine and Cyprus, he was attached (1883) to the Egyptian army, then being reorganized by the British. Initiated into freemasonry in La Concordia Lodge, Cairo in 1883. He took part (1884–85) in the unsuccessful attempt to relieve Charles George Gordon at Khartoum. He was then (1886–88) governor-general of Eastern Sudan and helped (1889) turn back the last Mahdist invasion of Egypt. In 1892 he was made commander in chief of the Egyptian army and in 1896 began the reconquest of Sudan, having prepared the way by a reorganization of the army and the construction of a railway along the Nile. A series of victories culminated (1898) in the battle of Omdurman and the reoccupation of Khartoum. After becoming Sirdar of the Egyptian Army he headed the victorious Anglo-Egyptian army at the Battle of Omdurman on September 2, 1898, a victory made possible by the massive rail construction program he had instituted in the area. Kitchener quite possibly prevented war between France and Britain when he dealt firmly but non-violently with the French military expedition to claim Fashoda, in what became known as the Fashoda Incident. He also reformed the debt laws, preventing rapacious moneylenders from stripping away all assets of impoverished farmers, guaranteeing them five acres (20 000 m²) of land to farm for themselves and the tools to farm with. In 1899 Kitchener was presented with a small island in the Nile at Aswan as in gratitude for his services; the island was renamed Kitchener's Island in his honour. Became freemasonry District Grand Master of Egypt and Sudan in 1899. During the Second Boer War (1899–1902), Kitchener arrived with Lord Roberts and the massive British reinforcements of December 1899. Kitchener was made overall commander in November 1900 following Roberts' removal due to illness. Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, and the failure of a reconciliatory peace treaty in February 1901 (due to British cabinet veto) that Kitchener had negotiated with the Boer leaders, Kitchener inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to crush the Boer guerrillas. His no-prisoners policy became quite controversial. Following this, Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief in India (1902–1909), where he reconstructed the greatly disorganised Indian army, against the wishes of the bellicose viceroy Lord Curzon (pilgrims Society), who became a passionate and lifelong enemy. Kitchener was promoted to Field Marshal in 1910; however, largely due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign, he was turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911. He then returned to Egypt as Viceroy of Egypt and the Sudan (1911–1914). At the outset of World War I (1914), Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War. Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and suffer huge casualties before the end would come. In 1916, Lord Kitchener embarked aboard the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his diplomatic mission to Russia. While en route to the Russian port of Arkhangelsk, Hampshire struck a mine during a Force 9 gale and sank west of the Orkney Islands. His body was never found.

Knight, Robert Huntington


Attorney Shearman & Sterling, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1977-1983, member Council on Foreign Relations, director National Leadership Bank, heir to the Whitney fortune, trustee Asia Foundation.

Krech, Alvin W.


Chairman Equitable Trust Co. in the 1920s, involved with financing Communism.


Lader, Philip

Philip Lader's education includes: Duke University (Phi Beta Kappa), The University of Michigan (M.A., History), graduate studies in law at Oxford University, and Harvard Law School (J.D.). He has been awarded honorary doctorates by 14 American and British universities and colleges. President of Sea Pines Company and Executive Vice President of the late Sir James Goldsmith’s US holding company. His education includes a juris doctorate from Harvard Law School, a master of arts degree in history from the University of Michigan, a bachelor of arts degree (Phi Beta Kappa) from Duke University, as well as graduate studies in law at Oxford University. In 1981 Lader founded the Renaissance Weekends. His wife, Linda LeSourd Lader, is President of the Renaissance Institute. Between 1991 and 1993 he was president of the controversial first private university in Australia, Bond University. White House Deputy Chief of Staff and Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget 1993-1994. From October 1994 until 1997 he was the Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration. US Ambassador to Britain 1997-2001. As ex-ambassador, almost reduced to tears in a British show 2 days after 911. Lader tried to express his sadness over the attacks when a number of audience members had shouted him down to voice their anti-US opinions. Lader is an Honorary Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford University, and London Business School, an Honorary Bencher of the Middle Temple, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Chief Executives Organization. Currently a Senior Advisor to Morgan Stanley, a director of RAND, Marathon Oil and AES Corporations, a member of the Council of Lloyds, a trustee of the British Museum, and a board member of Saint Paul's Cathedral, the Windsor Leadership Trust, the Prince of Wales' Trust and the British-American Business Advisory Council. He is also a partner in the law firm, Nelson, Mullins, Riley & Scarborough. Non-executive chairman of WPP since 2001, the communications company that owns PR companies including Hill & Knowlton, Burson-Marsteller, GCI, and Cohn & Wolfe.

Lamont, Thomas William

chairman exec. committee


Harvard, reporter New York Tribune in 1893, secretary Bankers Trust Company 1903-1904, vice-president Bankers Trust Company, partner J.P. Morgan & Co. 1911, representative of the United States Treasury at the WWI Paris peace talks in 1919, director of the First National Bank of New York, became chairman of J.P. Morgan & Company when Jack Morgan died in 1943, director U.S. Steel, A.T. & San Francisco Railway; International Agricultural Corporation, chairman International Consortium for Assistance to China, honorary chairman associated Harvard Clubs, arranged a $100 million loan to Mussolini in 1926. Has been described as one of the most influential persons of his time. According to Carroll Quigley, he and his son were primary sponsors of the Institute for Pacific Relations (IPR).

Lamont, Gordon


Cousin of Pilgrims Corliss and Thomas Lamont, director Lamont, Corliss & Company 1925-1951, president of Dairy Industry Supply Association 1944-1946, director Dairy Society International, chairman Beryllium Corporation 1955-1958, director of Nestle, mayor of Jupiter Island, Florida, 1967-1977.

Lamont, Thomas Stilwell


Overseer of Harvard University, joined J.P. Morgan & Co. in 1922, vice chairman 1955-1958, director Phelps-Dodge Corporation (the world's number two leading producer of copper and molybdenum and is the world's largest producer of continuous-cast copper rod), director International Minerals & Chemicals, director Texas Gulf Sulphur, director Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, trustee Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, president Phillips Exeter Academy 1946-1956.

Lamont, Corliss (*may not have been a member, but certainly was as close as you can get)


Son of Thomas W. Lamont and younger brother of Thomas S. Lamont, leading Socialist-Communist in the United States, contributing editor to a publication called “Soviet Russia Today”, professor of philosophy at Columbia University 1928-1932, during the time when Pilgrim president Nicholas Murray Butler was also the president of Columbia university (who loved totalitarian systems), chairman Congress of American-Soviet Friendship, director American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), advisor to the American Humanist Association 1939-1941, instructor at the New School for Social Research 1940-1942 , member American Academy of Arts and Sciences, wrote “Russia Day By Day.”(1933), “You Might Like Socialism---A Way of Life For Modern Man.” (1939) and “I Want To Be Like Stalin” (1947), indicted for contempt of Congress in 1956, but was rescued by a United States Court of Appeals, member of the Foreign Policy Association and the American Association for the United Nations. He was accused by Senator Joseph McCarthy of being "un-American".

Lansing, Robert


His father-in-law was the grandfather of John and Allen Dulles, founded the American Journal of International Law in 1907 and remained an editor of it until his death, Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson 1915-1920 , strong advocate of U.S. participation in World War I, nominal head of the U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference, did not regard the League of Nations as essential to the peace treaty and began to fall out of favor with Wilson, legal counsel to the Chinese Government, trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Lavis, Fred


Married Blanche Biddle of Nicholas Biddle in 1902, U.S. president of International Railways of Central America in 1928.

Lee, Ivy L.


newspaperman in New York City, lecturer London School of Economics 1911-1912, public relations expert and publicist for the Pennsylvania Railroad and for John D. Rockefeller Jr., working for Rockefeller he laid the foundation for Communist propaganda and is even said to have inspired Hitler and Stalin on this subject, made a 2-week trip to Russia on behalf of John D. Rockefeller in May of 1927, member of the Royal Economic Society, director Research Corporation 1925-1934.

Lee, James E.


Son of Ivy L. Lee, member Royal Economic Society, chairman and CEO Gulf Oil Corporation, director Chevron. Joy Manufacturing Co., Pittsburgh National Bank, PNC Financial Corp., Gulf Canada Ltd., the American Petroleum Institute and West Penn Hospital, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Leffingwell, Russell C.


Under Secretary of the Treasury. Director and trustee Carnegie Corporation, present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1943. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1944. President Council on Foreign Relations 1944-1946. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1953. Senior partner J.P. Morgan & Company. Chairman J.P. Morgan & Company 1948-1950. Co-founder of the American-Australian Association in 1948. Good friend of John Maynard Keynes, who he would receive at his Morgan office when Keynes visited the United States. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1960.

Lehman, Robert

1891 - 1969

The Lehmans are one of America's most prominent German-Jewish dynasties. Their ancestor, Abraham Lehmann (1785-1865), lived in the Bavarian village of Rimpar. After their emigration to Montgomery, Alabama, in the middle of the nineteenth century, his sons founded the banking firm of Lehman Brothers, today one of the most prestigious on Wall Street. Educated at Yale University. Robert Lehman was chairman of Lehman Brothers until 1969. He was the first one to invite non-family members to become partners in the firm. Had a large art collection.

Leslie, John Ethelbert


Governor of the United Nations Association. Director of the Foreign Policy Association. Director of the France-America Society. Chairman Bache Group. Trustee of the Institute for International Education. Recipient of decorations from Portugal, France, Austria and West Germany.

Louis, John J., Jr.

died 1995

He enrolled at Northwestern for one year before entering World War II as a aviator. After service he graduated from Williams College and then received an MBA from Amos Tuck at Dartmouth. After several years in advertising John became a venture capitalist. In 1946, John J. Louis became Chairman of the Board of The KTAR Broadcasting Company. Father died in 1959. Chairman of The KTAR Broadcasting Company by 1960. Long a contributor to the republican party. Ambassador to Great Britain 1981-1983. Trustee of Northwestern University from 1972 to 1995.

Lucas, Charles Clement, Jr.


Son of Charles Clement Lucas, Sr., and Sallie Elizabeth Williams was born in Wilson, North Carolina. He attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where he received an A.B. in Chemistry and History, and the Doctor of Medicine. He completed his medical training at Duke University where he was Chief Resident of Family Practice. He was elected to membership in the Order of the Old Well at the University of North Carolina. For his medical leadership activities in North Carolina he received The Order of the Long Leaf Pine, the highest award given by the State of North Carolina. Dr. Lucas served in the United States Public Health Service from 1970-1972 and was commissioned as Senior Assistant Surgeon. Dr. Lucas moved to New York City in 1979 where he lived until 1988 when he moved to Greenwich, Connecticut. He maintains a private practice of internal medicine in Larchmont, New York, and is certified by the American Board of Family Practice. r. Lucas is a member of the Pilgrims of the United States; Northeast Harbor Swim and Tennis; Squadron A Association of New York; Northeast Harbor Fleet; The Union Club of the City of New York; Soldiers Sailors Marines Airmen Club; American Philosophical Society; Youth Foundation of the City of New York; Christ Episcopal Church, Greenwich; New York Academy of Sciences; North Carolina Society of the City of New York; The Dinner Dancers of the City of New York. He is also a member of the Holland Lodge #8, F &AM; Ancient Chapter No.1, Royal Arch Masons; Morton Commandery No. 4, New York City, Knights Templar; Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Valley of New York, 32nd degree. Leading figure in many blue blood/templar organizations. Among them are the Society of Descendants of Knights of the Garter, Order of the Crown in America, National Society Americans of Royal Descent, Order of the Merovingian Dynasty (Founder Member; Secretary General), Order of the Crown of Charlemagne in the United States, Military Order of the Crusades, Order of Three Crusades 1096-1192, Order of Descendants of Ancient Planters, General Society of Colonial Wars , etc., etc. Serving Brother of the Order of St. John (bestowed by Queen Elizabeth II). Chirurgeon of the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem.

Luce, Henry Robinson


His mother was Elizabeth Root, from a family that had earlier intermarried with the Spencers and Pomeroys. Born in Shantung Province, China, in Presbyterian mission house. Attended Chefoo School, Chefoo [Yantai], China from 1908-1912. Attended St. Alban's School north of London, England 1912-1913. Attended Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. 1913-1916. B.A., Yale University in 1920 where he was introduced into Skull & Bones. Student at Oxford University in England 1920-1921. Reporter for the Chicago Daily News and Baltimore Sun 1921-1922. Cofounded Time with Briton Hadden (Skull & Bones 1920) in 1923 with the help of J.P. Morgan partners Thomas Lamont and Dwight Morrow. Harvey Firestone, E. Roland Harriman, and various members of the Harkness family were other funders of his early media empire. Married to Lila Holz 1923-1935. Founded Fortune in 1930. Editor-in-chief, Time Publications 1930-1938. First “March of Time” radio program in 1931. First “March of Time” newsreel in 1935. Married Clare Boothe Luce, a Dame of Malta, in 1935. Founded Life in 1936. Editorial director, Time, inc. 1938. Organizer of United China Relief in 1940. Initiated the Commission on Freedom of the Press in 1944. Awarded the Order of Auspicious Star (China) in 1947. Founded House and Home in 1952. Founded Sports Illustrated in 1954. Influential member of the Republican Party. Member of the Atlantic Union. Luce was a strong opponent of Fidel Castro and his revolutionary government in Cuba. This included the funding of Alpha 66 (which was guided by the CIA). In 1962 and 1963 Alpha 66 launched several raids on Cuba which included attacks on port installations and foreign shipping. When Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, Luce's Life Magazine purchased the Zapruder Film for $150,000. Soon after the assassination they also successfully negotiated with Marina Oswald the exclusive rights to her story. This story never appeared in print, but in an interview she gave to the Ladies Home Journal in September 1988 she argued: "I believe he worked for the American government... He was taught the Russian language when he was in the military. Do you think that is usual, that an ordinary soldier is taught Russian? Also, he got in and out of Russia quite easily, and he got me out quite easily." Luce published individual frames of Zapruder's film but did not allow the film to be screened in its entirety. It was shown to the public in March 1975 which convinced many that the fatal head shot come from the Grassy Knoll (because of Kennedy's violent backward and leftward movement while the bullet is supposed to have come from the back). Writers such as Noel Twyman, David Lifton, Jack White, John Costella and David Mantik have claimed that the Zapruder Film has been tampered with. Retired from Time/Life in 1964.

Luce, Henry III



Grandson of the famous Henry Luce (who's wife was a Dame of Malta). The original Henry Luce was a Skull & Bones member, a media giant (owned Time, Fortune & Life Magazine together with House & Home and Sports Illustrated), and quickly bought and held on to the JFK Zapruder film in 1963. Henry Luce III worked his way up in his father's media empire and later inherited it. Luce began at Time as a correspondent in Washington, D.C. Moving to New York in 1953, he served as a Time contributing editor whose cover stories included those on Joseph R. McCarthy and then Vice President Richard M. Nixon. In 1956 he became head of the Time's New Building Department which planned and supervised construction of the new Time & Life Building in Rockefeller Center. Following completion of the building in 1960, he held a number of posts at Time Inc., including Circulation Director of Fortune, Architectural Forum and House and Home. In 1964 he became a vice president of Time Inc., and later, director of Research and Development. He became Time's London Bureau Chief in 1966, publisher of Fortune in 1968 and publisher of Time in 1969. Before joining the Time, Inc., Mr. Luce served on the staff of the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (the first Hoover Commission) as assistant to Commissioner Joseph P. Kennedy (Knight of Malta), followed by two years as a reporter for the Cleveland Press. CEO & president Henry Luce Foundation 1958-1990. Chairman Henry Luce Foundation 1990-2002. Trustee of Princeton Theological Seminary, the Center of Theological Inquiry, The Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, The New York Historical Society, the Brooklyn Museum of Art, and A Christian Ministry in National Parks. He is a director of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations and of the Foreign Policy Association, as well as the founding member of the American Council for the United Nations University. He is Chairman of the Graduate Theological Union's President's Advisory Council, and he is a charter member of Yale University's President's Council on International Activities. He is a commissioner of the National Museum of American Art, and on the Advisory Councils of the Fulbright Commission, The Newark Museum and the National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art. He is an emeritus life trustee of the College of Wooster. He is Chairman of American Security Systems, Inc. and a director of the Fishers Island Development Company. He is the former president of the New Museum of Contemporary Art (1977-1998). From 1960 to 1972 he was president of the board of trustees of St., Bernard's School, Gladstone, New Jersey. He is the former chairman of the China Institute in America (1975-1978) and was a trustee from 1988-1998. He is a former trustee of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (1958-1993), the American Federation of Arts, the Academy of American Poets, the Pan American Development Foundation (1983-1994), the American Friends of Canada (1990-1994), the Skowhegan School of Painting & Sculpture (1973-88), the Yale-China Association (1979-88) and the Association to Unite the Democracies (1982-88) and a former director of Circle Repertory Company (1981-88) and of the U.S. Committee for UNICEF (1990-1993). He is an elder of the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church and president of the Pilgrims of the United States. He is a member of The Brook and the University Club (former Council member).

Maclamroc, James Gwaltney Westwarren

exec. committee


Historian, attorney, colonel, North Carolina financier, broadcasting magnate, land baron, Order of the Crown in America, Society of Americans of Royal Descent, directed the design of the seal for his county (Guilford).

Macomber, John Dewitt


Married into the Morgan family. CEO and chairman Celanese Corporation. CEO of JDM Investment Group. Chairman and president of the Export-Import Bank of the U.S. (EXIMBANK)1989-1992. Director of R.J. Reynolds Industries, Chase Manhattan Bank. Member Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, the Pilgrims Society, the Atlantic Council of the United States, and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Makins, Lord Roger Mellor


Born in 1904. Became the 1st Baron Sherfield. Fellow of All Souls, the chief headquarters of the Round Table Group according to professor Carroll Quigley. Joined the Foreign Office at the age of 24. Became part of the Milner Group according to Quigley. Assistant adviser and adviser on League of Nations affairs to the Foreign Office 1937-1939. Secretary to the British delegation to the Evian Conference in 1938. After the Evian Conference, Makins was made secretary to the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees. During World War II he was advisor to Harold Macmillan in North Africa and met Eisenhower. United Kingdom representative on United Nations Interim Commission for Food and Agriculture in 1945. Minister at the British Embassy in Washington 1945-1947. Alternate delegate to the fifth session of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration in 1946. Architect of the British Marshall Scholarships programme. Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1947-1948. Deputy Under Secretary 1948-1952. British ambassador to Washington 1952-1956. Joint Permanent Secretary of the Treasury in 1956. First chairman of the Ditchley Foundation. Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (at least in 1965, when he visited Karachi, Pakistan). Chairman of the Imperial College of London 1962-1974. Chancellor of the University of Reading. Chairman of the Select Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Lords. Knight of the Order of St Michael and St George. Knight of the Order of the Bath. Member of the Pilgrims Society and identified as a governor of the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs in 1987. Died in 1996.

His son, Christopher J. Makins (the second Lord Sherfield), was born in Southampton, NY, educated at New College, Oxford, where he earned first class honors in Modern History in 1963, and was elected a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford in 1963. He is fluent in French and a U.S. and British dual national. Served for 11 years as a member of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service, working in London, Paris and Washington. Deputy director of the Trilateral Commission 1975-1976. Deputy director at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 1977-1979. Division manager and assistant vice president at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) 1979-1989. Makins worked in partnership with former U.S. Deputy Defense Secretary Robert Ellsworth (Lazard; Bilderberg; CFR; Atlantic Institute) to provide a regular newsletter on U.S. foreign-economic and defense policy and domestic politics from 1981 to 1994. Director at the Roosevelt Center for American Policy Studies 1984-1988. Vice president and then executive vice president of the Aspen Institute from 1989 to 1997, where he was involved with the European and Asian partners. Senior Adviser to the German Marshall Fund of the United States 1997-1999. President of the Atlantic Council of the United States since September 1999.

Mallory, Walter Hampton


Special assistant to the American ambassador in Petrograd (former capital of Russia) 1916-1917, president of the China Institute in America 1943-1947, Rockefeller's China Medical Board beginning in 1947 and on, director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1959, director Council on Foreign Relations 1959-1968, decorated the Order of Pure Gold by China.

Marburg, Theodore


Vice-president of the Vanderbilt run American Economic Association, U.S. Minister to Belgium 1912-1914, big player in the formation of The League of Nations and wrote a bunch of books about it (starting in 1917), founded the American Society for the Judicial Settlement in 1920, trustee of Johns Hopkins University.

Marcosson, Isaac Frederick


Well-known correspondent for the Saturday Evening Post 1907-1936, interviewed many important people, wrote some 30 books, including “The Rebirth of Russia” and “The Business of War”, (both in 1917).

Marshall, George Catlett


Virginia Military Institute, Kappa Alpha Order, Order of the Bath (Knight Grand Cross), USSR Order of Suvarov, Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe, selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander in Europe, and designed Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy. Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated all Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. Unofficial ambassador (Truman representative) to China 1945-1947, Secretary of State 1947–1949, received the Distinguished Achievement Award for his role as military leader in and after WWII (1948). After WW II he was sent to China to negotiate a truce and build a coalition government between the Nationalists and Communists fighting the Chinese Civil War. His efforts failed and he was recalled in January 1947. Secretary of Defense in 1950, but retired from politics for good in 1951 after Senator Joseph McCarthy implied he was a traitor and denounced him for making decisions that "aided the Communist drive for world domination". He became president of the American National Red Cross in 1950 and received the Nobel Peace Prize 1953. Marshall Scholars are common among Pilgrims.

Martin, Luther III


Chemical, oil and gas tycoon, president Alumni Society of the University of Pennsylvania 1936-1938.

Martin, William McChesney, Jr.


Chairman Export-Import Bank of the U.S., assistant Treasury Secretary, director World Bank, chairman Federal Reserve System 1951-1970 and reorganised the NY Stock Exchange. Director U.S. Steel, Freeport Minerals Company, Scandinavian Securities Corporation, Riggs National Bank, American Express, Caterpillar Tractor, Dow Jones & Company, Eli Lilly & Company, General Foods, and Royal Dutch Shell Petroleum. Trustee Yale University, member Atlantic Council of the United States, member Council on Foreign Relations. His father was a governor and president of the Federal Reserve Bank of of St. Louis and was summoned by Woodrow Wilson to establish the Federal Reserve Act of 1913.

Martin, Alastair Bradley


His mother was Helen Phipps, director Bessemer Securities Corporation, president Regional Broadcasters Group.

Maull, Baldwin


Chairman of Marine Midland Bank, member of the council of the American Numismatic Society (1969)

Mayer, John Anton


Director General Motors, H.J. Heinz Foods, Armco Steel, Edgewater Steel, Westinghouse, Consolidated Coal Company, PPG Industries, Norfolk & Western Railway, Duquesne Light Company, Lincoln National Life Insurance, Pittsburgh Baseball Club and others. Owned First Boston Corporation, of which Pilgrim Society member, Mellon agent Emil J. Pattberg Jr. was chairman.

McCain, John Sidney, Jr.


McCain was an Admiral in the United States Navy. His father John S. McCain, Sr. was also an admiral in the Navy, and his son John S. McCain III is a US Senator representing Arizona. Born in Council Bluffs, Iowa, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1931. During World War II, "Junior" – who preferred to be called "Jack" – commanded the submarines USS Gunnel and Dentuda. Subsequently he held a number of posts, rising to Commander-in-Chief of the United States Pacific Command before retiring in 1972. He was involved in the investigations that followed the USS Liberty incident. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. USS John S. McCain (DDG-56) was named for him and his father.

McCloy, John Jay


Catholic. Harvard Law School 1921. As a lawyer he gained an international reputation when after a long investigation he fixed responsibility on the German government for the Black Tom munitions explosion in Hoboken, N.J., in 1917. Assistant Secretary of War in World War II 1941-1945 (recruited by Henry L. Stimson). Helped write the Lend-Lease bill. Opposed the "Morgenthau Plan" to de-industrialize Germany. Served as chairman of the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee. Oversaw Germany's return to statehood and released Fritz Thyssen, Hjalmar Schacht, Friedrich Flick, and Alfred Krupp. He became president of the World Bank 1947-1949 (without any experience in banking). U.S. military governor and high commissioner for Germany 1949-1952. Chairman Chase National Bank 1953-1960. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1970. Member of the Pilgrims Society. Visitor of Bilderberg. Governor of the Atlantic Institute for International Affairs. Chairman Ford Foundation 1958-1965. President Kennedy's principal disarmament adviser 1961-1963. Member of the Warren Commission 1963. Author of The Challenge of American Foreign Policy (1953) and The Atlantic Alliance (1969).

McGarrah, Gates W.


Chairman Chase National Bank until 1927, U.S. member of the General Council of the German Reichsbank until 1927, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1927-1930, first president of the Bank for International Settlements 1930.

McHugh, Keith Stratton


Related to the Aldrich family, director National City Bank, Carrier Corporation, Dun & Bradstreet, Empire City Subway and American Telephone & Telegraph, trustee Carnegie Institution of Washington 1950-1974.

Mellon, Andrew W.


Owned his father's banking firm, father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, at age 27, helped organize Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh in 1889, built a great personal fortune from oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction. During the World War I years he participated in many patriotic civilian activities such as the American Red Cross, the National War Council of the YMCA, the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania State Council of National Defense, and the National Research Council of Washington. He was U.S. Secretary of the Treasury 1921-1932, member Federal Reserve System 1921-1932, United States ambassador to Great Britain 1932-1933, director of 51 corporations and stockholder in more than 300 corporations, polluted the environment to the extreme, underpayed his imported workers tremendously, kept them in very unhealthy conditions and even had troublesome workers tortured and killed if necessary. As of 1928 armed private police forces watched over his mines. He was very close with the British royals. He was one of the few who held his own against the Rockefellers and J.P. Morgan. Freemason.

Mellon, Paul W.


His father was known as a ruthless businessman who greatly suppressed his workers in all his hundreds of companies and polluted the environment to the extreme. He was the only one to hold his own against the Rockefellers and the Morgans. Paul was a member of Yale Scroll & Key. He didn't spend much time in business. Long-time neighbor of the powerful Averell Harriman and worked together with his son-in-law. During WWII, Paul Mellon became OSS station chief in London and liaison to British Intelligence. After WWII, Martin A. Lee and Bruce Schlain note in Acid Dreams: "... members of the Mellon family maintained close ties with the CIA. The Mellon family foundations have been used repeatedly as conduits for Agency funds. Furthermore, Richard Helms was a frequent weekend guest of the Mellon patriarchs in Pittsburgh during his tenure as CIA director [1966-1973]." Founded the Old Dominion Foundation which merged to become the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Philanthropist, art collector and horse breeder. Established the Yale Center for British Art. He has been a member of the 1001 Club.

Metcalf, Bryce

exec. committee


As of 1938, President General of the Society of the Cincinnati, which is very likely the American counterpart of English Order of the Garter or the Scottish Order of the Thistle.

Milbank, Jeremiah


Wealthy New York investment broker in the first half of the 20th century, director Chase National Bank of New York, director Equitable Trust Company, owner Southern Railway Co., trustee Georgia Warm Springs Foundation in 1934, partner in the New York law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hope, Hadley & McCloy.

Miller, William Christian


Reynolds Securities of New York.

Milner, Lord Alfred



Oxford. London journalist for a short time. Private secretary to George Goschen (chancellor of the exchequer) 1887-1890. Undersecretary of finance in Egypt 1890-1892. Wrote a book which argued for more British influence in Egypt 1892. Trustee of Rhodes' final will. Became a viscount in 1902. High commissioner for South Africa and governor-general of Cape Colony from 1897-1905. Supervised the destruction of Dutch settlers what led to the Boer war 1899-1902. Secretary of War under David Lloyd George 1916-1918. Worked together with the Warburgs, Schiffs, Rothschilds and other persons to foment the Russian revolution. Colonial Secretary 1919-1921. Led a commission to Egypt that recommended Egyptian independence in 1920. Terence O'Brien's biography, "Milner", p. 97, "Milner went to Paris on some business with Alhponse de Rothschild... Business calls in the City included a formal visit to Rothschilds... weekend with Lord Rothschild at Tring, and visit with Edward Cecil, Lord Salisbury at Hatfield... while spending a weekend with Lord Rothschild at Tring a Press Lord gave him a sleepless night [no further explanation given]... talks with Rothschild. Milner attended a Zionist dinner given by Lord Rothschild, sitting next to Lawrence of Arabia, who interpreted for him in a talk with King Feisal." On p. 364, O'Brien notes, "Milner lost no time in recreating his links with the City. He went first to Rio Tinto which reelected him to its Board and before long Rothschild asked him to be its chairman." Chairman of Rio Tinto Zinc 1921-1925. The Round Table Group was unofficially named the Milner Group after Cecil Rhodes died.

Moore, George Stevens


Yale, joined Farmers Loan and Trust Co. in 1927, which became First National City Bank of New York, which became Citibank, retired as chairman from Citibank in 1967, president New York Metropolitan Opera Association in 1967, author of "The Banker's Life" (1987). In 1987 he was the chairman of Gibraltar Trust Bank Ltd. and director at Credit Suisse White Weld, Union Pacific Railroad, U.S. Steel, W.R. Grace and Mercantile Stores.

Moore, Charles Garrett Ponsonby


11th Earl of Drogheda, descendant of the Earl of Drogheda, who was Queen Victoria’s private secretary for a quarter of a century. Married Paul Mellon’s stepdaughter Eliza, managing director Financial Times 1946-1971, chairman Financial Times 1971-1974.

Morgan, John Pierpont


Pierpont and Morgan were/are both wealthy elite Anglo-American families and have intermarried (before and after J.P. Morgan) with the Spencers, Grosvenors, Barings, Gascoignes, Harcourts, Adams, and others. Son of the London-based Junius Spencer Morgan, who, by 1854, became a London agent of George Peabody (Junius was also the favorite banker of Andrew Carnegie in London). Peabody is said to have been an agent of the London Rothschild family. In 1857 the Bank of England gave a loan to George Peabody & Co. and saved it, while 9000 other companies went down in a large financial crash. With this money Peabody bought up large amounts of dirt cheap securities and sold them at a later stage with enormous profits. In 1864, as Peabody retires, George Peabody & Company is renamed to Junius S. Morgan Company and Junius supposedly becomes a direct Rothschild agent. John P. was educated at the English high-school in Boston, and studied for 2 years at the University of Goettingen in mathematics. He returned to the United States in 1857, and entered the banking-firm of Duncan, Sherman and Co. of New York. In 1860 he became an agent and attorney in the United States for George Peabody and Co. of London, a relation he has since held with that firm and its successor. He became the junior partner of the banking-firm of Dabney, Morgan and Co. in 1864, and that of Drexel, Morgan and Co. in 1871 (both under the control of their London counterpart). This house is among the chief negotiators of railroad bonds, and was active in the reorganization of the West Shore railroad and its absorption by the New York Central railroad. Morgan build a huge industrial empire, which could stabilize and destabilize the entire market. He was the first person to issue loans to the American Government, instead of the British, and by 1901 he had bailed out the American government 3 times. No other American businessman has ever come close to the influence of J.P. Morgan. A description of the interests of J.P. Morgan in 1901: "Besides his own private banking house here and its branches abroad, Mr. Morgan largely controls a powerful national bank in New York City-the National Bank of Commerce, of which he is the vice-president. It is known in Wall Street as "Morgan's Bank." He is a dominating influence in other banks and financial institutions, and a director never without much influence in twenty-one railroad companies, great and small, including the New York Central and Lake Shore systems. He is a director in the Western Union Telegraph Company, the Pullman Palace Car Company, the Etna Fire Insurance Company, the General Electric Company, the greatest electric company in the world, and in other less important corporations. And through his partners, who are directors in other railroad and steel corporations, his influence reaches far and wide. He is a potent, and in times of trouble the controlling, factor in several of what are known as the "coal roads" of Pennsylvania-the Erie, the Lehigh Valley, the Central of New Jersey, and the Reading, together with their tributary coal fields. He is the predominating influence in the Southern Railway and in three of its connections, the foremost railroad system of the Southern States, with over eight thousand miles of track, a system which he has created, and of which an associate and is president. He is also a power in many other railroads, as witness his recent appointment of the directors of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and his evident influence through J. J. Hill in the Burlington and Great Northern management. And, as I have already said, he is at present practically dictator of the vast steel interests of the country, through the United States Steel Corporation, and he controls at least one Atlantic steamship line." Pilgrims Society member George Fisher Baker, chairman of Manhattan's First National Bank and director of at least 50 other companies, was one of Morgan's closest allies. He wanted Baker on the board of every important company he financed.

Morgan, John Pierpont, Jr.


American banker and financier, the head of the Morgan investment banking house after the death of his father. Graduated from Harvard University in 1889. Became a member of his father's banking firm, J.P. Morgan and Company, in 1892, working in the firm's London branch for eight years. After that he went to New York. The Morgans had used their banks to gain control of a huge empire of industries, railroads, and insurance companies. They financed corporate mergers and in return gained major roles in the merged companies. One of the most important companies they controlled was U.S. Steel. J.P. Morgan was one of the main financiers of The American Liberty League, the main institute behind the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. His sons and grandsons were far less impressive bankers and by 1960 the Morgan presence in the family firms had ended completely. His sons Junius and Henri were OSS executives working for Wild Bill Donovan.

Morgan, William Fellowes


Scientific interests, alumnus and trustee Columbia University, New York cold storage tycoon, president National Society for the Prevention of Blindness in 1926 (S&B, Pilgrim William H. Taft is the honorary president), trustee Wells College for 26 years, chairman Wells College 1927-1940.

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.


Studied architecture and agriculture for two years at Cornell University. Neighbor and friend of FDR. Appointed chairman New York State Agricultural Advisory Commission in 1929. Appointed State Commissioner of Conservation in 1930 and directed a million-acre reforestation program. Appointed to the Taconic State Park Commission. Appointed chairman of the Federal Farm Board and Governor of the Farm Credit Administration in 1933. Advisor to FDR. U.S. Secretary of the Treasury 1934-1945. In 1944, he proposed the Morgenthau plan, under which post-war Germany would be stripped of its industry and converted into an agricultural nation. At the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, Morgenthau assumed a leading role in establishing post-war economic policies and currency stabilization. In July 1945, three months after the death of President Roosevelt, Morgenthau resigned as Secretary, but remained in office until President Truman's return from the "Big Three" conference in Berlin. From 1947 until 1950, he was Chairman of the United Jewish Appeal, which raised $465 million during that time, and from 1951 to 1954, he served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the American Financial and Development Corporation for Israel, which handled a $500 million bond issue for the new nation.

Morrow, Dwight Whitney


Member of Simpson, Thatcher & Bartlett, with J.P. Morgan & Company 1914-1927, awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by General Pershing in 1919, ambassador to Mexico 1927-1930, delegate to the London Naval Conference 1930, U.S. Senator 1930-1931, regent of the Smithsonian Institution, trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Amherst College, Union Theological Seminary, Russell Sage Foundation and the Commonwealth Fund, which was set up by the Harkness family of Pilgrim Society and the Standard Oil fortune.

Morton, Levi Parsons


Calvinist indoctrinated, quite poor, entered the banking business during the Civil War (1861-1865) and became a prominent New York City banker. His company, through its London branch (Rothschild agent Junius S. Morgan sent him clients), was the financial agent of the U.S. government from 1873 to 1884. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from New York in 1879, driven the ceremonial first rivet into the Statue of Liberty when construction of the monument began in France in 1881, minister to France 1881-1885, Republican vice-president of the United States under Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893, governor of New York 1895-1896.

Morton, William H.


Dartmouth College graduate 1932, helped out with Darthmouth Medical School's financial trouble, Secretary of the Interior, president American Express Co., director of Crocker Bank (merged into London Midland Bank).

Norman, Lord Montagu Collett


The only man in history who had both of his grandfathers serve as Governors of the Bank of England. His father was with Brown, Shipley Company, the London Branch of Brown Brothers. Norman was named to the Court of the Bank of England in 1907, had a nervous breakdown in 1912, and was treated by Carl Jung in Switzerland. Governor Bank of England 1916-1944. Participated in the secret meeting (or meetings) between him, Hjalmar Schacht (Reichsbank) and Benjamin Strong (Federal Reserve) in July 1927. Close friends to both of these men. Leading figure in establishing the Swiss Bank for International Settlements in 1931, involved with abandoning the gold standard in the United Kingdom in 1931. Wall Street Journal, Feb 8, 1927: "Mr. M.Collet Norman, the Governor of the Bank of England, is now head and shoulders above all other British bankers. No other British banker has ever been a sindependent and supreme in the world of British finance as Mr. Norman is today. He has just been elected Governor for the eighth year in succession. Before the war, no Governor was allowed to hold office for more than two years; but Mr. Norman has broken all precedents. He runs his Bank and his Treasury as well. He appears to have no associations except his employees. He gives no interviews. He leaves the British financial world wholly in the thick as to his plans and ideas."

Northcliffe, Lord Alfred Harmsworth


Purchased the Evening News 1894, founded the Daily Mail 1896, warned for the first time that a future war with Germany was possible, editor New York World in 1900, founded The Daily Mirror 1903, baronet in 1904 after turning down an offer of knighthood, obtained the Sunday Observer 1905, purchased The Times 1908, in 1909 he employed a journalist to visit Germany and to write a series of articles on the dangers that the Germans posed to Britain, constantly attacked the government and Lord Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master), finally agreed to join the cabinet and take charge of all propaganda directed at enemy countries, called for Kaiser Wilhelm to be hanged and the imposition of severe financial penalties on Germany, during WWI.

Ochs, Adolph Simon


Starting as a newsboy in Knoxville, Tenn., he became a printer's apprentice, compositor, and, in 1878, publisher of the Chattanooga Times. In 1896 he acquired the then failing New York Times and made it one of the greatest newspapers in the world. He also controlled the Philadelphia Times and the Philadelphia Public Ledger, which he merged and in 1913 sold to Cyrus H. K. Curtis. From 1900 until his death he was a member of the executive committee and a director of the Associated Press.

O’Conner, Sandra Day


Grew up on her family's 198,000 acre cattle ranch, graduated from Stanford Law School 1952, Arizona assistant attorney general 1965-1969, senator from Arizona 1969-1974, trial judge 1974-1979, Arizona Court of Appeals 1979-1981, first woman Supreme Court Justice in 1981. Retired as Justice in 2005. Her husband is a visitor of the Bohemian Grove and stayed in the Pelicans camp.

Odlum, Floyd Bostwick


Law school, assistant librarian, husband of aviatrix Jackie Cochran, founder and chairman Atlas Corporation 1923-1960, chairman Federal Resources Corporation 1961-1969, owner and chairman RKO Radio Pictures 1937-1948, chairman Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation 1947-1953, owner Hidden Splendor (Uranium) Mining Company before 1955, director Office of Production Management 1941-1942, special adviser to the chairman of the War Production Board 1943-44, special adviser to the chairman of the Office of Price Administration 1940-44, owner Convair, Bonwit Taylor & Northeast Airlines, founder and chairman Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation, president Hertz Foundation, trustee Lovelace Foundation, among the 10 richest men in the United States (and the world) in 1932 (billionaire). His Atlas Corporation purchased Paramount Pictures in 1933 at "basement" prices. Odlum was also chairman of RKO Studios, another filmmaker. Atlas Corporation was once known as Atlas Utilities & Investors Company. Odlum was also a heavy owner, through his Atlas Corporation, of Greyhound Bus Lines; Northeast Airlines (nearly 90%); Bonwit Teller (department stores); Convair Aviation; United Fruit Company; and Madison Square Garden. In 1937 it was said that Atlas Corporation was probably the biggest investment trust in the world.

Olin, John Merrill


Graduated from Cornell University with a B.S. in chemistry, chemical engineer for the Western Cartridge Company (became Olin Industries, Inc.) since 1913, became President of Olin Industries in 1944, upon the merger of the company with Mathieson Chemical Corporation in 1954 he became the new chairman, established the John M. Olin Foundation in 1952, inventor or co-inventor of 24 United States patents in the field of arms and ammunition manufacture and design and was responsible for numerous developments in ballistics, breeder of saddle and race horses as well as a trainer and breeder of champion Labrador retrievers, widely recognized as one of the country's most active conservationists and led the effort to save the Atlantic salmon. Mr. Olin was a Trustee Emeritus of Cornell University and of Johns Hopkins University, a Life Trustee of Washington University, St. Louis, and an Honorary Director of The American Museum of Natural History. He was named the Charles F. Kettering Award recipient for 1968 by the George Washington University PTC Research Institute. He received the Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur of France and the Grand Ufficiale-Ordine al Merito della Republica Italiana.

O'Ryan, John F.


Enlisted in the army as a Private in 1897, became Major General in 1912, appointed by President Wilson as Major General of the National Army in 1917, Knight Commander, Order of St. Michael and St. George, Royal Victorian Order, Legion of Honor, and a few other rewards.

Otis, Norton


Founder Otis Elevator


Page, Walter Hines


Educated at Trinity College (now Duke), Randolph-Macon College, and Johns Hopkins University studying Greek classics, editor of the St. Joseph Gazette, the Forum and Atlantic Monthly, partner in the publishing firm of Doubleday Page & Company (publisher), wrote “The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths” (1902), founded and edited the "World's Work" up to 1913, ambassador to Great Britain during World War I, urging an early United States intervention which improved the ties between the US and England (although Wilson didn't approve).

Page, Walter Hines II


Grandson of Walter Hines Page, director Kennecott Copper, director AT&T, director Merck & Company, vice-president, president, vice-chairman & chairman at J.P. Morgan & Company (retired in 1979), president, chairman & trustee Long Island Biological Association, director or trustee of the Foreign Policy Association, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory & New York Urban Coalition, trustee Carnegie Institution of Washington (1971-1979), member Council on Foreign Relations.

Paley, William S.


Graduated from Western Military Academy in 1918, studied at the University of Chicago 1918-1919, University of Pennsylvania B.S. in 1922, served as colonel of the United States Army during WWII, deputy chief of the psychological warfare division of SHAPE (NATO), deputy chief of information control division of U.S. Group Control Council, Germany (USGCC), vice-president Congress Cigar Company 1922-1928, every executive position possible at CBS Inc.1928-1990, partner Whitcom Investment Company 1982-90, founder and director Genetics Institute 1980-1990, Thinking Machines Corp. 1983-1990, co-chair International Herald Tribune 1983-1990, president and director William S. Paley Foundation and the Greenpark Foundation, Inc., life trustee Columbia University 1950-1990, chairman and trustee North Shore University Hospital 1949-1973, life trustee Federation Jewish Philanthropies of New York, director W. Averill Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of Soviet Union at Columbia University, member Commission for White House Conference on Education 1954-1956, chairman President's Materials for Policy Commission, which produced "Resources for Freedom" 1951-1952, director, chairman and honorary member Resources for the Future 1952-1969, chairman New York City Task Force on Urban Design, which prepared "The Threatened City" report in 1967, member Urban Design Council City New York 1968-1971, co-founder and director Bedford-Stuyvesant D and S Corp. 1967-1972, member Commission on Critical Choices for America 1973-1977, member Council on Foreign Relations, member Academy of Political Sciences, member National Institute for Social Sciences, member Royal Society of the Arts. Paley seems to have been involved with the British Crown's Tavistock Institute.

Parker, Sir Gilbert


Canadian novelist, born in Ontario. His novels and collections of tales usually deal either with the history of Canada or with England and the empire. Among his works are Pierre and His People (1892), The Seats of the Mighty (1896), and The Promised Land (1928). He moved to England in 1889 and from 1900 to 1918 served in Parliament.

Parry, Sir Emyr Jones


Joined Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1973. Second later First Secretary (Political) later First Secretary (Economic), Ottawa in 1974. Worked on EU affairs in Foreign and Commonwealth Office and in the UK Representation to the EU in Brussels 1979-1984. Deputy Chef du Cabinet, President of the European Parliament 1987-1989. Head of European Community Department External, Foreign and Commonwealth Office 1989-1993. Minister and Deputy Head of Mission, Madrid 1993-1996. Deputy Political Director foremostly, responsible also for Balkans and Aegean policy 1996-1997. Director European Union responsible for policy, including co-ordination and organisation of the 1998 UK Presidency of the EU 1997-1998. Political Director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office responsible for policy advice to the Secretary of State 1998-2001. UK Permanent Representative on the North Atlantic Council 2001-2003. Permanent Representative, UK Mission to the UN, New York since 2003.

Parsons, Sir Maurice Henry


Joined the Bank of England in 1928, private secretary to Governor Montagu Norman at the Bank of England 1939-1943, U.K. executive director IMF 1946-1947, Director of Operations IMF 1947-1950, deputy chief cashier Bank of England 1950-1955, assistant to the governors of the Bank of England 1955-1957, executive director Bank of England 1957-1966, deputy governor Bank of England 1966-1970, knighted in 1966.

Pattberg Emil J., Jr.


Chairman First Boston Corporation (Has been rated as the world’s leading investment banking operation).

Patterson, Ellmore Clark


Married Ann Hyde Choate of the Pilgrim Hyde & Choate families, WWII navy, joined J.P. Morgan & Company in 1935, finally became chairman J.P. Morgan & Company 1971-1978, trustee Massachusetts Institute of Technology, life trustee University of Chicago, director Morgan Bank of Canada, Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, Schlumberger Limited (rival to Halliburton), Standard Brands Bethlehem Steel, International Nickel Co., Atlantic Richfield Oil Co., Nabisco Brands Inc., General Motors and Canada Life Assurance, member Presidential Commission on Financial Structure and Regulation 1970-1972, member Council on Foreign Relations, involved with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, treasurer and trustee Sloan-Kettering for Cancer Research around 1956 (together with Laurence Rockefeller, George Whitney and other heavy-hitters), member Investment Committee of the Committee on Scientific Policy around 1956 (together with Laurence Rockefeller).

Patterson, Richard Cunningham Jr.


Served in the army during WWI, started with the Du Ponts in 1921, delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York in 1928, joined National Broadcasting in 1932, chaired RKO Corporation 1939-1943, ambassador to Yugoslavia 1944-1947, Guatemala 1948-1951, Switzerland 1951-1953, director New Hampshire & Hudson Railroad, John C. Paige Incorporated Insurance Brokers, Hilton Hotels International, Empire State Building Corporation, General Dynamics, Burrus Mills, American Export Lines, Hidden Splendor Mining Company, Mercast Corporation, and Wah-Chang Smelting & Refining Company, director and first president of the China-America Council of Commerce & Industry. Patterson chaired the Military Intelligence Reserve Society in 1930 and received the Order of the Jade (China), in addition to many other international awards. He also chaired the United Nations Committee for the City of New York.

Peabody, Richard A.


Possibly of the same family branch as the infamous George Peabody (1795-1869), who is said to have been a Rothschild agent, was the founder of modern philanthropy, was responsible for the rise of the Morgans, and was very highly respected by the British (received a temporary burial in Westminster Abbey and his body was shipped back to the US on the 'Monarch', the newest and largest ship in Her Majesty's Navy). Richard attended the first annual dinner of the New-York City Club of Yale College in 1886. Was recruited into the English branch of the Pilgrims in 1903. Died early in 1910 and his wife, Mary Chester Miller, survived him by 40 years. In 1921 Mrs. Richard A. Peabody, as she was usually addressed, set up a French Shop in New York with Mrs. Robert Grosvenor. Richard Peabody's grandson, Lieutenant Matthew Looram, Jr. (born 1921), married the daugther of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild of Vienna, Bettina de Rothschild, on September 18, 1943. Looram, Jr. served in the U.S. Army during World War II, was U.S. Consul in Asmara 1959-1962, U.S. Ambassador to Dahomey 1969-1971, and U.S. Ambassador to Somalia 1972-1973.

Peale, Norman Vincent


Famous Protestant clergyman, pastor of Marble Collegiate Church for 52 years, Freemason and member of the Midwood Lodge No. 1062 (NY), wrote one of the best-selling books of the 1950s, "applied Christianity", authored 45 other books (mainly about positive thinking) that still sell today, published the inspirational magazine 'Guideposts', controlled the megamillion dollar Presbyterian Ministers Fund.

Penrose, Charles

born 1886

Protestant Episcopalian, founded the Pennsylvania Board of Health, president Philadelphia zoo, co-founder and chairman Newcomen Society, member English Speaking Union. Penrose Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over the Newcomen Society for 65 years since it's founding in 1923.

Penrose, Charles, Jr.

born 1921

Inheritor of a cotton, engineering, mining and power production fortune, chairman Newcomen Society (The logo is a lion with the wings of an eagle, again indicating Britain and the US), member English-Speaking Union. Penrose Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over the Newcomen Society for 65 years since it's founding in 1923.

Perry, James De Wolf



In 1930, Reverend Perry became head of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, which made him the American counterpart to the Archbishop of Canterbury (also a member). Appeared as vice-president on the 1942 membership list.

Perryman, Francis Spencer


Born December 3, 1896 in London, England, he was educated at Christ’s College, London and London University from which he received a B.Sc. degree. He entered the employ of the Royal Insurance Company in London in 1914. After serving as a Lieutenant in the British Army from 1915 to 1919, he resumed his career with the Royal Insurance Company and in 1922 became a Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries. He came to the United States in 1924 as Assistant Actuary of the casualty companies of the Royal-Globe Insurance Companies and later was elected Vice President and Actuary of those companies. In 1949 he became Assistant United States Manager, Vice President and Actuary of all of the com- panies of the Royal-Globe Insurance Companies operating in the United States. Mr. Perryman’s professional attainments were of the highest order. In addition to his Fellowship in the Institute of Actuaries, he was a Fellow and past President of the Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the Society of Actuaries. He was also a member of the American Statistical Association, the Mathematical Association of America, and the American Mathematical Society. At the time of his death he was Vice-Chairman of the ASTIN Section of the International Congress of Actuaries. One of the things which is least known is that Mr. Perryman was an avid student of religion as well as mathematics. He was a member of the Church Club of New York, the St. George’s Society and the Pilgrims of the United States. He was formerly the efficient Treasurer and dedicated Church Warden of the Church of Saint James the Less in Scarsdale, New York. His ability and personality made him one of the most influential persons in the actuarial development of fire and casualty insurance in the US from the 1920's to the 1950's.

Phelps-Stokes, James Graham


Yale, not Skull & Bones but many Phelps and Phelps-Stokes were, honorary councillor of the Russian Information Bureau in the United States 1917-1922, owned Austin Mining, Manhattan Silver Mine, Ione Gold Mining, Nevada Central Railroad, Nevada Motor Lines, The Nevada Company and State Bank of Nevada, president of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society 1907-1918, member of the China Society of America, Royal India and Pakistan Society, Oriental Institute of University of Chicago, American Oriental Society, American Legion, Sons of the Revolution, Society of Colonial Wars and others. Member of the New York Governor’s Committee in 1921 to welcome to New York representatives of European countries to attend the International Conference on Limitation of Armaments, a forerunner of the S.A.L.T. talks. (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)

Phillips, Lord Nicholas Addison


Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers. Phillips was educated at Bryanston School; he enjoyed his time at the school and from 1975 he became a Governor of the School; he has been Chairman of the Governors since 1981. He undertook his National Service with the Royal Navy and the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve where he was a commissioned officer; after the two years service he went up to King's College, Cambridge where he read Law. In 1962 he was called to the bar (Middle Temple) where he was the Harmsworth Scholar. He went into practise as a barrister, specialising in maritime law matters; in 1973 he was appointed as Junior Counsel to the Ministry of Defence and to the Treasury in maritime and Admiralty matters; in 1978 he 'took silk' and became a Queen's Counsel. In 1982 Phillips was appointed as a Recorder (junior Judge) and from 1987 was a full time Judge on the Queen's Bench Division, with the customary Knighthood. He took an interest in legal training, and was Chairman of the Council of Legal Education from 1992 to 1997. He presided over several complex fraud trials including those covering the Robert Maxwell pension fund fraud and Barlow Clowes. In 1995 he became a Lord Justice of Appeal and was appointed to the Privy Council. In early 1999 he was made a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and in 2000 succeeded Lord Woolf as Master of the Rolls. Chairman of the BSE inquiry 1998-2000.

Phipps, Henry


Son of an immigrant cobbler, grew up with and befriended Andrew Carnegie, finally intermarried with the Carnegie family, partner in Bidwell & Phipps (agents for Dupont Powder Company) 1861, second largest stockholder of Carnegie Steel Company (became U.S. Steel after it was bought by J.P. Morgan), director U.S. Steel Corporation, founded the Phipps Houses Group in 1905, controlled Bessemer Securities Corporation, interests connected to Dillon Read & Company.

Polk, Frank L.


Yale Scroll & Key 1894, partner Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardner & Read Law firm, Secretary of State, Counsellor of the Department of State, negotiator during and surrounding WWI with high level British and American officials (co-Pilgrims), present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference, director Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1943, vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1940-1943, director Northern Pacific Railway Co. since 1938, director Bowery Savings Bank and Mutual Life Ins. Co. since 1939, director U.S. Trust Co. in 1939, member advisory committee of the Institute of Human Relations, contributed over $140,000 at death to the CFR.

Preston, Lewis Thompson


Married Gladys Pulitzer in 1959, of the Pulitzer newspaper publishing fortune, director General Electric, trustee Foxcroft School, chairman of J.P. Morgan & Company 1980-1990, president World Bank 1991-1995, member Council on Foreign Relations. In the 1981 Who’s Who he admitted his membership in The Pilgrims, but in the 1994 edition he went underground about it. (According to Charles Savoie)

Price, Charles H., II

Born in 1931, Charles Price attended Wentworth Military Academy and the University of Missouri (1948-1953). He served with the United States Air Force from 1953-1955. After his discharge, he began a prominent business career serving as chairman and president of American Bancorporation Inc., chairman and CEO of the American Bank and Trust Company of Kansas City, chairman and president of Linwood Securities Company, and chairman and CEO of Price Candy Company from 1969-1981. US Ambassador to Belgium 1981-1983. U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1983-1989. Upon his return from London, in April 1989, Ambassador Price was appointed Chairman of the Board of Ameribanc, Inc., and President and CEO in 1990. With the merger of Ameribanc, Inc. and Mercantile Bancorporation, Inc. in May 1992, he became Chairman of the Board of Mercantile Bank of Kansas City and Mercantile Bank of Kansas, a position he held until his retirement on April 1, 1996. Since leaving government service, he has been appointed to be a Director of British Airways p.l.c. (1989-1996), Hanson p.l.c. (1989-1995), US Industries, Inc. (1995-present), The New York Times Company (1989-2002), Texaco Inc. (1989-2001), Sprint (1989-1995), and 360o Communications, Inc. (1995-1997). His civic Boards in Kansas City include membership on the Board of Trustees of the Midwest Research Institute, formerly serving as the Board Chairman. He is an Honorary Director of St. Luke’s Hospital.

Putney III, William Beaumont


Grandson of an influential banker, Vanderbilt associated law firm, director Genesee & Wyoming Railroad, director Yamaichi Securities (Japanese).

Pyne, Percy Rivington II

born 1882

Inherited a fortune, interests in National City Bank, Delaware & Hudson Railroad, Empire Trust, Farmers Loan & Trust, Princeton Bank & Trust, Commercial Trust, Delaware Lackawanna & Western Coal, New Amsterdam Gas, Morris & Essex Railroad, Syracuse & Binghampton Railroad, Lackawanna Steel, United New Jersey Railroad, East River Gas Company, Oswego & Syracuse Railroad and many others, trustee Princeton University.

Pyne, Eben Wright

exec.- committee


Executive with National City Bank of New York (Citigroup), director of Long Island Lighting, U.S. Life Insurance, City Investing Company and Home Insurance Company, director W.R. Grace & Company 1960-1995.

Rabin, Charles H.



Randolph, Francis F.

born 1889

Wall Street financier. Treasurer Russell Trust Association.

Ray, William F.

died 2001

Related to the Sturgis and Whitney families. Advisor to the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group. Partner Brown Brothers Harriman & Company. Chairman American-Australian Association 1984-1986. President American-Australian Association 1986-1988. Patron American-Australian Association.

Raymond, Chevalier Ronald A.


Executive vice-president of Finance and Administration for the Rambusch Decorating Company of New York. He is a member of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, the New England Society, the St. George Society, the Amateur Comedy Club and the Regency Whist Club. Introduced into the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem, Priory of St. Michael & St. George (of New York) in the spring of 1997.

Reading, Lord Rufus Daniel Isaacs


British statesman. Called to the bar in 1887, he achieved great success in his profession. He entered Parliament as a Liberal in 1904, became attorney general in 1910, and in 1912 was given a seat in the cabinet. Involved in charges of buying stock in the American Marconi Corp. while the government was contracting with the British branch of the firm, he was, however, exonerated and in 1913 was created lord chief justice. During World War I he served the government in financial operations, becoming (1915) president of an Anglo-French loan commission to the United States, where he subsequently served as special envoy (1917) and special ambassador (1918–19). In 1921 he was made viceroy of India at a time when the temper of the people, partly under the influence of Mohandas Gandhi and partly as a result of the massacre at Amritsar (1919), was roused against British rule. Faced with the passive resistance of the Gandhi adherents, Isaacs authorized the imprisonment of Gandhi and felt compelled to allow the hated salt tax. He returned to England in 1926 and was created a marquess (having already been created in succession baron, viscount, and earl), but he was much criticized for his administrative acts in India. He was (1931) foreign secretary in Ramsay MacDonald's National government.

Reed, Philip Dunham


Electrical Engineering and law degrees, admitted to the New York State Bar Association 1925, patent counselor Van Heusen Company, deputy director Materials Division of the War Production Board 1942, working with other Pilgrims from General Electric. Reed was re-assigned to assist (Pilgrim) Averell Harriman as the Deputy Chief of the U.S. Mission for Economic Affairs in London in 1943, becoming chief of that mission with the rank of minister in October 1943, serving until January 1945. After leaving the U. S. Mission for Economic Affairs, Reed served as legal consultant to the U.S. delegation to the 1945 United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco; this led to Reed's long affiliation with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). He was a member of the ICC from 1945-1975; he served as president from 1949 to 1951. Reed headed the U.S. Mission on Anglo-American Council of Productivity, a Marshall Plan agency, established in 1948. Reed was vice chairman of the Business Advisory Council of the Department of Commerce (became the Business Council in 1961) from 1951 to 1952. He was also active in the Committee for Economic Development where he served as a trustee and a member of the Research & Policy Committee from 1946 to 1975. Reed acted as an Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships trustee from 1953 to 1975, serving as Vice Chairman from 1955 to 1975, and Chairman of the Finance Committee from 1956 to 1958. Reed also served as a Trustee of the Samuel H. Kress Foundation from 1960 to 1965, and as a Trustee of the Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States from 1970 to 1975. President and chief executive officer General Electric Company 1940-1942 & 1945-1959, chairman International General Electric 1945-1952, chairman Finance Committee and General Electric Pension Trust 1952-1959, member Committee on the University and World Affairs 1960, director Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1959-1960, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1960-1965, chairman Executive Committee of the International Executive Service Corps 1966-1974, director Council on Foreign Relations 1946-1969. Director of American Express, Bankers Trust Company, Bigelow-Sanford Inc., Cowles Communication, Kraftco Corporation, Otis Elevator, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Scott Paper, Tiffany & Co., U. S. Financial Inc., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Ford Foundation, visitor Bohemian Grove 1966-1988, stood in contact with the American Ditchley foundation 1957-1986.

Rehnquist, William


Served in World War II from 1943 to 1946, working as a weather observer in North Africa, M.A. in political sciences at Stanford University 1950, active in the Republican Party and served as a legal advisor to Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1986, where he followed up Pilgrim Warren E. Burger.

Reid, Whitelaw (Mills)

exec. committee


American journalist and diplomat, managing editor New York Tribune in 1868. After Greeley's death, Reid gained financial as well as editorial control of the paper and continued it as a leading journal of the nation. While publishing the Tribune, he was minister to France 1889-1892, was the Republican candidate for vice president in 1892, and was ambassador to Great Britain from 1905-1912. Reid wrote many books on war and foreign affairs. Reid was special Ambassador of the U.S. to Queen Victoria’s Jubilee, 1897, and again to the Coronation of King Edward VII in 1902.

Reid, Ogden Mills


Publisher of the Republican and the New York Tribune, purchased the New York Herald and made it into the New York Herald Tribune, co-founder of the American-Australian Association in 1948 by a 1946 Inaugural Meeting at the University Club in New York.

Reid, Ogden Rogers

exec. committee


Yale Book and Snake, owner New York Herald Tribune, chairman New York Herald Tribune 1953-1959, U.S. ambassador to Israel 1959-1961, House of Representatives1962-1975, advisor to JFK, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Renwick of Clifton, Lord Robin


Educated at Cambridge University and the University of Paris. Advisor to Lord Carrington during the negotiations which ended the war in Rhodesia in 1980 and political advisor to Lord Soames during the ceasefire and elections leading to the independence of Zimbabwe (new name of Rhodesia). Awarded a knighthood in 1988. British Ambassador to South Africa 1987-1991. Played a leading role in the diplomacy which led to the abolition of apartheid. British Ambassador to Washington 1991-1995. Appointed to the House of Lords by Prime Minister Blair in 1997 and became Labour spokesman on Foreign Affairs. He is Vice Chairman Investment Banking of JP Morgan, Europe Chairman of Fluor Ltd., director of BHP Billiton, Harmony Gold, SABMiller plc, and Compagnie Financiere Richemont AG. Director of British Airways 1996-2005. Former deputy chairman of the merchant bank, Robert Fleming. Trustee of The Economist and the Helen Suzman Foundation. Patron of GAP Activity Projects. Director of BritishAmerican Business Inc. of New York and London (BABi). Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Reynolds, Richard S., Jr.


After a successful, but brief career in investment banking, Richard Jr. joined his father's company in 1938. Under his leadership, Reynolds Corporation expanded tremendously, buying more government plants and establishing facilities across the globe in such countries as Jamaica, the Philippines and Venezuela. In 1948, assets were $114 million and reached a level of over $1 billion by 1963. Richard Jr. also was a chairman of Robertshaw Controls Company, which is/was very big in manufacturing car thermostats and other car parts, and a director of Central National of Richmond Corp.

Rhinelander, Philip


Seems to have been a very prominent person at the turn of the last century and attended parties with the Astors, Vanderbilts, Morgans and Rockefellers. William Rhinelander, a relative, left an estate valued at $50 million in 1907. That's all I have.

Rhodes, Cecil John

Possibly a co-founder


Moved to South-Africa for medical reasons. While Rhodes worked in the cotton fields, his brother worked in Kimberly in a diamond mine. After some time, Herbert offered partnership to Rhodes in his mining company down in Kimberly. Rhodes accepted without regret. Rhodes used the money that he made from the diamond mine to pay for his education at the University of Oxford in England. Before Rhodes received his degree, he was elected to the Parliament of Cape Colony, in South Africa, where he had done some of his studying and research. Rhodes spent a long term serving on the parliament in Cape Colony, and was immediately elected to the prime minister of Cape Colony. In 1891, Rhodes and four colleagues founded the "De Beers Consolidated Limited Mining Company" in Kimberly, with capital of two hundred thousand dollars (provided by the Rothschild family). He monopolized the entire diamond industry, amassing a fortune for himself. In that same year, De Beers Mining Company became the largest mining company in the world. He also was the founder of the Round Table in 1891, which eventually led to societies as The Pilgrims. In a later stage of his life he became privy councilor and pretty much ruled over southern Africa. After his death, he donated his whole fortune to the creation of a secret society network, which was ment to "absorb the wealth of the world" and create a worldwide English speaking empire under British rule. It is believed by some that his donation led to the establishment of the Pilgrims Society.

Richard, Sir Ivor Seward

born 1932

He was called to the Bar in 1955 and practised as a Barrister in London. He had been an active member of the Labour Party, member of the English Speaking Union, and the Fabian Society. Richard was elected to parliament in 1964 and served briefly as an assistant to Dennis Healey (attended first Bilderberg conference) as Secretary of State for Defence. He was appointed as Minister for the Army in 1969 and was pro-Europe, a view not very popular with labour. Healey served as UK Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1975 to 1979. He became a figure of controversy after the then US Ambassador, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, criticised the UN for passing a resolution stating that zionism was a form of racism, and Richard denounced him for behaving "like the Wyatt Earp of international politics"; shortly thereafter Moynihan was removed from office by Henry Kissinger. In 1980 he was chosen by the Labour Party to take one of the posts on the European Commission, where he took responsibility for Employment, Social Policy, Education and Training. Richard returned to Wales in 1985 and was appointed Chairman of World Trade Centre Wales Ltd., trying to persuade international business to invest in the country of his birth. In 1990, his name was included in a list of Labour Party 'Working Peers' and he became an opposition spokesman in the House of Lords. His Barrister's style led to his appointment as Leader of the Labour Peers from 1992, which brought with it appointment to the Privy Council. When Labour won the 1997 election, Richard became Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. With Labour policy favouring a reform of the House starting with removal of the Hereditary Peers, Richard began work on the new composition of the House, but was shocked when he was suddenly removed at the first reshuffle in July 1998 to be replaced by Baroness Jay of Paddington. His thoughts on the reform of the House were published in Unfinished Business in 1999 and Richard became a critical friend of the Government. The Coalition Government in the National Assembly for Wales invited Richard to Chair a Commission on the future powers of the Assembly from 2002. The report was published on March 31, 2004 and recommended that the Assembly have full primary legislative powers in devolved areas from 2011, a recommendation that was controversial with Wales' Labour MPs.

Richardson, Frank W.


Radio station chain operator.

Richardson, Elliot L.


Graduated from Harvard College in 1941. U.S. Army 1942-1945 (Purple Heart and participated in D-Day). Graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1947. Law clerk to Justice Learned Hand of the U.S. Court of Appeals and then to Justice Felix Frankfurter of the U.S. Supreme Court. Associate and partner in the Boston law firm Ropes and Gray. Assistant to Senator Leverett Saltonstall of Massachusetts 1953-1954. Assistant secretary in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1957-1959. U.S. attorney for Massachusetts 1959-1961. Special assistant to the U.S. attorney general 1961. Lieutenant governor 1965-1967. Attorney General of Massachusetts 1967-1969. Under secretary of state 1969-1970. Secretary of health, education, and welfare 1970-1973. Nixon's Secretary of Defense for 4 months in 1973 (Nixon ordered Richardson to fire the Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused this order and resigned). U.S. Attorney General 1973-1974. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1974-1975. Ambassador to Great Britain 1975-1977. Secretary of commerce 1975-1977. Ambassador at large 1977-1980. Special representative for the Law of the Sea Conference 1977-1980. Partner with the law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy. Spoke and wrote widely on national security and other issues. Legal counsel for Inslaw, the company formed to develop the PROMIS (PROsecution Management Information Systems) software in the early 1980's (Its president, Bill Hamilton, was a former NSA programmer). The Elliot L. Richardson Prize for Excellence in Public Service was established in early 2000 "to recognize extraordinary, sustained accomplishment and integrity in government service and to encourage achievement by future public leaders at the level Richardson demonstrated in service to his country." They have a tendency to give Pilgrims an award; Sandra Day O'Conner, Colin Powell, George Shultz (former Secretary of State), etc. Member of the Bohemian Grove and a Freemason.

Richardson, Lord Gordon


Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne; educated at Cambridge University, graduated with law degrees in 1937 & 1938; called to the Bar in 1946; Member of the Bar Council 1951-1955; with Industrial & Commercial Finance Corporation 1955-1957; director of J. Henry Schroder & Co Ltd. 1957-1960, vice-chairman 1960-1962, and chairman 1962- 1972; Chairman of the Industrial Development Advisory Board 1972-1973; Director of the Bank of England 1967-1973; presided over the G-10 meetings in the seventies and eighties; governor of the Bank of England 1973-1983; made a member of the Privy Council in 1976; member of the Order of the Garter since 1983; long time member of the Morgan Stanley Advisory Board since 1984. director of the Bank for International Settlements 1973-1985; vice-chairman of the Bank for International Settlements 1985-1988 & 1991-1993; chairman of the Group of Thirty 1985-1991; honorary chairman of the Group of Thirty since 1991; chairman of Morgan Stanley International Incorporated 1986-1995; chairman of the International Advisory Board Chemical Bank, New York, 1986-1996; vice-chairman of the International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan Bank 1996-1998; director of Rolls Royce; governor of the Ditchley Foundations; member of the Order of the British Empire; patron of the British Malaysian Society. In the 70s and 80s, he maintained a residence on Sutton Place in New York City, although he normally resided in London. In 2004, Lord Richardson was called in to testify against claims that the Bank of England had "shut their eyes and turned away" from BCCI's fraudulent activities. The original investigation was headed by Pilgrims Society and Order of the Garter member Lord Bingham of Cornhill.

Ridgway, Matthew Bunker


West Point graduate in 1917, supervised free elections in Nicaragua 1927, made assistant division commander and then commander of the 82d Infantry Division during WWII, with the 82d Airborne Division, Ridgway jumped with his men in the invasions of Sicily and France at the end of WWII, appointed commander of the Eighth Army in Korea during the Chinese invasion of North Korea 1950, replaced Douglas MacArthur as commander of the United Nations forces in Korea and of the Allied occupation forces in Japan 1951, succeeded Dwight D. Eisenhower as supreme commander of the Allied Powers in Europe 1952-1953, a Pilgrim diner on 14 October 1952 was held in his honor, Army chief of staff 1953-1955, protested vigorously but unsuccessfully against the Eisenhower administration's overall military policy, which emphasized air and atomic power at the expense of the army and navy, retired as a General in 1955, chairman Mellon Institute 1955-1960 (The institute merged with the Carnegie Institute in 1967).

Rifkind, Sir Malcolm Leslie


Lectured at Univ. of Rhodesia, 1967-1968. First entered Parliament in the 1974. Appointed Junior Minister at the Scottish Office in the 1979 Thatcher Government and became Minister of State at the Foreign Office in 1983. Became a Secretary of State for Scotland and Privy Councillor in 1986. On 21 December 1988, Rifkind was the first British government official in Lockerbie after the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, as Scottish secretary. After touring the wreckage, he gave the first indication that the plane had exploded. In 1990 he was moved by John Major to Transport, and became Defence Secretary in 1992. In the final years of the Major administration he was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. He received a knighthood in John Major’s resignation honours. Out of government from 1997-2005. Rifkind was hired by Australia-based BHP in 1997, as a 'door-opener' to the Middle East. Vocal critic of the 2003 Iraq War. Implicated in the Oil-for-Food scandal when Iraqi documents surfaced after the invasion. Non-executive chairman of ArmorGroup International since April 2004, a London-based mercenary company. Elected again in 2005 and was appointed Shadow Work and Pensions Secretary. He has been spoken of as a contender to replace Michael Howard as Conservative leader. Director at Aberdeen Asset Management. Non-executive director at Ramco Energy and British Assets Investment Trust. Consultant to BHP Billiton, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Petrofac (another energy company). Governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

Roberts, Lord Frederick Sleigh



Became the 1st Earl Roberts of Kandahar. Joined the Bengal artillery in 1851, fought against the Indian Mutiny 1857–1858, where he earned the Victoria Cross. By 1875 he was quartermaster general of the Indian army and a strong advocate of the “forward” policy of controlling the Himalayan passes to forestall Russian encroachments; this became the general defensive policy of the British in India. He became a popular British hero for the relief of Kandahar in the second Afghan War 1878–1880. Roberts was made commander in chief of the Madras army in 1880 and of the entire Indian forces in 1885. In 1893 he returned to England and wrote his reminiscences, Forty-one Years in India 1897. He became field marshal in 1895. In 1899, when the English were meeting reverses at the hands of the Boers in the South African War, Roberts was appointed commander in chief and fought them. Aided by his chief of staff, Horatio Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master) Roberts reorganized the transport system, achieving a mobility that had been lacking. By late 1900 the war seemed near a successful conclusion, and Roberts was brought home, awarded an earldom, and appointed commander in chief of the British army. His office was abolished in 1904, and thereafter he devoted himself to the advocacy of compulsory military service for home defense. Roberts was a Knight of the Garter.

Robertson, Lord


The Right Honourable Lord Robertson of Port Ellen has been the 10th Secretary General of NATO and Chairman of the North Atlantic Council since October 1999. He was Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom from 1997-1999 and Member of Parliament for Hamilton and Hamilton South from 1978-1999. George Islay MacNeill Robertson was born in 1946 in Port Ellen, Isle of Islay, Scotland, and educated at Dunoon Grammar School and the University of Dundee. He graduated MA (Honours) in Economics in 1968. He was a full time official of the General, Municipal and Boilermakers' Union (GMB) responsible for the Scottish Whisky industry from 1968-1978. He was first elected to the House of Commons in 1978, and reelected five times. He was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Social Services in 1979. After the 1979 General Election, he was appointed an Opposition Spokesman, first on Scottish Affairs, then on Defence, and on Foreign Affairs from 1982 to 1993. He became Chief Spokesman on Europe in 1983. He served as the principal Opposition Spokesman on Scotland in the Shadow Cabinet from 1993-1997. After the 1997 General Election, Prime Minister Blair appointed him Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom, a position he held until his departure in October 1999. In August 1999 he was selected to be the tenth Secretary General of NATO in succession to Dr Javier Solana. On 24 August he received a life peerage and took the title Lord Robertson of Port Ellen. He is a former Chairman of the Scottish Labour Party, was Vice-chairman of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy, served as Vice-Chairman of the British Council for nine years. He was, for seven years, on the Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) where he now serves as co-president. He is a Governor of the Ditchley Foundation and a Trustee of the 21st Century Trust. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the German Order of Merit by the Federal German President in 1991 and the Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania in 2000, and was named joint Parliamentarian of the Year in 1993 for his role during the Maastricht Treaty ratification. He is Honorary Regimental Colonel of the London Scottish (Volunteers). He has been awarded Honorary Doctorates by the Universities of Dundee and Bradford, by Cranfield University (Royal Military College of Science), Baku State University, Azerbaijan, and the Romanian National School of Political and Administrative Studies, Bucharest. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (honFRSE), a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA) and an Elder Brother of Trinity House. He was appointed a member of Her Majesty's Privy Council in May 1997. In 2003, Lord Robertson was accused of using his influence as a Freemason to arrange a gun licence for Thomas Hamilton, who would later use it to shoot 16 children in the Dunblane Massacre before killing himself. In turn, Hamilton was accused of running a paedophile ring for British politicians. Robertson and Hamilton were also accused of being Freemasons. In any case, the judge who slapped a 100 year secrecy order on a police inquiry into the Dunblane massacre later turned out to be a Freemason.

Robinson, Leland Rex


Member Near-East Relief Commission 1920, wrote 'Investment Trust Organization and Management' in 1926, vice chairman Economists National Committee on Monetary Policy, member Commission To Study The Organization Of Peace, member Enemy Alien Hearing Board 1943-1945, chairman and vice president Iran Foundation, together with Thomas W. Lamont, John Foster Dulles and Edward R. Murrow (did the most successful attack on Joseph McCarthy via CBS) he was a trustee of the Institute of International Education, received the Royal Order of Homayun from the Shah of Iran, decorated the Order of the Brilliant Star by China.

Rockefeller, John Davison, Jr.


First loan from National City Bank of Cleveland (Stillman, Morgan), Established Standard Oil Company in 1870, trustee of the China Medical Board,

Rockefeller, Percy Avery


Nephew of John Davison Rockefeller, Yale Skull & Bones 1901, married Isabel Stillman, director of National City Bank, W.A. Harriman & Co., American International Corporation (AIG), New York Edison, Anaconda Copper Mines, Georgian Manganese Company, Guaranty Trust, Chile Copper Company, Atlantic Fruit Company, Bethlehem Steel, W.A. Harriman & Company, United States Realty & Improvement Company, Western Union Telegraph, Consolidated Gas, United Metals Selling Corporation, Remington Arms Company, North American Reassurance Company, Seaboard Finance & Investment, Cuba Railroad and dozens of other companies. Became a member of the Japan Society in 1926, lost a lot of money in the stockmarket crash of 1929, had to come before an investigating committee to answer charges of stock manipulation (exonerated) in 1932. In 1936, his son Avery Rockefeller establishes Schroeder, Rockefeller and Co. in partnership with the German-connected New York banking firm of J.Henry Schroder.

Rockefeller, James Stillman


Yale, won a gold medal in rowing at the Paris Olympics of 1924, married Nancy Carnegie in 1925 (grand-niece of Andrew Carnegie), worked at Brown Brothers, joined the National City Bank in 1930, served in Airborne Command during WWII, president First National City Bank 1952-1959, chairman First National City Bank 1959-1967 (became Citibank, Citicorp, Citigroup, etc.)

Rockefeller, Nelson Aldrich


Dartmouth College Psi Upsilon Fraternity. Director Rockefeller Center 1931-1958. Coordinator Office of Inter-American Affairs 1940-1944. Chairman International Development Advisory Board 1950-1951. Chairman President's Advisory Committee on Government Organization 1952-1958. Present at the United Nations founding in San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945, and is said to have played a prominent role. His father donated the land the United Nations headquarters was built on. Governor of New York 1959–1973. Vice-president of the United States under Gerald Ford 1974–1977. Chairman National Commission on Critical Choices for America. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Died in 1979 when he was with his mistress, Megan Marshak. He was cremated within 18 hours after his death. There is no known "tell all" of the events by Marshak, and she appears to have dropped out of public view since Rockefeller's death.

Rockefeller, David


Born in 1915 and youngest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Descendant of the German-Jewish Roggenfelder family which came to the United States in 1722. Attended school in New York City and graduated with a bachelor's degree in English history and literature from Harvard University in 1936. Followed this with a Ph.D. (1940) in economics from the University of Chicago, following study at both Harvard and the London School of Economics. Married Margaret "Peggy" McGrath in September 1940 and they raised six children, including son David Rockefeller Jr. Along with his brothers - John D. II, Nelson, Laurance, and Winthrop, David Rockefeller established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) in 1940. Became a trustee of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1940. Trustee Rockefeller University 1940-1995. Secretary to New York City Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia 1940-1941. Assistant regional director of the United States Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Service 1941-1942. Enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1942. Military Intelligence officer in North Africa and Southern France 1942-1945. Assistant Military Attaché in Paris in the last 7 months of the war . Joined Chase National/Manhattan Bank in 1946 as an assistant manager under Winthrop W. Aldrich (Rockefeller intermarried) in the Foreign Department. Assistant manager in the Foreign Department, Chase National Bank 1947-1948. Played a major role in the development of the Morningside Heights neighborhood on the Upper West Side of Manhattan as president (1947-1957) and then chairman (1957-1965) of Morningside Heights, Inc. Second vice president Chase National Bank 1948-1949. Director of the Museum of Modern Art 1948-1958. Vice president Chase National Bank 1949-1952. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1970. Chairman of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 1950-1975. Senior vice president of Chase National Bank with responsibility for supervising the economic research department and customer relations in the metropolitan New York area, including all the New York City branches 1952-1955. Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and was one of its founders. When Chase National and the Bank of the Manhattan Company merged in 1955, David Rockefeller was appointed an executive vice president in charge of the bank development department. In 1957, he became vice chairman of the Board of Directors with responsibility for the administrative and planning functions of the bank as a whole. Briefly chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1958. Again in 1962-1972, and again in 1987-1993. Life trustee of the University of Chicago (which his grandfather helped establish) and an honorary trustee of International House (New York), established by his father. In 1958 David Rockefeller helped establish the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (D-LMA), serving as its chairman 1958-1975. Primary founder of the Dartmouth Conferences in 1960, which was initiated at Dartmouth College in an effort to prevent U.S.-Soviet nuclear conflict. Only influential private citizens with no government positions were supposed to meet here. President Chase Manhattan 1961-1969. In 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began plans to build the World Trade Center, which was pushed hard for by David and Nelson Rockefeller. Founding member of the Commission on White House Fellows, 1964. David had a two and a half hour meeting in Moscow with Nikita Khrushchev in the summer of 1964. He reported to president Johnson that Khrushchev would like to do more trade with the United States and David recommended that more credit should be extended to the Russians. Met Khrushchev's successor, Leonid Brezhnev, soon afterwards. Also met Chou En-lai in the 1960s, to discuss economic cooperation. Others David would meet with are Deng Xiaoping, Nasser, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, the Shah of Iran, etc. David is on very good terms with Nelson Mandela and they regularly meet each other. It's interesting to note that Mandela is one of George W. Bush's fiercest critiques. Instrumental in the formation of the International Executive Service Corps and chairman 1964-1968. Founder Americas Society in 1965 (then called Council of the Americas). Helped found the Rockefeller Family Fund in 1967. Helped form The Business Committee for the Arts in 1967. Chairman and CEO of the board of Chase Manhattan 1969-1981. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1970-1985. In May 1973 Chase Manhattan Bank opened it Moscow office at 1 Karl Marx Square, Moscow. Chairman of the Overseas Development Council of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council, Inc., which was founded in 1973. Founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973. Chairman Trilateral Commission 1977-1991. Founded the New York City Partnership in 1979 and chairman 1979-1988. Chairman Chase Manhattan Bank Advisory Committee 1981-1999. Trustee Carnegie Endowment International Peace since 1981. President of the Harvard College Board of Overseers; life trustee of the University of Chicago; one of the most important members of the Bilderberg committee; visitor of the Bohemian Grove Stowaway camp; member American-Australian Association; chairman Americas Society 1981-1992; chairman Rockefeller Group 1981-1995. Helped to establish the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University in 1994. Chairman of Rockefeller Center Properties 1996-2001; became a director of the Shinsei Bank in 2000; chairman Rockefeller University; chairman of the Museum of Modern Art; member International Council of J.P. Morgan Chase; wrote 'Unused Resources and Economic Waste' (1940), 'Creative Management in Banking' (1964), and 'Memoirs' (2002); major shareholder of Atlantic Richfield Petroleum and International Petroleum Corporation (also a napalm manufacturer). David is the last of the "Fortunate Five" brothers. Winthrop died in 1972 after having been devastated by a chemotherapy procedure; John D. III died in a 1978 car crash; Nelson died in 1979 in bed with his mistress. Laurence, who was heavily into UFO research, died in 2004 of natural causes. In cooperation with Steven Greer, Laurence Rockefeller supposedly also led an effort from 1993-1996 to get the Clinton Administration (Bill supported it) to declassify all UFO information held by the government. They decided not to go through with it, because of the danger associated with it. David and Laurence were members of the Peace Parks foundation. David has attended meetings of Le Cercle.

Roe, Charles Francis


In the campaign of 1876, 2nd Lt. Charles Roe commanded Company F, 2nd Cavalry. On June 26th, near the Little Bighorn River, he saw on the far hills what appeared to be a large group of dead buffalo -- in fact, the distant figures were the slain horses and men of Custer's command.

Roosa, Robert Vincent


Rhodes scholar. Senior official of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1946-1960, finally reaching the position of vice president in the bank's research department. While he was on the staff of the Federal Reserve Bank of N.Y., Roosa trained a group known as the 'Roosa Bloc' (or Rosa 'Brain Trust'), his chief protege being Paul Volcker. Undersecretary of the Treasury 1961-1964. Became a Partner in Brown Brothers Harriman & Company in 1965. Authored 'Monetary Reform For The World Economy' (1965). Gave a speech in Munich to the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs on November 11, 1974. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Advisor to the International Finance Corporation (World Bank affiliate). Director American Express, Cities Communications, Owens-Corning Fiberglass, Prudential Insurance, and Texaco. Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange Advisory Committee on the International Capital Market. Chairman of the Brookings Institution 1975-1986. Trustee of the National Bureau for Economic Research. President of the American Finance Association. Member of the American Economic Association and the Royal Economic Society of London. Governor of the United Nations Association. Vice chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation. Founding member and secretary of the Trilateral Commission. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1966-1981. Frequent Bilderberg attendee. Member of the Pilgrims Society.

Roosevelt, John


Son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Educated at Groton and Harvard, John worked at Filene's Department Store in Boston until World War II broke out in 1941. He served in the navy until 1946 and thereafter pursued a business career on the West Coast. In 1952, he became a Republican so he could support Dwight Eisenhower's bid for the presidency. John's defection from the Democratic party and his subsequent leadership of Citizens for Eisenhower caused family friction. John became an officer and director of Standard Uranium, owned by Pilgrim Floyd Odlum. In 1967, John joined Bache & Company (owned by Pilgrim Jules S. Bache). He retired as a vice-president in 1980. His philanthropic activities included serving as a fund raiser with the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which FDR had founded, membership on the executive committee of the Greater New York Council of the Boy Scouts of America and service as a trustee of the State University of New York.

Root, Elihu


Second cousin twice removed of Henry Luce (Pilgrim and Skull & Bones), and descended from the Spencer family. After graduation from Hamilton College in 1864, Root taught for one year at the Rome Academy in 1865. Graduated from the Law School of New York University in 1867. Admitted to the bar in the same year and commenced practice in New York City. Served private clients including Jay Gould (later Pilgrims member), Chester A. Arthur, Charles Anderson Dana, William C. Whitney, Thomas Fortune Ryan, and Edward Henry Harriman (later Pilgrims member). As a Republican reformer, he was a junior member of a distinguished defense team representing Boss Tweed in 1873, a powerful mafia boss in New York who controlled almost every single United States Democratic Party nomination for the city and the state, had robbed New York city of anywhere between $30 and $200 million, and was an associate of Jay Gould. The equivalent of a millionaire by the age of thirty. Root married Clara Frances Wales, who was the daughter of Salem Wales, the managing editor of Scientific American, in 1878. U.S. District Attorney for Southern District NYC 1883-1885. Hired Henry Lewis Stimson out of law school in 1891, who was a member of S&B and became a member of the Pilgrims. Delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1894. In 1898 McKinley calls him on the new-fangled telephone and says, "I want you to be Secretary of War". This was just after the US had defeated Spain. Root says, "I can't do that. I'm a lawyer. I don't know anything about war. I don't know anything about the Army. I have no experience with government. I have never been to Washington." McKinley said, "I don't care about any of that. You're a smart lawyer and you will be the first person charged in the history of the United States with running colonies, and I want somebody with good common sense, a pragmatic problem solver, a lawyer like you." He remained Secretary of War until 1904. During this time he was responsible for enlarging West Point and establishing the U.S. Army War College as well as the General Staff. Identified by U.S. Diplomat and CFR-endorsed Warren Zimmermann as one of the "forefathers of American Imperialism", together with naval strategist Alfred T. Mahan, senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Secretary of State John Hay, and president Theodore Roosevelt. Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt 1905-1909. Senator 1909-1915. First president of the Carnegie Foundation 1910-1925 and a primary founder of Carnegie Europe. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912. At the outbreak of World War I, Root opposed President Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality. President of the American Bar Association 1915-1916. In June 1917, during WWI, he was sent to Russia by President Wilson to arrange American co-operation with the new revolutionary government. He summed up his attitude to the Provisional Government very trenchantly: "No fight, no loans." The official CFR website states: "But it was a more discreet club of New York financiers and international lawyers organized in June 1918 that most attracted the attention of the Americans from the Peace Conference. Headed by Elihu Root, the secretary of state under Theodore Roosevelt and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, this select group called itself the Council on Foreign Relations. It began with 108 members, Shepardson recorded, “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing, trading and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” Its purpose was to convene dinner meetings, to make contact with distinguished foreign visitors under conditions congenial to future commerce... Elihu Root headed the original Council on Foreign Relations and was instrumental in the founding of its successor." Prepared the final will of Andrew Carnegie on March 31, 1919. Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR director) founded the Institute for International Education in 1919. Present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference. After World War I, Root supported the League of Nations and served on the commission of jurists, which created the Permanent Court of International Justice. In 1922, President Warren G. Harding appointed him as a delegate to the International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. He was among the founders of the American Law Institute in 1923. Member of the Metropolitan Club, the NY Social Register, the Century Association, and the Pilgrims of the United States.

Roper, Elmo


In the 1920s he operated a jewelry store in Creston Iowa but was not very successful, public opinion analyst and early developer of modern opinion polls, director Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic 1952-1961, treasurer Atlantic Union Committee in 1960, gave speeches on globalism, director Encyclopedia Britannica.

Rothschild, Edmund Leopold


Son of Lionel de Rothschild and brother of Leopold David de Rothschild (born 1927). Sir Evelyn and Jacob de Rothschild are his younger cousins. Served as an officer in the British Army in France, North Africa, and Italy 1939-1946. In late 1944 he rose to the rank of Major and commanded a Jewish Palestinian Unit (made up of mainly refugees of the Nazis) into Italy. The unit prominently showed the Magen David. Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1946-1960. Published the book 'Window on the World' in 1949. Friend of the Japanese Tsunao Okumura. Okumura was the president of Nomura Securities between 1948 and 1959 and was seen as the king of Japanese stockbroking in the 1950s. Senior Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1960-1970. Vice-chairman of the British Newfoundland Corp. 1963-1969. Vice-chairman of Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. 1966-1969. One of the Godfathers of Prince Bernhard's extramarital daughters, Alexia Grinda. Bernhard met the mother, the 18-year old Helene Grinda (of the noble Roussel family), in 1966, at a swimming pool of the Rothschild family. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in 1969. Member of the Asia Committee of the Bank of New England Corporation 1970-1971. Chairman of the Bank of New England Corporation in 1971. Governor of the Technical University of Nova Scotia. Trustee of the Queen’s Nursing Institute. Received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st Class (Japan), in 1973. Chairman of N.M. Rothschild & Son 1970-1975. Nurtured the gardens at Exbury. Attended the 1st World Wilderness Conference in 1977 and trustee of the International Wilderness Foundation, which sponsors these conferences. At the 4th Wilderness Conference in 1987, where Edmund was a key speaker about climate change, Maurice Strong introduced him as the "source" of this whole "Conservation Banking" movement. David Rockefeller was also present at that conference and adviced George Hunt, the accountant who recorded the event, not to distribute any rebukes of what was said or "he would regret it". President of the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women (AJEX). Presiding Officer representing AJEX at the annual Cenotaph Service of Remembrance. The Rothschild family has been intimately associated with the New West End Synagogue in London. Played himself in the 1998 movie 'In Our Own Hands', about the all-Jewish fighting force in World War II. Member of the President's Council of the Mountain Institute in 1999. One of many donors to the Children’s Blood Foundation, which was inaugurated in 2001. He has been made a Commander of the British Empire.

Royall, Kenneth Claiborne


Graduated from the University of North Carolina, 1914; was admitted to the North Carolina bar, 1916; attended Harvard University Law School and received his degree, 1917; married Margaret Best, 1917; served in France as a second lieutenant in the 317th Army Field Artillery, 1918–1919; was commissioned a captain in the North Carolina National Guard and organized a Field Artillery battery, 1921; resumed the practice of law in Raleigh and Goldsboro, North Carolina; served in the state senate, 1927; was president of the North Carolina Bar Association, 1929–1930; was a presidential elector, 1940; was commissioned a colonel, 1942, and appointed chief of the legal section, fiscal division, Headquarters, Services of Supply (later Army Service Forces); received presidential appointment to defend before the Supreme Court the German saboteurs who entered the United States clandestinely; was promoted to brigadier general and appointed deputy fiscal director of Army Service Forces; was special assistant to the Secretary of War, April–November 1945; served as Under Secretary of War, 9 November 1945–18 July 1947; served as the last Secretary of War, 19 July–17 September 1947; supervised the separation of the Department of the Air Force from the Department of the Army; became first Secretary of the Army when National Defense Act of 1947 took effect, 17 September 1947–27 April 1949; was the last Army secretary to hold the cabinet status, which was henceforth assigned to the Secretary of Defense; returned to the practice of law in New York City; was a delegate at large to the Democratic National Convention, 1964

Rusk, David Dean


Rhodes Scholar. Entered the Department of State in 1942. Assistant secretary of state for Far Eastern Affairs 1950-1952. Played a major role in the U.S. decision to take military action in the Korean War. President Rockefeller Foundation 1952-1961. Supported economic aid to underdeveloped nations, low tariffs to encourage world trade, and the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty with the Soviet Union. Secretary of State under John F. Kennedy & Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1969. Claimed the 1967 USS Liberty incident was a deliberate attack on the ship, rather than an accident.Co-founded the Club of Rome in 1968. A firm believer in the use of military force to prevent Communist expansion. Defended the Vietnam War. Following his retirement from public service, he started teaching international law at the University of Georgia 1970-1984. Member of the Knights of Malta.

Russell, M. Lindsay



Attorney who is said to have been a liaison front man for the Vanderbilts. Moved in elite circles (present at many of the same meetings as the Morgans) and named as a co-founder of the Pilgrims of the United States in 1903. Founded the Japan Society in 1907. President of the Japan Society from 1910 to 1919.


Sanderson, Sir Percy


Her Majesty's Consul-General in the early part of the 20th century.

Sanger, William Cary


Assistant Secretary of War, 1901-1903 and was related to the Dodge family (copper mining) and the Clevelands of Presidential fame; President Grover Cleveland was in the 1903 list. Sanger was a governor of the New York State Society of Colonial Wars; and governor general of the Order of Founders and Patriots of America.

Sarnoff, David


Born in Russia, studied electrical engineering at Pratt Institute, worked at Marconi Wireless Company 1906-1919, became chief radio inspector and assistant chief engineer, when Marconi was absorbed by Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in 1919-1921, vice president and general manager 1922-1929, president RCA 1930-1947, chairman RCA 1947-1970. Oversaw RCA's manufacture of color television sets and NBC's color broadcasts (corporate headquarters at Rockefeller Center). Received 27 honorary degrees, including doctoral degrees from Columbia University and New York University. The Sarnoff Corporation is the successor organization to the David Sarnoff Research Center and the RCA Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey. Freemason.

Satterlee, Herbert



He married Louise Pierpont Morgan, daughter of J.P. Morgan, in 1900. Professionally, he was a successful lawyer, specializing in corporate and commercial law, and a senior law partner at Satterlee, Canfield and Stone. He was also a writer, contributing to newspapers and magazines as well as authoring several books, including a biography of his father-in-law, entitled J. Pierpont Morgan: An intimate Portrait, 1837-1912. Mr. Satterlee also wrote words for several songs, including "Autumn Leaves" and "Above the Shimmering Sea". For nearly four years after purchasing Sotterley, Mr. Satterlee did little by way of restoring the property. Instead he embarked upon a major research process. J.P. Morgan himself sent the men; architects, artists, landscape gardeners, foresters, farmers, road builders and wharf builders to research, overhaul, and eventually restore the plantation. Satterlee was an avid yachtsman. Herb Satterlee III is CEO and president of GIS development and spent 19 years with The Boeing Company, holding senior management positions on programs such as Teledesic, UK/ROF AWACS (international defense) and the B-1 Bomber Simulator (United States defense). (atm not 100% sure it's a grandson)

Schiff, Jacob Henry


American banker and philanthropist, born in Frankfurt, Germany and lived together with the Rothschild family in the "Green Shield" house. He emigrated to the United States in 1865 and became a partner in Kuhn Loeb & Co. in New York City. His partners are Paul Warburg (later Pilgrim) and Otto Kahn (later Pilgrim). In 1875 he married the daughter of Solomon Loeb (Nina), who headed the firm. At the age of 38 he was head of the banking house of Kuhn, Loeb and Company. In 1880, Schiff supposedly said: "I cannot for a moment concede that one can be at the same time a true American and an honest adherent of the Zionist movement." Schiff became associated with E. H. Harriman (will intermarry with the Rothschild family) in notable contests with the house of Morgan for control of Western railroads. His numerous philanthropies included the endowment of the Jewish Theological Seminary, the Montefiore Home, both in New York, and a museum at Harvard. Schiff participated in the 1910 Jekyll Island meeting, where a plan was put together to establish the Federal Reserve; a company later to be dominated by the same Pilgrims. Jacob Schiff has been instrumental in financing Trotsky and the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. He and Paul Warburg have sponsored Trotsky with millions of dollars. It seems they also took care of the safe passage of Trotsky and 275 revolutionaries from New York to Europe.

Schiff, Mortimer L.


Son of Jacob H. Schiff, scouting fanatic, art collector, director Kuhn, Loeb & Co., which is said to have bankrolled Stalin's first "five year plan".

Schiff, John M.



In 1934, he married (Pilgrim) George F. Baker Jr.'s daughter, who sat on the board of The Birth Control Federation of America, together with Carola Warburg Rothschild and Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt. In 1942 it was renamed to Planned Parenthood Foundation of America; it's board was filled with Pilgrims members or the wives of Pilgrims members (Vanderbilt, du Pont, Lamont, etc). John M. Schiff was senior partner and later chairman of Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb Company, member Council on Foreign Relations, confirmed his father's Bolshevik financing.

Schiff, David T.


Yale, director Crown Life Insurance of Toronto and Lehman Brothers, managing partner Kuhn, Loeb & Co., chairman Wildlife Conservation Society (you'll find names like Phipps, Astor, Rockefeller, Pyne, Baker III, Cullman, Hearst, multiple Schiffs and multiple Goulds on the board. Many of these members can probably be found on the membership list of the 1001 Club). Andrew Schiff, a son of Jacob Schiff, is married to Karenna Gore, a daughter of former U.S. Vice President Al Gore. The father of Al Gore was an associate of Communist agent Armand Heimer (Hammer), whose father was the founder of the American Communist Party. As you can read above, David Schiff's forefather financed the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr.


Renowned historian, just as his father. Office of War Information 1942-1943. OSS officer 1943-1945. Professor of history at Harvard 1946-1964. Attended a 1963 Pilgrims dinner. Albert Schweitzer Professor of Humanities at City University of New York 1966-1994. Board member of the Century Institute since 1999. Among the founders of Americans for Democratic Action. Wrote speeches for Adlai Stevenson's two Presidential campaigns. He was a good friend of Gianni Agnelli and they corresponded a lot with each other.

Schwab, Charles M.


President of the Carnegie Steel Company and, after J.P. Morgan had taken it over, president of United States Steel Corporation. After personality conflicts at U.S. Steel, he left to take over and remake another steel company, Bethlehem Steel Co., which he incorporated in 1904. In 1908, Bethlehem Steel began producing the beam that revolutionized building construction and made possible the age of the skyscraper. It also made Bethlehem Steel the second-largest steel company in the world. Schwab was a notorious gambler, union buster and businessman of dubious ethics. During World War I, Schwab supplied the British with just about anything they could pay for. To circumvent U.S. neutrality laws, Schwab shipped goods to Canada; they were sent across the Atlantic from there. He sold 65,000 tons of American rails to the Russian government for use on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Schwab clinched the deal by bribing the mistress of the Grand Duke Alexis Aleksandrovich with a $200,000 necklace. A gambler with flair, Schwab's trips to Monte Carlo made him an international celebrity. The stock market crash of 1929 wiped out Schwab financially. He died bankrupt on Sept. 19, 1939. But World War II, which began a few weeks before his death, made his holdings worth millions -- a fitting end to the man Thomas Edison once called the "master hustler."

Schuettinger, Robert L.


Robert Schuettinger is the founder and president of the Washington International Studies Council (WISC), which originally began as a Washington academic internship program in 1983 and first sent students to Oxford in 1985. He studied at Columbia, the University of Chicago and at Oxford (Exeter and Christ Church). His graduate supervisor at Oxford in political philosophy was Professor Sir Isaiah Berlin, Fellow (and President) of the British Academy, Order of Merit, Fellow of All Souls College. He later taught at St. Andrews University in Scotland and Yale University (where he has been an Associate Fellow of Davenport College, Yale since 1974). He has lectured at the Kennedy School of Politics in Harvard and also was a Visiting Research Fellow in International Relations in MC, Oxford University for a three year term. He taught an Oxford seminar in diplomacy jointly with Professor Lord Beloff, FBA, Fellow of All Souls College. He is the author or co-author of 19 books about foreign policy from a conservative viewpoint. He also has some administrative experience in government, having served as a senior aide in foreign affairs in the US House of Representatives, as deputy to the Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, as a senior policy aide in the White House and in the Senior Executive Service in the US Information Agency and the Pentagon (Director of Long-Range Policy Planning). He was also Assistant Director for National Security Policy in a Presidential Transition Office. He was Director of Studies in the largest think-tank in Washington, The Heritage Foundation, and was founding editor of its social science quarterly, Policy Review. He is a member of the Cosmos Club and the Metropolitan Club in Washington and of the Beefsteak Club, The Reform Club and of the United Oxford and Cambridge University Club in London. He is also a member of The Pilgrims, the Anglo-American Society.

Scott, Harold B.


Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce, who lead a mission to Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria in the sixties, to increase peaceful trade. Chairman U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic Council 1973-1978, chairman Overseas Private Investment Corporation, associated with the Pfizer pharmaceutical fortune, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Scribner, Charles (IV) Jr.


Chairman Charles Scribner's Sons book publishing company 1952-1984, which had been founded by his great-grandfather, personal editor of Ernest Hemingway's works, president American Book Publishers Council, trustee Princeton University.

Scully, Leonard T.

died 1997

Earned both an MBA and a law degree from NYU. During World War II, Scully, who had enlisted in the Army prior to America's entry into the war, was assigned by General Omar Bradley to Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery's staff. In this capacity, he participated in the planning of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. As a member of Bradley's G-5 staff, Scully also served in five campaigns in France, Belgium and Germany. His military honors include the Legion of Merit, a Bronze Star, and the Croix de Guerre. After returning home in1945, Scully became a member of the Army Reserve, serving as acting commander of his unit until retiring in 1965. Scully, who had begun working at the United States Trust Co. of New York in 1934, rejoined the firm after the war, eventually becoming senior vice president. After his retirement in 1975, Scully became president and CEO of Excelsior Income Shares, a subsidiary of the United States Trust Co. Active in many charitable causes, Scully was a former director and assistant treasurer of the Madison Square Boys' Club and its affiliate, the Bronx Boys' Club. He served as president of the Peabody Home at the time of its merger with St. Luke's Home to become Morningside House, and he continued as president of the combined institution for many years. He was a director of the Eye Bank for Sight Restoration and the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, a former secretary of the Eugene Higgins Scientific Trust, a trustee of the Westmoreland Davis Memorial Foundation, and governor of the Knickerbocker Club; he was also a member of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the Pilgrims of the United States. In addition, Scully served on committees of the New York City Bar Association, the American Bar Association, the New York State Bankers' Association, and the American Law Institute. A dedicated alumnus, Scully served as treasurer of the New York Columbia Club and was honored with the Alumni Medal from the Alumni Federation in 1961.

Seaborg, Glenn T.

Appeared in the 1969 list of The Pilgrims. Co-discoverer of some 7 nuclear energy isotopes. Co-discoverer or discoverer of 19 elements, including plutonium. Head of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for two years, 1972-1973. Director of the globalist World Future Society and the Federal Radiation Council.

Segal, Martin E.


Born in Vitebsk, Russia in 1916. Founder in 1939 of the Segal Company, pPresident from 1939to 1967, chairman from 1967 to 1991, and consultant since 1991. Segal was a Partner, Wertheim & Co. (New York) from 1967 to 1982, president from 1972 to 1975, and subsequently Chairman from 1975 to 1982 of Wertheim Asset Management Services. Columnist for Associated Press. Chairman of the Public Service Awards Committee, Fund for the City of New York, in 1978 and 1979. In 1979, Mr. Segal was co-chairman of the mission to lay the basis for cultural exchanges between the United States and China via the Center for United States-China Arts Exchange; visited China with the U.S. delegation, as co-chairman, for this purpose (March 8-23, 1979). Mr. Segal served on the Advisory Council of the Center for United States-China Arts Exchange from 1982-1988. He was General Chairman of “Night of 100 Stars II” (first AIDS benefit – The Actors’ Fund of America– held on February 17, 1985). Organizing Co-Chairman of the International Conference on the Future of ArtsEducation – November 11-13, 1999 Fellow of the Fellow of the Royal Society of London. Received many many awards and was very active in a host of New York clubs and not-for-profit institutions.

Seitz, Raymond G.H.


Born in Hololulu , Hawaii. Graduated from Yale in history. After two years spent teaching in Dallas, Texas, he joined the Foreign Service in 1966. His first post was in Montreal, Canada as Consular Officer; in 1968 he was assigned to Nairobi, Kenya as Political Officer, serving concurrently as Vice-Consul in the Seychelles Islands. After two years as Principal Officer in Bukavu, Zaire, Ambassador Seitz returned to the State Department in 1972 and was appointed Director of the Secretariat Staff under Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. He subsequently served as Special Assistant to the Director General of the Foreign Service. In 1975 he was assigned for the first time to the U.S Embassy in London as First Secretary, and in 1978, he received the Director General's Award for Reporting. Returning to Washington in 1979 as Deputy Executive Secretary to the Department of State, Ambassador Seitz served in the office of Secretaries Vance, Muskie and Haig. In October 1981 he became Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. Appointed Executive Assistant to Secretary of State George Shultz from 1981-1984. On completion of his term as Assistant Secretary of State, the Federal Republic of Germany conferred on Ambassador Seitz the Knight Commander's Cross. Minister at the US Embassy in London from 1984-1989, and Assistant Secretary of State for Europe, based in Washington, from 1989-1991. U.S. Ambassador to Britain 1991-1994. He is a trustee of the National Gallery, the Royal Academy of Arts and the World Monuments Fund. He is a member of the Advisory Council of the Institute for International Studies at Stanford University and a governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Senior managing director and vice-chairman of Lehman Brothers International in London. Director of Cable & Wireless, Hongkong Telecom, The Chubb Corporation, General Electric Company plc, Cable and Wireless plc, Hollinger International, The Telegraph Group plc, British Airways, and Rio Tinto plc. Received the Churchill Medal of Honour from the English-Speaking Union. He has written numerous book reviews for the Daily Telegraph, The Times, The Sunday Telegraph, and The Literary Review and broadcast several series of essays for the BBC. In 1999 Seitz became the first American citizen to receive Freedom of the City of London. He was elected as an Honorary Freeman of the Merchant Taylor's Company in 2001. Member of the Trilateral Commission.

Shannon, John


Raised for seven years in Washington, DC, after which his family moved to Paris for five years and Tokyo for another five before settling in New York City in 1971. He graduated from the Lycee Francais de New York in 1973 and received a BA in History from Trinity College, in Hartford, CT. He was a banker in New York for 11 years, working with European clients. Subsequently, he moved away from financial services and went to the non-profit sector. Consultant to the Hereditary Society Community of the United States of America. Since 1994 he has been Executive Director & Almoner of St. George's Society of New York, one of that city's oldest, continuously operating membership organizations, founded in 1770. In addition to organizing regular events for its members, the Society operates a significant charitable program of financial assistance to needy persons living in the New York area who are from the United Kingdom of the British Commonwealth. Additionally Mr. Shannon is President of the College of Arms Foundation, Inc., which was established by the College of Arms in 1984. Mr. Shannon serves as Assistant Secretary of the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies in New York. He is a member of The Pilgrims of the United States; the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society where he serves as Chairman of the Committee on Heraldry; and Saint Thomas Church in New York (where he co-chaired the Every Member Canvass for two years). Mr. Shannon is also a member of The Heraldry Society and the Society of Heraldic Arts, two UK-based organizations that focus on all forms of English heraldry. Former Member of the Council of the New York State General Society of Colonial Wars. Vice President of the St. Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Executive director of the St. George's Society of New York. Officer in the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.

Sherrill, Charles Hitchcock


Trustee New York University, ambassador to Turkey 1932-1933, wrote the books ''Have We A Far Eastern Policy?''(1920) & ''Prime Ministers and Presidents'' (1922), decorated by Italy, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Sweden, Austria, Hungary, Holland, and Czechoslovakia.

Shields, William

exec. committee



Shultz, George P.

born 1920

Born December 13, 1920, in New York City, the son or Birl E. and Margaret Pratt Shultz. Charles Pratt (1830-1891), Margaret's grandfather, became a partner of John D. Rockefeller after merging his oil company with Standard Oil in 1874. His son, Shultz's grandfather, Charles Millard Pratt (1858-1933), was treasurer of Standard Oil and his widow bequeathed their New York mansion, the Charles Pratt House, to the Council on Foreign Relations in 1945, which serves as its headquarters ever since. Birl Earl Shultz (1883-1955), George's father, was a personnel director with the American International Corporation and founded the New York Stock Exchange Institute (November 10, 1955, NY Times, obituary). B.A. degree in economics from Princeton University in 1942. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to Kay Griggs, just as Allen Dulles, Donald Rumsfeld, William Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, and George Griggs (August 3, 2005, Rense). U.S. Marine Corps 1942-1945, attaining the rank of Captain. Faculty member at MIT 1946-1947. At MIT, according to several accounts, Shultz teamed up with the German social engineer Kurt Lewin, who was setting up a psychological research institute there (died in 1947). Lewin emigrated from Germany to the US in 1932 and is said to have been a leading member of the Tavistock Institute (at the very least he served as a source of inspiration to many of their psychiatrists). Taught in both the MIT Department of Economics and the MIT Sloan School of Management 1948-1957. Earned a Ph.D. from MIT in industrial economics in 1949. Chairman of MIT's Industrial Relations Division 1954-1957. Leave of absence in 1955 to serve on President Dwight Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers as a senior staff economist. Joined the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business as professor of industrial relations in 1957 and served as dean of the school from 1962 to 1968. Involved in Nixon's election campaign of 1968. Nixon's Secretary of Labor 1969-1970. One of the main organizers of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council in 1972. Nixon's Secretary of the Treasury 1972-1974. It was during this period that Schultz, along with Paul Volcker and Arthur Burns, supported the decision of the Nixon administration to end the gold standard and the Bretton Woods system. Shultz also regularly played golf with Stephen Bechtel Jr. at Burning Tree. President and director of the Bechtel Group 1974-1982, a privately-held huge construction company strongly linked to the intelligence agencies. Also acted as president of the Bechtel Foundation. Ran Ronald Reagan's election campaign in 1980, together with Bechtel vice-president Caspar Weinburger. Chairman of the President's Economic Policy Advisory Board from 1981-1982. Reagan's Secretary of State 1982-1989. Hosted his good friend Helmut Schmidt at the Bohemian Grove in 1982 and has stayed at Camp Mandalay. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Atlantic Council of the United States. On Oct. 25, 1984, speaking at the Park Avenue Synagogue in New York, Shultz delivered remarks calling for the U.S. to adopt a preemptive first-strike policy, such was implemented 20 years later by the Bush-Cheney administration. According to John Perkins, former chief economist and "economic hitman", Shultz functioned as the heir to Robert Strange McNamara (1001 Club) as one of the top figures in the new imperial pyramid of power, which employed the structure of economic hitmen to bleed and crush nations. Examples are the Philippines' Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, and such as the various attacks on Panama, culminating in the 1989 invasion. Then-Secretary of State Shultz had spoken one day earlier, Sept. 30, threatening the nations present that they had better stay in line, and pay their debts to the IMF. As Secretary of State, he automatically became a honorary member of the Pilgrims Society and gave at least one speech to this club in 1985. In August 1988, while travelling from the airport to La Paz, Bolivia, Shultz's motorcade was bombed, supposedly by drug dealers. There was only material damage. In 1989 he rejoined Bechtel as a director and senior counselor (he still is anno 2005). Director at Gilead Sciences since 1996. Director Fremont Group, Inc. (owned by the Bechtel corporation) and the Charles Schwab Corporation. Chairman of Accenture's Energy Advisory Board. Former member of the Advisory Council of Forstmann Little & Co. (Henry Kissinger, Colin Powell, and Donald Rumsfeld have been other members). Has visited the Trilateral Commission in the 1990s. Teamed up with George Soros in 1998 to promote a series of referenda to legalize narcotics. According to author James Mann, who wrote the Rise of the Vulcans book about Bush's inner Cabinet, Shultz initiated a discussion with George W. in the Spring of 1998, whereby the future President sat down in Shultz's living room on the Stanford University campus, in order to see if he would be the right man for the presidency. At that meeting were Martin Anderson, the former advisor to both Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan; Abraham Sofaer, a former Shultz aide; John Cogan and John Taylor, two economics professors; and Stanford's provost, and Shultz protege, Condoleezza Rice. After the scholars associated with the Hoover Institution indicated that they thought Bush would make a good Presidential choice, Bush invited Shultz, Rice, and Anderson down to Austin, Texas for a follow-up meeting in the Summer. Out of that meeting, which was joined by Dick Cheney and Paul Wolfowitz, came the public decision for Bush to run for President. Soon Richard Perle and Dov Zakheim were holding Monday morning conference calls with Bush. Bush W. became president in 2000, selecting the above individuals as his primary staff members. Initial member of the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq in 2002, a year before that country was invaded. Co-chairman of the economic taskforce for California gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2003. Co-chairman of the Commonwealth Club Centennial meeting in 2003, sponsored by Goldman Sachs and Carnegie Corporation. Anno 2005, Shultz is chairman of J.P. Morgan Chase's International Advisory Council, co-chairman of the Committee on Present Danger (together with James Woolsey), and an advisor to the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (together with Alexander Haig, Lawrence S. Eagleburger, Richard Perle, James Woolsey, and, until recently, Paul Wolfowitz). Honorary director of the Institute for International Economics (headed by Peter G. Peterson. Other directors are Paul Volcker, Maurice R. Greenberg, and David Rockefellers). Member of the Hoover Institution and the American Enterprise Institute New Atlantic Initiative. Shultz's most senior advisor and confidant is Charles Hill, a former diplomat to Israel, the Far East, and the secretary-general of the UN, who now holds positions at Yale and Stanford. Shultz has been a long time associate of Henry Kissinger.

Sigmon, Robert


Mentioned as a chairman of The Pilgrims in a meeting of the European-Atlantic Group (E-AG) in 1985. Involved with the Council of Independent Colleges. Member of the Council of Management of the British Institute of International Comparative Law (BIICL). Pilgrim and Order of the Garter member Lord Bingham of Cornhill is chairman of this council.

Simmons, J. Edward


President Board of Education in the 19th century, president New York Stock Exchange in the 19th century, president Fourth National Bank, president PPR Co., president Water Supply of the City of New York until 1908, president Chamber of Commerce since 1908, attended a February 1908 Pilgrims dinner. As president of the Fourth National Bank he gave a (Pilgrims?) dinner on December 12, 1900, which was attended by J.P. Morgan (Pilgrim) and Charles M. Schwab (Pilgrim). It was at this dinner that Morgan decided to buy Carnegie Steel, of which Schwab was president, and to bring it together with his own steel interests into United States Steel Corporation.

Simon, William Edward


Deputy Secretary of the Treasury 1973-1974. Chairman President's Oil Policy Committee February to December 1973 (oil crisis started in October). Administrator Federal Energy Office since December 1973 and was charged with the responsibility of minimizing the effects of the energy crisis and preventing future crises (decided the oil prices and the distribution). Together with Pilgrim Henry Kissinger he was the most important speaker of the 1974 International Energy Conference. chairman Economic Policy Board since 1974. Chief spokesman of the Ford Administration on economic issues since 1974. Treasury Secretary 1974-1981. Chairman East-West Foreign Trade Board since 1975. Director of Citigroup, Kissinger Associates (since the mid 80s), Halliburton, Power Corporation of Canada, United Technologies, Xerox, INA Corporation, Dart Industries, Heritage Foundation, Hoover Institution, and John D. MacArthur Foundation. William E. Simon served as treasurer of the U.S. Olympic Committee from 1977 to 1981. Identified as a COMEX governor in January 1980. President of the U.S. Olympic Committee 1981-1985, which included the 1984 Games in Sarajevo and Los Angeles. He chaired the U.S. Olympic Foundation 1985-1997, created with the profits of the Los Angeles games, and was inducted into the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame in 1991. Simon was a member of the Knights of Malta, a Pilgrims Society member, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Sowden, William


Born in Canada, american parents. After serving with the Atlantic and Pacific fleets, he was (1897-1900) naval attaché in Paris and St. Petersburg. While in Europe he sent numerous reports to the Navy Dept. urging the adoption of new ship designs and gunnery, and in 1902 he wrote to President Theodore Roosevelt criticizing the inefficiency of the navy. His letters had some effect and he was ordered to Washington, serving (1902-1909) with the Bureau of Navigation and (1907–9) as naval aide to the President. After leading (1913-1915) the Atlantic torpedo flotilla he was appointed (1917) rear admiral and president of the Naval War College. In World War I he commanded (1917-1918) U.S. operations in European waters. He again became president of the Naval War College in 1919 and served there until 1922, when he retired. He was made full admiral by act of Congress in 1930. He wrote, with Burton J. Hendrick, "The Victory at Sea" (1920).

Sloane, John


Yale Skull & Bones 1905, vice-president Presbyterian Hospital.

Smith, Olcott Damon


Yale and Harvard law school, partner Day Berry & Howard law firm in 1936, employee Office of General Counsel of the U.S. Navy during WWII, joined Aetna Life & Casualty Co. vice chairman in 1962, chairman Aetna Life & Casualty Co. 1963-1972, , member legal team during the construction of the Millstone Nuclear Power Complex in Hartford, director and chairman of the Greater Hartford Process Inc. (foundation).

Sparks, Sir Ashley


Director and chief of Cunard White Star Line, his daughter married Pilgrim son Harry P. Davison. Sir Ashley went to meet with King George V in 1932 to ask him is he could name one of the cruise ship of his company "Victoria", after a former Queen of England. (although it became the Queen Mary) This is the same company who had built the Mauretania and the Lusitania with the financial backing of the British government.

Speyer, James Joseph


Eldest son of German banker Gustav Speyer, joined his father's banking house Speyer & Co. and was employed in London and Paris, senior member New York branch of Speyer & Co. in 1900, which became Lazard Speyer-Ellissen a few years later, director Bank of Manhattan Trust Company, trustee Guaranty Trust/Central Trust (in 1908), associated with the Warburgs, Schiffs, Whitneys, etc, elected a trustee of the Museum of the City of New York in 1923.

Spiller, Jill


Executive Director The Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Was named as a Pilgrims Society member in a 2003 British Memorial Garden event.

Spitzer, Eliot



Sprague, Robert Chapman


Invented the tone control for radio while serving in the Navy, founder (in 1926) president chairman and treasurer Sprague Electric Company, oversaw construction of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lexington (laid down by Morgan's Bethlehem Steel Co. in 1941), chairman Industry Advisory Committee on Electronic Components and Parts 1944-1945, consultant on continental defense to the National Security Council 1954-1958, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 1955-1960, chairman MITRE Corporation 1969-1972, trustee Northeastern University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Life Member Emeritus of the MIT, member Hudson Institute, member Council on Foreign Relations, member Newcomen Society.

Spring-Rice, Sir Cecil Arthur


Agent of King George V. Spring-Rice attended Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, and served in the War Office and Foreign Office, and as Earl Granville's private secretary. He became the British Chargé d’Affaires in Tehran in 1900, and British Commissioner of Public Debt in Cairo in 1901. He went on to serve in St. Petersburg, Russia (1903), Persia (1906), Sweden (1908), and as ambassador to the United States (1912-1918).

Sproul, Allan


Son of a Scottish immigrant, studied at the University of California, joined the Federal Reserve banking system, president Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1941-1956, director Wells Fargo Bank, director Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical

Stahel, Julius


Julius Stahel was a Hungarian immigrant who was a journalist in New York City for the German-speaking community before the Civil War. He had previously served in the Austrian army, and at the outbreak of the Civil War he helped to organize the "1st German Rifles." Stahel eventually became a major general in the Union army and received the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Stetson, Eugene W.


(No confirmation that he was a Pilgrim, but it's very hard to image he was not a member. His son was a confirmed member.) Born in a prominent New York area banking family, went to Mercer University for two years, clerk American National Bank in Macon 1901, helped organize the Citizens National Bank in 1908 and became its president, member of a group which bought Coca-Cola Company from the Asa Candler family in 1919, director Beekman Street Hospital of Manhattan in 1925 (board filled with Masons and Pilgrims), director Guarantee Trust 1928-1941 (together with Prescott Bush), vice-president Guarantee Trust 1941-1944, chairman Guaranty Trust 1944-1947, financial advisor to Guaranty Trust after that, together with Henry Clay Alexander of J.P. Morgan he arranged the merger of the Guaranty Trust Company of New York with J.P. Morgan & Co. 1958, advisor to New York City Cancer Committee (with a Lazard Frères president and William Donovan of the OSS) in 1946, president of the Council for Heart Diseases in 1946, asked by Averell Harriman to become a director of Illinois Central Railroad in 1932 and later became it's chairman, his son (Jr.) became a member of Skull & Bones in 1934, joined Brown Brothers Harriman (with Prescott Bush) an Skull & Bones.

Stetson, Eugene W., Jr.


Yale Skull & Bones 1934, joined the family's firm Stetson & Company, assistant manager Brown Brothers Harriman of New York (together with Prescott Bush), director Chemical Bank, organized the H. Smith Richardson Foundation (said to have financed a part of the MK-Ultra project).

Stewart, James C.


James Stewart & Company, which was involved in many large construction project including the Savoy Hotel in London (1889), where the Pilgrims would often meet. Also built the Mormon’s capital building in Salt Lake City.

Stillman, Chauncey D.

died 1989

Georgia resident who build an estate on his 1200 acres of land, loved nature, from a very wealthy family, treasurer Catholic Art Association, founder (1939) and long time chairman of the Homeland Foundation (for preserving nature and preserving individual rights)

Stimson, Henry Lewis


Yale Skull & Bones 1888; joined a law firm headed by Elihu Root in 1891; U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York 1906; Secretary of War 1911-1913; joined the military during WWI and fought as an artillery officer in France; governor-general of the Philippines 1927-1929; opposed the independence of many nations because they were not able to govern themselves; Secretary of State under Herbert Hoover 1929-1933; In 1932, after reading an article in the Illustrated London News, he ordered the U.S. Ambassador in Turkey to make a request for an inquiry into the original sources used for the Piri Reis map. The Turkish government complied, but no earlier sources were found; chairman U.S. delegation to the London Naval Conference 1930-1931; chairman U.S. delegation to the Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932; Secretary of War under FDR 1940-1945.

Strathcona, Lord Donald Alexander Smith


Made a fortune, many times over, from investments in land, railways, and banking. He joined the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838, attained the rank of chief factor in 1862, was the company's land commissioner in Manitoba 1870-1874, one of the principal financiers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, major shareholder in Northern Pacific Railroad (together with Pilgrim James J. Hill), major investor in the Bank of Montreal, represented Selkirk, Manitoba in the House of Commons 1871-1880, knighted in 1886, MP for Montreal West 1887-1896, raised to the peerage as Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal in 1897, co-founder of the London Pilgrims 1902, British High Commissioner in Canada. He is possibly best known for equipping and maintaining the celebrated cavalry unit known as Lord Stathcona's Horse during the Boer War (1899-1902). He also promoted educational causes. He was a generous patron of McGill University in Montreal, he founded the Royal Victoria College for women, and was rector and chancellor of the University of Aberdeen. Strathcona's philanthropy, educational interests and imperial enthusiasms converged in 1909 when he established the Strathcona Trust, an endowment intended to promote military drill and physical training in the public schools of Canada. The physical education curriculum in many provinces, including British Columbia, originated with programmes funded by the Strathcona Trust.

Strathmore, Mary


Duchess of York. Very close with the Royal family and her late husband was the Queen Mother's nephew. She is patron or Hon President of the Local Branches of the Multiple Sclerosis Society, Cancer Relief, Age Concern, Nursing Benevolent Fund, the Day Care Committee for the Elderly, she is patron in Scotland of Sense (for deaf blind people), the Brittle Bone Society, the Child Psychotherapy Trust, and Child Link Scotland and is the Chair of the Scottish Disability Foundation Appeals Committee. Patron Queen Mother Research Centre. She plays a large part in promoting Scottish interests. Deputy Lord Lieutenant of Angus in 1989. Honorary Regent for Great Britain on the Kenmore Trust which runs George Washington's Sister's home in Virgina, and was honoured by a flag being flown over the US Capital on July 28th 1997.

Strauss, Elliott Bowman

Graduated from the Naval Academy in 1923. Served on different destroyers until 1934. He returned to Newport for a tour of duty at the Naval Training Station after which, from November 1935 until September 1937, he was Assistant U.S. Naval Attache at the American Embassy, London, England. While there he was a Delegate to the Third Assembly, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, at Edinburgh, in 1936, and on May 12, 1937, was awarded the British Coronation Medal at the coronation of King George VI of England. Upon his return to the United States in the Fall of 1937, he was designated Aide and Flag Lieutenant on the Staff of Rear Admiral Alfred W. Johnson, USN, Commander Training Detachment, U.S. Fleet, and was attached to the flagship, USS New York. Served on another couple of destroyers. He returned to London, England as U.S. Naval Observer just prior to the outbreak of World War II in December 1941, and served on the staff of Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, Chief of Combined Operations, during the early war period, taking part in the Allied raid on Dieppe, August 19, 1942. In November 1943, he reported to Commander U.S. Naval Forces, Europe, and was assigned duty with Task Force One Hundred Twenty two, later serving on the Staff of the Allied Naval Commander in Chief, Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey, until August 1944. Captain Strauss returned to the United States for duty in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations in 1945. From January to December 1948 he was a student at the Imperial Defense College in London. On August 11, 1952, he was ordered to the Office of the Deputy for Defense Affairs, Office of Special Representative in Europe for Mutual Security Administration, Paris, France. On September 28, 1953, after his retirement in July of that year, he was ordered detached from that assignment, but to continue duty in Paris as Staff Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, Office of Foreign Economic Defense Affairs, with his duty station in the U.S. Mission to NATO and European Regional Organization, Paris. From August 1956 until March 1957, Rear Admiral Strauss was Director of Engineering at Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA. On April 6, 1957, Rear Admiral Strauss was named Chief of the new American Foreign Aide Mission to Tunisia. There he directed a $5.5 million program providing commodities and technical assistance for the rest of the fiscal year ending June 30, a program which in 1958 had risen to more than $20 million, and by the time of his detachment in August 1960, had put more than $100 million into the Tunisian economy. In 1960, he served as personal representative of the Secretary of State as a member of a three-man team to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mutual Aid program to Pakistan, this assignment extended from September 1960 to January 1961. In January 1961, Rear Admiral Strauss initiated, as Director, the A.I.D. mission to the Malagasy Republic and served there until February 1963. He retired from A.I.D. in May 1963. In July 1965, Rear Admiral Strauss became a public member of the Foreign Service Inspection Corps. He was a member of the team inspecting Embassy, Tel Aviv and Consulate General Jerusalem, July--September 1965. Rear Admiral Strauss is a member of the Pilgrims of the United States, the Chevy Chase Club and Army and Navy Club of Washington, DC; the New York Yacht Club; and the Buck's Club, and the International Sportman's Club, both of London, England.

Strong, Benjamin, Jr.


Embarked on a financial career in 1891 with Cuyler, Morgan & Co. Assistant secretary Atlantic Trust Co. Secretary Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. 1904-1909. Vice president Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. 1909-1914. President Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. since 1914. First president/governor NY Federal Reserve Bank 1914-1928 and was a close friend/ business associate of co-Pilgrim and Bank of England governor Montagu Norman. He met in secret with Montagu Norman and Hjalmar Schacht (president Reichsbank; friend Max Warburg) in July 1927.

Stuart, Sir Collin Campbell


Made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1918 when co-Pilgrim Lord Northcliffe was made a Viscount. In February, 1918, the (English) Prime Minister made Northcliffe director of Propaganda in Enemy Countries with Campbell Stuart as his deputy. Managing director of the Times (of Lord Northcliffe) 1919-1923. He later relinquished this position with the Times to become an ordinary director and in 1923 became the representative of the Canadian Government on the Pacific Cable Board. Linking Canada, Australia and New Zealand, this cable had been laid in 1902 across the Pacific Ocean and passing only through British territory was jointly owned by the respective governments. He did well in the job but was not happy at the increasing competition of wireless and cable and he recommended to the Government that the question should be considered by an Imperial Conference. As a result an Imperial Wireless and Cable Conference was set up in London in January, 1928, with Campbell Stuart appointed to represent the Canadian Government. One of the resulting recommendations was to form an Imperial Communications Advisory Committee, to oversee in certain respects the new private corporation that was to come into being, the Cable and Wireless Company, of which Campbell Stuart became Chairman. The role of Campbell Stuart, when asked to set up a propaganda organization, immediately prior to World War Two, is related in the Department Electra House text and when he resigned from that position he resumed duties with the Imperial Communications Advisory Committee, which was renamed the Commonwealth Communications Council and met in London in April, 1944, with Campbell Stuart as Chairman. As one of the considerations, when Cable and Wireless was nationalized, in 1945, feeling his usefulness was now at an end Campbell Stuart then resigned. Amongst many other appointments he remained an active director of the Times until 1960.

Studd, Sir Kynaston


Royal descent, confidant of the Duke of Westminster (Grosvenor family), Order of the British Empire, president The Polytechnic, Lord Mayor of London 1928-1929 (Which is something different than the normal mayor of London), provincial grand master in Freemasonry 1934-1944.

Sunderland, Edwin Sherwood Stowell


Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell, his daughter Dorothy Joan married co-Pilgrim Charles Scribner Jr., director Jekyll Island (Georgia) Club where the Federal Reserve conspiracy took place, governor Union club (an important New York City club), director Morningside Heights Incorporated, United States Trust Company of New York, Berwind-White Coal Mining, Illinois Central Railroad, Harriman, Ripley & Company, Missouri Pacific Lines and other companies.

Swope, Gerard


Engineer, businessman, and public official, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He joined Western Electric Co (1895) and became vice-president (1913) in charge of domestic sales and international operations, reorganizing Western Electric's foreign interests. A parallel concern of his was social justice, and in 1897–9 he lived and worked at Hull House in Chicago, marrying a social worker who also worked there. In 1919 he joined General Electric as the first president of its subsidiary International General Electric, where he promoted international corporate support for European reconstruction following World War 1. As president of General Electric (1922), with Owen D Young chairing the board, he recognized a corporation's responsibility to its employees, customers, and the industry. His ‘new capitalism’ vision, called the Swope Plan (1931), became the basis for the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, and he helped implement the New Deal. He headed community chest campaigns, founded the National Health and Welfare Retirement Association, and, retiring in 1939, chaired the New York City Housing Authority. His causes included co-operative housing, health insurance, and Zionism. In 1951 he chaired the Institute of Pacific Relations.

Symington, William Stuart


Enlisted as a private in the United States Army at seventeen years of age and was discharged as a second lieutenant; graduated from Yale University in 1923; reporter on a Baltimore newspaper; moved to Rochester, N.Y., and worked as an iron moulder and lathe operator 1923-1926, studying mechanical and electrical engineering at night and by correspondence; executive with several radio and steel companies 1926-1937; moved to St. Louis, Mo., and became president of the Emerson Electric Manufacturing Co. 1938-1945. In 1945-1946 he was Surplus Property Administrator in Washington, D.C., disposing of unused war materials. From 1947 through 1950 Symington was Secretary of the Air Force. In 1950 he became chairman of the National Security Resources Board, which was suggestive of more recent Presidential Executive Orders authorizing the seizure of commodities in wartime. He was a Senator from Missouri from 1952 to 1976. Symington was a personal friend of Pilgrim Floyd Odlum.


Taft, William Howard


Direct descendants of Charlemagne. Son of the co-founder of the Yale Skull & Bones Society. Himself Skull & Bones 1878. Cincinnati Law School 1880. Member Ohio Superior Court 1890-1892. Solicitor-general of the United States 1892-1900. Governor of the Philippines 1901-1904, Secretary of War 1904-1908. President of the United States 1909-1913. Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court 1921-1930. Invited to the Bohemian Grove.

Taft, Henry Waters


Son of the co-founder of the Yale Skull & Bones Society. Brother of William H. Taft. Yale Skull & Bones 1880. Supposedly a famed New York lawyer. Six year president of the Japan Society in the 1920s. Awarded the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun.

Taylor, Sir John Wilson


Knight of the British Empire. Member of the management of the American Officers Club.

Taylor, General Maxwell D.


Graduated from West Point in 1922. In World War II he served in Europe with the 82d Airborne Division and as commander of the 101st Airborne Division. After serving as superintendent of West Point (1945–1949) and U.S. commander in Berlin (1949–1951), he commanded UN forces in Korea. From 1955 to 1959 he was army chief of staff, and he argued for an army capable of fighting a limited war. When the Eisenhower administration continued to emphasize U.S. nuclear capability, he resigned; he outlined his views in An Uncertain Trumpet (1959). In 1961, President Kennedy appointed Taylor to the post of military representative to the President, and in 1962 he became chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. He served until 1964, when President Johnson named him ambassador to South Vietnam. While in that post (1964–1965) he urged continued limited U.S. participation in the Vietnam War. Chairman President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory board 1968-1970.

Taylor, Myron Charles

exec. committee


Admitted to the bar in 1895, spent much of his early career in the textile business, operating mills in New England and elsewhere until 1923, at the behest of J.P. Morgan he became a director of United States Steel Corporation, chairman finance committee United States Steel Corporation 1927-1934, chairman United States Steel Corporation 1932-1938, personal representative of the U.S. President to Pope Pius XII 1939-1950, personal representative of the President on Special Missions 1950-1952, member Knights of Malta, member Knight Order of Pius, member Knight Grand Cross of Saints Mauritius and Lazarus. Taylor gave funds to the Episcopal Diocese of New York, director Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1959. In 1939 he became the U.S. envoy to Pope Pius XII, a post he would maintain until 1950.

Thatcher, Margaret


Thatcher served as Education Secretary in the government of Edward Heath from 1970 to 1974, and successfully challenged Heath for the Conservative leadership in 1975. She became Britain Prime-Minister through Brian Crozier's secret Shield committee, which laid out her election campaign. Se was elected 3 times and was Prime-Minister from 1979 to 1990. Her policy was strongly anti-communist and pro-privatization. Thatcher maintained the "special relationship" with the United States, and formed a close bond with Ronald Reagan. Thatcher also dispatched a Royal Navy task force to retake the Falkland Islands from Argentina in the Falklands War. The profound changes Thatcher set in motion as Prime Minister altered much of the economic and cultural landscape of Britain. She curtailed the power of the trade unions, cut back the role of the state in business, dramatically expanded home ownership, and in so doing created a more entrepreneurial culture. Awarded the Order of Merit in 1990. In 1992 she was created Baroness Thatcher; since then her direct political work has been within the House of Lords and as head of the Thatcher Foundation. In 1995 she became a Knight of the Order of the Garter. In July 1992, she was hired by tobacco giant Philip Morris Companies, now the Altria Group, as a "geopolitical consultant" for US$250,000 per year and an annual contribution of US$250,000 to her Foundation. In practice, she helped them break into markets in central Europe, the former Soviet Union, China, and Vietnam, as well as fight against a proposed EC ban on tobacco advertising. Her son Mark has been dogged by a series of controversies. In January 2005 he was fined three million rand (approximately $500,000) and received a four-year suspended jail sentence in South Africa after several months of house arrest, for abetting a coup attempt in Equatorial Guinea.

Thayer, Walter Nelson


Whitney agent and director of Bankers Trust Company of New York. Director of National Dairy Products Corporation. Member of the Lend-Lease Administration in 1941-1942. Assistant to Averell Harriman 1941-1945.

Thomson, Lord Roy Herbert


1st Baron Thomson of Fleet. Chairman of the Thomson Organization. Owned 56 American newspapers and also the London Times. Director of Reuters. Freemason. Spoke to the Empire Club of Canada on January 6, 1972, while David Rockefeller was sitting in the Audience.

Thomson, Kenneth Roy


2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet, Canada’s wealthiest man, added the prestigious Globe and Mail in Toronto to The Times and Sunday Times in Britain and The Jerusalem Post in Israel. Under Kenneth Thomson, who owns a 73-per-cent stake in the company, Thomson Corporation sold its North Sea oil holdings and sold The Times to Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation and the Jerusalem Post to Conrad Black's Hollinger Inc.

Tiarks, Henry Frederick


Banker, his daughter was Henrietta Joan Tiarks, who married Henry Robin Ian Russell, the 14th Duke of Bedford and the Marquess of Tavistock. Both were into horse breeding and racing.

Tillinghast, Charles C. Jr.


Graduated from Columbia Law School in 1935, after he graduated he joined the law firm of Hughes, Schurman and Dwight of New York, vice president of Bendix Corp., trustee-appointed president of Howard Hughes' Trans World Airlines 1960, later sued by Howard Hughes who charged Tillinghast and others of conspiring against him in an effort to wrestle Trans World Airlines from him. Didn't work out that well for Hughes. Tillinghast became chairman of TWA and remained that until 1976, became vice chairman of White, Weld and Co. in 1976, chancellor Brown University 1968-1979, vice-president Merrill Lynch, director Seaboard Surety Company, director Merck & Company.

Tower, John Goodwin



Tower left school in the summer of 1943 to serve in the Pacific Theater during World War II on an amphibious gunboat. He returned to Texas after the war in 1946, discharged as a seaman first class, and completed his undergraduate courses at Southwestern University, graduating in 1948 with a B.A. in political science. Tower became the youngest person in the senate in 1961. He was only 36 at the time, and there were 71 candidates in the race, but former Democrat Tower prevailed in the runoff, becoming Texas' first Republican senator since Reconstruction. Considered an ultraconservative, during his 23 years in the Senate, Tower became an authority in matters concerning national defense and the military. As defense spending rose to $211 billion a year, Tower brought prized defense contracts to Texas. In 1981, he became chairman of the Armed Services Committee. In 1984, Tower decided not to seek re-election. He worked instead as a highly-paid defense consultant. In 1985, President Reagan named Tower to the post of strategic arms negotiator with the Soviet Union. The following year, he appointed Tower to chair a bipartisan committee to investigate the Iran-contra scandal. George Bush nominated Tower for Secretary of Defense in 1989, but critics claimed he had too many ties to defense contractors. He also had some trouble with excessive drinking and womanizing. Senator Tower was killed in the crash of Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311 in Georgia in 1991. His daughter Marian also died in the crash. Some hold that Tower's plane crash and John Heinz' (a friend of his) the day before are connected to their Iran-Contra investigation. The Times, February 10, 1982:

"The Pilgrims, who promote Anglo-American understanding, have Senator John Tower, chairman of the United States Senate Armed Services Committee, coming to lunch at the Savoy on February 23. Tower, a tough Republican, who won Lyndon Johnson’s seat two decades ago, is a powerful figure, in some senses outranking the well-publicized Secretary of State, Alexander Haig. On the other hand Haig was a general. Tower, the only enlisted reservist in Congress, is still officially a chief petty officer."

Townsend, Lynn Alfred


Business executive, born in Flint, Michigan, USA. A University of Michigan MBA, he worked for accounting firms before joining Chrysler Corp as comptroller (1957). He rapidly moved into Chrysler's international operations, becoming president and chief executive officer (1961-1966), and chairman and chief executive officer (1967-1975).

Trevor, John B.


Partner in investment firm Trevor & Colgate of New York, which was established in 1852. Both Trevor and Colgate were rich men at the time.

Tuckerman, Eliot

hon. treasurer

born 1872

Introduced the game of golf to Stockbridge (N.Y. state), together with Joseph H. Choate Jr. (son of a Pilgrim and Rockefeller attorney), lawyer, member New York State Assembly in 1918, member New York Bar 1918-1919.

Tuttle, Robert Holmes

A California native, Mr. Tuttle graduated from Stanford University and earned his M.B.A. at the University of Southern California. Assistant to President Reagan 1982-1985. President and director of Presidential Personnel, The White House, 1985-1989. Director of Arizona Bank, 1989-1999. Director at City National Corporation. Managing Partner, Tuttle-Click Automotive Group since 1989. Served on the Board of Directors of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars for four years. Tuttle has served on the boards of several prominent civic organizations, including the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library Foundation, the University of Southern California Annenberg School of Communication, and the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art where he was Chairman from 2001 to 2004. Opened the Defense Systems & Equipment International 2005 and gave a speech. US Ambassador to Great Britain since 2005. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

Twain, Mark


Mark Twain (pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) was an American writer, journalist and humorist, who won a worldwide audience for his stories of the youthful adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. Clemens was born on November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri, of a Virginian family. He was brought up in Hannibal, Missouri. After his father's death in 1847, he was apprenticed to a printer and wrote for his brother's newspaper. He later worked as a licensed Mississippi river-boat pilot. The Civil War put an end to the steamboat traffic and Clemens moved to Virginia City, where he edited the Territorial Enterprise. On February 3, 1863, 'Mark Twain' was born when Clemens signed a humorous travel account with that pseudonym. In 1864 Twain left for California, and worked in San Francisco as a reporter. He visited Hawaii as a correspondent for The Sacramento Union, publishing letters on his trip and giving lectures. He set out on a world tour, traveling in France and Italy. His experiences were recorded in 1869 in The Innocents Abroad, which gained him wide popularity, and poked fun at both American and European prejudices and manners. The success as a writer gave Twain enough financial security to marry Olivia Langdon in 1870. They moved next year to Hartford. Twain continued to lecture in the United States and England. Between 1876 and 1884 he published several masterpieces, Tom Sawyer (1881) and The Prince And The Pauper (1881). Life On The Mississippi appeared in 1883 andHuckleberry Finn in 1884. In the 1890s Twain lost most of his earnings in financial speculations and in the failure of his own publishing firm. To recover from the bankruptcy, he started a world lecture tour, during which one of his daughters died. Twain toured New Zealand, Australia, India, and South Africa. He wrote such books as The Tragedy Of Pudd'head Wilson (1884), Personal Recollections Of Joan Of Arc (1885), A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) and the travel book Following The Equator (1897). During his long writing career, Twain also produced a considerable number of essays. The death of his wife and his second daughter darkened the author's later years, which is seen in his posthumously published autobiography (1924). Mark Twain was present at a February 1908 Pilgrim dinner in New York, as reported by the New York Times. (The newspaper wrote a huge amount of articles about him)

Tweedy, Lawrence


Chairman American Club (in London).

Vance, Cyrus Roberts


Because of his father's early death, Vance spent a decent amount of time with his uncle John W. Davis, a co-founder of the CFR, a Morgan and Rockefeller associate, a past ambassador to England, and an earlier member of the Pilgrims Society. Yale Scroll & Key 1939 (studied law). Yale LL.B. 1942. Married Grace Sloane (Pilgrims daughter). World War II naval gunnery officer 1942-1946. In 1947, Vance worked as an assistant to the president of the Mead Corporation and passed the New York State Bar. Joined the law firm Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett as an associate and partner and served as Presiding Partner for many years. Entered government as associate counsel to the Senate Armed Forces Preparedness Investigation Subcommittee, serving alongside LBJ in 1957. In 1958, Vance was appointed consulting counsel to the Senate Committee on Space and Aeronautics and helped to draft the National Space Act of 1958, which led to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Secretary of the Army 1961-1963. Deputy Secretary of Defense 1964-1967. U.S. negotiator to the Paris Peace Conference on the Vietnam War 1968-1969. Returned to Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett in 1969. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1968-1973. Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation since at least 1969 and went on to become vice-chairman. Member of the Commission to Investigate Alleged Police Corruption in New York City 1970-1972. In the early 1970s, he served as chairman of the United Nations Association, USA Policy Studies Committee. Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1973-1976. Attended the first meeting of the Trilateral Commission in 1973 and visited the commission until at least 1978. President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1974-1976. Has visited Bilderberg. Co-founded Public Agenda in 1975, which did a lot of research on the Soviet Union. Chairman Rockefeller Foundation 1975-1977. Secretary of State 1977-1980. Clashed frequently with hawkish National Security Advisor (and CFR director) Zbigniew Brzezinski over the approach towards Russia. Vance opposed the 1980 attempt to rescue the American hostages in Iran and resigned after the mission failed. Returned again to Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett in 1980. Again director Council on Foreign Relations 1981-1985. Chairman American Ditchley Foundation 1981-1994 (director before that). Started participating in the Williamsburg Conferences in 1981. Again vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1985-1987. Chairman Japan Society 1985-1993. Attended meetings of the Asia Society. Co-founder of the America-China Society in 1987, together with Henry Kissinger. Chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1988-1990. Co-founded the Financial Services Volunteer Corps in 1990, together with John C. Whitehead, a former co-chairman of Goldman Sachs. Head of the United Nations' efforts to negotiate an end to the violence following the dissolution of Yugoslavia 1990-1992. Out of these negotiations came the Vance-Owen Plan, which was seen by many as a way to let the Serbian conquests escalate. Co-chairman Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict in 1994. Trustee The Mayo Foundation. Director IBM, the New York Times Co., General Dynamics, and Lehman's One William Street Fund. Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett has long served as general counsel for Lehman Brothers, Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. and Coca Cola Co. Honorary Knight Commander of the Civil Division of the Order of the British Empire. Received the Legion d'Honneur of the French Republic, the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun from the Government of Japan, and numerous other awards.

Vanderlip, Frank Arthur


Member American Eugenics Society. U.S. Department of the Treasury 1897-1901. Studied extensively the European public and private financing systems during 1901. President National City Bank 1909-1919 (first bank to go along with the Federal Reserve - James Stillman of the Pilgrims family was chairman at that time). Attended the Jekyll Island meeting in 1910. Founder American International Corporation (AIC) in 1915. Trustee Carnegie Corporation of New York. Director Riggs National Corporation. Director Union Pacific Railroad.

Vaughan II, G. Tully


Tully was born in Denver, Colorado and grew up as an `Army Brat` as his father, Brigadier General W.W. Vaughan, was a career U.S. Army physician. Tully graduated from Kent School, Kent, CT in 1950 and later acquired his B.S. degree in Political Science from the University of Athens, Greece in 1953. In his senior year at Kent School he was in the number five position in the undefeated Kent School eight-man crew, which sailed on the Queen Mary to England where, in the summer of 1950 they competed for and won the Thames Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta, Henley-on-Thames, England. Mr. Vaughan served with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Greece for three years under the Marshall Plan (JUSMAG) from 1951 to 1953 where, in addition to his regular duties, he became fluent in Greek. Tully was also the head rowing coach for the Hellenic Rowing Club, which was the private rowing club of his Majesty King Paul of the Hellenes. Mr. Vaughan served in the U.S. Army as a commissioned officer from Officer's Candidate School at Fort Benning, GA. He was a Ranger, awarded the Combat Infantry Badge and Combat Jump Wings and was in the third provisional Special Forces unit before they became an official combat special detachment and acquired the Green Beret. After his retirement, Mr. Vaughan became Head Crew Coach for Villanova University in which position he served for many years bringing the crew program from a failing effort of 22 male and female rowers to a successful maximum capacity of over 100 rowers. At the same time, he was a nationally licensed referee for many regattas across the country, as well as executive secretary for the national governing body of rowing-the NAAO. Tully spent the last twenty years promulgating `the freedom of man under the rule of Law` through his activities as Marshall of the Baronial Order of Magna Charta, a world-wide organization of descendants of the twenty-five sureties who were chosen by their peer barons at Runnemede in 1215 to ensure that King John honored the Magna Charta. In his capacity, he also had a seat on the thirteen-member board of trustees of the Magna Charta Trust of England, which is chaired by the Master of the Rolls of England. Mr. Vaughan was a member of various ethnic, patriotic, sporting and genealogical organizations such as Leander Boat Club, Henley, England, Americans of Royal Descent, and Order of the Crown of Charlemagne, Sons of St. George, St. Andrews Society, Sons of the Revolution, Pilgrims of the United States, the Union League of Philadelphia, the Nassau Club and the Penn Club.

Vokey, Richard Snow


Vice chairman of Hill, Samuel & Company, member of the council of the Ditchley Foundation.

Volcker, Paul A.


Volcker was born on September 1927 in Cape May, New Jersey. He earned a bachelor of arts degree, summa cum laude, from Princeton in 1949, and a master of arts degree in political economy and government from the Harvard University Graduate School of Public Administration in 1951. Research assistant in the research department of the New York Fed during the summers of 1949 and 1950. Pilgrims Society member and later Rockefeller Foundation vice-chair Robert Vincent Roosa was his mentor there, and Paul Volcker became part of his 'Brain trust', or 'Roosa bloc' in the following years. Volcker would also become a member of the Pilgrims Society. From 1951 to 1952, he was Rotary Foundation Fellow at the London School of Economics (Rotary International and the Lions Clubs are still seen today by some as the most important recruiting centers for the Masonic movement). He returned to the New York Fed as an economist in the research department in 1952, and special assistant in the securities department from 1955 to 1957. Financial economist at Chase Manhattan Bank 1957-1961. Director of the Office of Financial Analysis at the Treasury 1962-1963. Deputy Undersecretary for Monetary Affairs at the Treasury 1963-1965. Rejoined Chase Manhattan as vice president and director of forward planning 1965-1968. Undersecretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs 1969-1974. Senior fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University for the 1974-1975 academic year. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1975-1979 & 1988. President Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1975-1979. On July 26, 1979 the New York Times stated: "David Rockefeller, the chairman of Chase, and Mr. Roosa were strong influences in the Mr. Carter decision to name Mr. Volcker for the Reserve Board chairmanship." Chairman Federal Reserve System 1979-1987. Identified by BND officer Hans Langemann as a person who attended the December 1, 1979 meeting of Le Cercle in the Madison Hotel in Washington. Others that attended the meeting were the German Karl-Heinz Narjes (Bundestag; soon went to the ECC), William Colby (the recently retired CIA director at the time), Ed Feulner (president of the Heritage Foundation), Julian Amery (later chairman of Le Cercle; Privy Councillor; father was one of the closest Rothschild allies in building up Israel), and Jean Violet (French intelligence officer; Habsburg employee; Le Cercle co-founder and chairman; Fascist militant before WWII). Volcker became a member of the advisory board of Power Corporation in 1988 and is a friend to Canadian Paul G. Desmarais, Sr., a Privy Councillor and controlling shareholder of Power Corporation since 1968 (Desmarais and the Belgian Albert Frère jointly own about half of the major industries in France and Belgium, including Suez, Société Générale, Total, Imerys, and Groupe Bruxelles Lambert). Director of Prudential Insurance 1988-2000. Chairman of Wolfensohn & Co. in New York 1988-1996. North American chairman of the Trilateral Commission 1991-2001. Chairman of the newly created J. Rothschild, Wolfensohn & Company from March 1992 to 1995, Wolfensohn & Co.'s London-based joint venture. Visited Bilderberg in 1997. Attended meetings of the Ditchley Foundation and has chaired some of them. Advisor to the Japan Society and the International House. Member of the advisory board of Hollinger, together with Henry Kissinger, Richard Perle, and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Director of UAL Corporation, Bankers Trust New York Corporation, and Nestle, S.A. Director United States/Hong Kong Economic Cooperation Committee. Public member of the Board of Governors of the American Stock Exchange American Stock Exchange. Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. American Council on Germany, and the American Assembly. Co-chairman of the advisory board of Leadership Forum International and a principal of the Council for Excellence in Government. Member Circle of Presidents RAND Corporation, which means he has donated at least tens of thousands of dollars if not millions. Trustee International Accounting Standards Committee. Honorary chairman Financial Services Volunteer Corps, a firm founded by Cyrus Vance and John C. Whitehead in 1990. Honorary chairman Committee to Encourage Corporate Philanthropy. Chairman Independent Inquiry Committee into the Oil-For-Food program, which also employed Rockefeller’s granddaughter, attorney Miranda Duncan. Chairman board of trustees Group of Thirty (2005). Paul Volcker is a visitor of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Director of the United Nations Association of the United States of America 2000-2004. Director of the Fund for Independence in Journalism. Wrote the foreword of George Soros' 2003 book 'The Alchemy of Finance'. Director of the Institute for International Economics, Washington, headed by Peter G. Peterson. Other directors of the institute are Maurice R. Greenberg and David Rockefeller. Trustee of the American Assembly anno 2005, together with Admiral Bobby Ray Inman (former NSA head; director SAIC; Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral Commission), David Gergen (Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral Commission), and Frank A. Weil (governor Atlantic Institute; CFR).

Vreeland, Edward Butterfield


Studied law, admitted to the bar in 1881, became president of the Salamanca Trust Co. (later First Tier Bank & Trust) in 1891 and remained active until his death at the company, congressman 1899-1913 and worked together with the heavily corrupt Nelson Aldrich in establishing the Federal Reserve, vice chairman National Monetary Commission 1909-1912, chairman Committee on Banking and Currency in 1913 when the FED finally was established.

Vreeland, Herbert Harold


Brother of co-Pilgrim Edward Butterfield Vreeland, chairman Welfare Department of the National Civic Federation. Wrote some books and papers in the first half of the 20th century.

Wade-Gery, Sir Robert

Joined the Diplomatic Service in 1951 and served in Bonn, Tel Aviv, Saigon, Madrid and Moscow, as well as in London. Deputy secretary of the Cabinet from 1979 to 1982. High commissioner to India 1982-1987. Chairman of the board of governors of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, since 1990. Honorary treasurer of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Chairman of the Anglo-Spanish Society. Director of BZW Barclay since 1987, Barclays former investment arm. Vice-chairman of BZW Barclay 1994-1999. Member of the The International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.

Walker, Sir David


From 1982 to 1988 he was the executive director of the Bank of England and remained as a non-executive director at the Bank until early 1993. From 1988 to 1992 he was chairman of the Securities and Investments Board, the British authority that regulates the securities markets; deputy chairman of Lloyds Bank PLC; chairman and CEO of Morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Europe; chairman of the London Investment Banking Association; director of Reuters Holdings PLC, member of the Advisory Board of Xfi Corporation.

Warburg, Paul Moritz



Son of Moritz Warburg. Daugther of Charlotte Esther Oppenheim. Brother of Max (resided in Germany until the last moment) and Felix (came with Paul to the United States). Partner of the German-Jewish Warburg banking house M.M. Warburg and Co. in 1895. Came to the U.S. in 1902. Became a Partner of Jacob Schiff and Otto Kahn in Kuhn Loeb & Company and teamed up with Senator Aldrich to set up the Federal Reserve Bank (all these people were Pilgrims). Went to the Jekyll Island meeting 1910. Naturalized citizen in 1911. Member Federal Reserve Board of Governors 1914-1916. Vice chairman Federal Reserve Board of Governors 1916-1918 (resigned after investigation revealed that his brother was at the head of Germany's secret service and after it had been proven that he was affiliated with the Communist Party). Order of the British Empire. Founding director of the Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1932.

Warburg, Sir Siegmund George


Son of George Warburg. Grandson of Sigmund Warburg, who ran the German M.M. Warburg & Co. with his brother Moritz, father of Max (supported Lenin; advisor Kaiser; I.G. Farben; friend Hjalmar Schacht), Paul (partner Kuhn, Loeb; married Nina Loeb; established FED), and Felix Warburg (partner Kun Loeb; married Frieda Schiff), Fritz, and Aby. Siegmund arrived in Britain in 1934, realising there could be little hope for a happy union between the Nazi regime and the German Jewish banking community. According to The Independent of November 13, 2002, Siegmund "was a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany and trained at Rothschild." Sir Siegmund founded SG Warburg merchant bank with Henry Grunfeld in 1946. The bank became Britain's top investment bank in just under 50 years before it was swallowed up by the Swiss Bank Corporation in 1995. He was a partner of Kuhn, Loeb and his firm SG Warburg and Co. represented Kuhn, Loeb in London. Sir Siegmund was most famous for having initiated the first hostile takeover bid, when he masterminded the acquisition of the British Aluminium Company in 1958. He is also credited with the invention of the Eurobond market. Siegmund went to live in Switserland. In the 1950's, he hired a man named Christopher Burney, a British spy captured in France during the war who had been imprisoned in Buchenwald for over a year. After the war, Burney wrote a book about his experiences called 'The Dungeon Democracy' that outraged the Jewish community. Although Burney condemned German barbarism, he didn't glorify the Jewish inmates either and showed how badly they had behaved under inhuman conditions. Siegmund knew thousands of people, yet the inner man remained veiled. As Lord Roll noted, "This created a certain aura of mystery round him and led to his becoming a near-legend in his lifetime." Photos never graced S. G. Warburg reports or brochures, which were printed on plain paper. No firm was more reticent. When he granted an interview to the Sunday Telegraph in 1970, it was such a novelty that the paper trumpeted. "Sir Siegmund Warburg speaks." He has seemingly never been photographed with his almost 40-year business partner Henry Grunfeld. Siegmund opposed Likud in 1977. His physician Dr. Carl Heinz Goldman said; "Siegmund was a deeply unhappy and lonely man. He was often plagued by suspicion and contempt of other human beings. He was a hard critic of his colleagues and didn't get on with anybody. He had a fear of office intrigues and came to me to unload his worries. He was completely egocentric and fundamentally conceited. He thought most other people were fools." He was a militant anti-smoker who habitually used tantrums to intimidate people. He was knighted in 1966.

Warburg, George


Son of the legendary Sir Sigmund Warburg and a

non-executive director of the Oceans tug boat subsidiary.

Ward, George Gray


Vice-president and General Manager of Commercial Cable Company in the early 20th century. It was laying down the first international phone lines.

Ward, Harry E.

exec. committee

born 1879

Chairman of Irving Trust Company, director American Enka Corporation, F.W. Woolworth Company, Union Dime Savings Bank and J. Walter Thompson Company (advertising), trustee National Industrial Conference Board, trustee Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Ward was an advisor to the American Institute of Banking, 1936-1939.

Seemingly another Harry Ward: Methodist clergyman, founder and chairman of the ACLU 1920-1940, chairman American League for Peace and Democracy 1934-1940, openly communist. (1873-1966)

Ward, Nicholas Donnell


Nicholas Donnell Ward, the son of Frances Xavier and Sarah D. Ward, was born in New York City. Mr. Ward was graduated from Trinity School, and earned his A.B. at Columbia Universtiy in New York City. He then completed his graduate work at Georgetown University Law Center, earning an LL.B. Consultant to the Hereditary Society Community of the United States of America. Registrar General of the Order of the Crown in America and the National Society Americans of Royal Descent. Former member of the Board of Managers of the Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Former President General of the General Society of the War of 1812. Former president of the Aztec Club of 1847. Former Governor General of the Hereditary Order of the Descendants of Colonial Governors. Former Treasurer General of the Order of the Crown of Charlemagne in the United States of America. Former Keeper of the Exchequer of the Military Order Of the Crusades. Former Governor of the District of Columbia of the General Society of Mayflower Descendants. Former Treasurer General Order of Americans of Armorial Ancestry. Member or leading figure in a bunch of other societies. Officer Companion of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem. Former Chancellor of the Grand Priory of the United States of the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem. Knight of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. Chevalier of the Ordo Sancti Constantini Magni. Mr. Ward is currently a member of a number of professional organizations, including the Lawyers Club and The Councillors. He is the former President of the The Barristers and is a former State Chair of the American College of Trust and Estate Counsel. Socially, Mr. Ward holds membership in the Chevy Chase Club (Chairman of the Art Committee); the Metropolitan Club of Washington, D.C. (Member of the Library Committee); Cosmos Club (former Secretary); Union Club of New York; and Newport Reading Room. In addition, he is a former President of the City Tavern Club. Mr. Ward also holds membership in the Pilgrims of the United States, Saturday Night Dinner Dances, and serves as Secretary-Treasurer of The Georgetown Assembly.

Warren, Louis Bancel


Director of Chrysler. Trustee Homeland Foundation. Director English Speaking Union. President American Ditchley Foundation.

Watson, Lord Alan

exec. committee

Alan Watson is Chairman of Burson Marsteller Europe and Chairman of CTN (Corporate Television Networks). He advises many major UK and international companies on their communication strategies and has recently become Non-Executive Chairman to the wine importer Raisin Social. He is Chairman of the Coca-Cola European Advisory Board. His business career began with four years as CEO of the advertising agency, Charles Barker City. In broadcasting Alan became a BBC General Trainee after Cambridge, and later a regular presenter with “The Money Programme” on BBC2 and “Panorama” on BBC1. He also reported on LWTV, Radio 4 and the BBC World Service and has written and presented award winning documentaries over many years. He is a Fellow and former Chairman of the Royal Television Society. From 1976 to 1980 he was responsible for Media at the European Commission. He is International Chairman of the English Speaking Union and Chairman of the Council of Commonwealth Societies and a member of the Executive Committee of the Pilgrims. He has just been appointed Co-Chair of the Jamestown 1607 – 2007 British Committee. Additionally he is a member of the Prince of Wales Business Leader’s Forum. Internationally he has served on the Executive Board of UNICEF (UK) and as a member of European Parliament’s High Level Group on Romania. In 2004 he was awarded the Commander’s Grand Cross of the Romanian Order of Merit. Alan holds a range of visiting and honorary posts at Universities in Britain and abroad. For six years he was Chairman of Governors at Westminster College, Oxford. He is a Visiting Fellow at Oriel College Oxford, an Honorary Fellow at Jesus College Cambridge and Chairman of the Cambridge University Chemistry Advisory Board. He is also an Honorary Professor at Birmingham University and a Trustee of the American International University in London. He chairs the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Interim Committee. Abroad, he has received an Honorary Doctorate from St Lawrence University USA, a Visiting Professorship at Leuven, Honorary Professorships from St Petersburg University and Korea University and is a Trustee of the Great Britain Study Centre at Berlin’s Humboldt University. His publications include “Europe at Risk”, “The Germans: who are they now?” and “Thatcher and Kohl: Old Rivalries Revisited”. A former President of the Liberal Party, he was appointed CBE in 1985 and created a Life Peer in 1999 sitting in the House of Lords as a Liberal Democrat where he is a Front Bench Spokesman for Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs. In 1995 he received the German Order of Merit for his “significant and enduring contribution” to understanding between Germany and Britain. In 2001 he was promoted to the Grand Cross of the Order. He is British Chairman of the Königswinter Anglo-German Conference and President of the British German Association. He is a Patron of the Richmond Society and of the Richmond Museum, Chairman of the Father Thames Trust and Chairman of the Arcadia Advisory Board and Patron of The Richmond in Europe Association. Lord Watson is married and has two sons. He was educated at Diocesan College Preparatory School Cape Town, Kingswood School Bath and Jesus College Cambridge. He lives in Richmond and Somerset. He spoke at the OECD Forum 2005.

Watson, Thomas J. Jr.


Eldest son of Thomas J. Watson, the founder of IBM, known to have struggled throughout his life with depression, earned a business degree from Brown University in 1937, and worked a few years as an IBM salesman. In May of 1956 Watson Jr. was named CEO of the company. Only six weeks later his father died. Thomas Jr. took the single biggest risk in IBM's history when he decided to make all of its previous computer software (and hardware, for that matter) obsolete, by developing a uniform range of new IBM mainframe computers. The new machines were compatible within the range—i.e., they could run the same software and use the same peripherals—but incompatible with the former mainframes. The new series, called the System/360, almost completely bankrupted the entire company; its highly successful launch in 1964 was called by Fortune magazine "IBM's $5 Billion Gamble". That same year, because of this success, Dwight D. Eisenhower at the New York World's Fair awarded Thomas J. Watson Jr. the Medal of Freedom, the highest award a U.S. President can bestow on a civilian. Watson was CEO of IBM from 1956 to 1971 and became a US ambassador to the Soviet Union 1979-1981. He also was a trustee of the China Institute and was called by Fortune Magazine “the most successful capitalist who ever lived” (1976) He was a member of the Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay, the 1001 Club and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Watson, Arthur K.


Younger brother of Thomas Watson, Jr., president IBM World Trade Corp., vice-president Far East-America Council of Commerce & Industry, chairman International Chamber of Commerce 1967-1969, became ambassador to France in 1970.

Webster, Bethuel M.


President Association of the BAR of New York 1952-1954, Partner of Webster Sheffield Fleischmann Hitchcock & Chrystie, senior partner Webster Sheffield law firm, trustee Ford Foundation and chairman Finance Committee of the Ford Foundation at least during the sixties (working with all kinds of heavyweights), appointed by president Johnson in 1965 to resolve a crisis between British Honduras and Guatemala, member Lawyers Committee on Supreme Court Nominations in 1968, had a talk with Columbia University about the Carnegie Corporation, chairman Drug Abuse Council in 1980, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Weston, Sir John


Foreign Office officer 1962-1998. United Kingdom Ambassador to NATO 1992-1995. Ambassador to the United Nations, sitting on the Security Council, 1995-1998. Non-executive director of BT Group plc from 1998 to 2002. Director of Rolls-Royce since 1998. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Non-executive director of Hakluyt & Co Ltd., a private intelligence group set up and managed by former or present MI6 agents. Member of the the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Honorary President of the Community Foundation Network (UK). Chairman of Governors of Sherborne School, and Honorary Fellow of Worcester College Oxford. Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George.

Wheeler, General Joseph



West Point 1859. Rose during the American civil war from a (Confederate/Southern) first lieutenant to a lieutenant general. Congressman from Alabama 1881-1899. From 1886 through 1900 General Wheeler was a Smithsonian Institution regent. Donned the blue as a major general of volunteers in the war with Spain in 1891. Involved in military actions in Cuba in 1898 and the Philippines from 1899 to 1900. Became a United States Brigadier General in 1900. Co-founded the British Pilgrims in 1902 by approaching and invited guests for their first Pilgrims dinner. Worked closely with Sir Harry Brittain in doing this. New York Times on July 18, 1918: "The idea originated with an American. The name "Pilgrim" was suggested by Mr. Burke Roche, M.P. The plan of organization was submitted in June, 1902, to Lord Roberts through General Joseph Wheeler..."

Wheeler, Post


Secretary at the embassy in Petrograd (st. Petersburg) 1909-1911. Ambassador to London and Tokyo.

White, Henry


Attended a London Pilgrims dinner on March 2, 1903. Diplomat who served several presidents in a variety of positions. Known as the first professional American diplomat. Ambassador to Italy and France, representative at Algeciras Conference of 1906. This was a secret conference to negotiate a dispute amongst Germany, England, and France over the division of Morocco.

White, James G.


Founder and chairman of J.G. White Engineering Corporation, involved with the American-Russian Industrial Syndicate Inc. (money came from the Guggenheim Brothers) to help the Bolshevik's economy in 1919. In 1930 the company was sent to Ethiopia by the US government to conduct a survey on a possible future project, involved with building an aeronautical research and development center at Langley at the brink of WWII, involved with business in China together with the Morgan Company around 1946. Little info available for such a large international firm, but one it's board members was co-Pilgrim Thomas W. Lamont.

Whitman, Charles S.

exec. committee


Freemason, Republican Governor of New York 1915-1918, president American Bar Association.

Whitney, Eli (Debevoise)


Son of Thomas Debevoise (associate of Winthrop Aldrich) and Anne Whitney of the Whitney branch of the Standard Oil fortune, Yale 1921, trustee of Rockefeller University since 1954, trustee of the William Nelson Cromwell Foundation, trustee of Sullivan & Cromwell, director of the Bank of New York, Saint Joe Minerals, Westvaco Corporation, director of the International Commission on Jurists and was a delegate to many annual meetings over the entire world, chairman of the Enemy Alien Hearing Board in New York City 1942-1945, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Whitney, John Hay



Grandson of Secretary of State John Hay. Son of Payne Whitney (1876-1927) (Skull & Bones 1898). He himself Scroll & Key. Partner in Selznick International Pictures (1935) with David O. Seznick (brought Hitchcock to the US). Owned Whitney Communications, J.H. Whitney & Company, and Whitcom Investment Company. International polo star. Broadway and Hollywood financier. Served as an intelligence officer during World War II and ended up in a POW camp for 18 days. Established the John Hay Whitney Foundation in 1946. Became a leading thoroughbred horse breeder and collector of art. Was chairman of the Museum of Modern Art in the 1950s (trustee since 1931), which was established and managed by the Rockefeller family. Became a force in Republican politics in the post-war years. Elected to Yale Corporation in 1955 and gave $30 million to Yale over next 25 years. Trustee of the Carnegie foundation. Member of the New York Banking Board in the 1960’s. Chairman of Freeport Sulphur Company. Director Great Northern Paper Company. Ambassador to Great Britain 1957-1961 after donating $47,000 to Ike. Had a Medical Library named after him. Acquired control of the New York Herald Tribune in 1958 and served as its publisher from 1961 to 1967. When the Pilgrims and English Speaking Union organized a dinner in November 1965 in New York, John was one of a handful who got to dance with Princess Margaret (Nelson Rockefeller was another one), the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II. Chairman of the English-Speaking Union (1961). While Ambassador to Britain, Whitney set up a press service in London called Forum World Features, which published propaganda furnished directly by the CIA and the British intelligence services. In 1967 an expose in the NY Times revealed that the John Hay Whitney Trust for Charitable Purposes had been used a conduit for CIA funds. Prominent member of what Ike called "the military-industrial complex." Estimated personal worth: $200-$300 million. Total benefactions: $50 million. Inherited $20 million trust from his Father and was left $20+ million in his mother's will. Captain Vincent Astor was his Brother-in-law. Received the Order of the British Empire. Major heir to the Standard Oil fortune. Member Council on Foreign Relations.

Wickersham, George Woodward


U.S. Attorney General under William Howard Taft 1909-1913, head Selective Service for New York district 1917-1918, co-founder of the large law firm Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft (of the Skull & Bones family), trustee University of Pennsylvania 1920-1926, president American Law Institute 1923, chairman National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement 1929, chairman executive committee of the France-America Society, member Council on Foreign Relations.

Wiggin, Albert Henry


Head Chase National Bank and involved with Adams Express Company, has been involved with companies as American International Corporation; American Express Company; American Locomotive Company; American Railway Express Company; American Sugar Refining Company; American Surety Company; American Woolen Company; Armour & Company; Astor Safe Deposit Company; Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Company; Chase-Harris Forbes Corporation; Chase National Bank; Chase Securities Corporation; Coca-Cola Company; Duquesne Light Company; Discount Corporation of New York; Fidelity Phoenix Fire Insurance Company; General Shareholding Corporation; Great Falls Power Company; Greenwich Guaranty Safe Deposit Company; Greenwich Savings Bank; Greenwich Trust Company; Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Company; Inspiration Consolidated Copper Company; Interborough Rapid Transit Company; International Agricultural Corporation; International Motor Company; International Paper Company; Lawyers Title & Guaranty Company; Lawyers Trust Company; Mack Trucks Incorporated; Mercantile Safe Deposit Company; Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; Montana Power Company; Montreal Locomotive Works Limited; Newmont Mining Corporation; New York Clearing House Building Company; New York, New Hampshire & Hudson Railroad Company; New York Rapid Transit Company; New England Steamship Company; Otis Elevator Company; Pacific Coast Company; Philadelphia Company; Pittsburgh Utilities Corporation; Rail Joint Company; Selected Industries Incorporated; Stone & Webster Incorporated; Western Union Telegraph Company; Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company; Underwood-Elliott Fisher Company; and Williamsburg Power Plant Corporation.

Williamson, Frederick E.

exec. committee


Railroad executive, president Burlington system in 1929, president New York Central 1931-1944.

Wilson, Carroll Louis

died 1982

Graduated in 1932. Appointed first assistant to MIT president Karl Taylor Compton and vice-president Vannevar Bush in 1932. After Vannevar Bush left MIT in 1939 to become president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington D.C., Carroll Wilson followed him within a year (Vannevar remained at that post until 1955). Became the first General Manager of the Atomic Energy Commission in early 1947. Vice president and director of National Research Corporation. President of Climax Uranium Company. Vice president and general manager of Metals and Controls Corporation. Identified as a member of the Cosmos Club in the 1950s. Became a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1959. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1978. Co-founder of the Club of Rome in 1968. Worked on the Club of Rome 1972 "limits to growth" report. The report triggered a storm of controversy by challenging the universal assumption that economic growth was the optimum scenario for all countries in all times. Project Director of the workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES) 1974-1977. World Coal Study 1978-1980. Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1978-1979. Initially involved in the European Security Study 1981-1983.

Winant, John Gilbert


Winant attended St. Paul's School in Concord as well as Princeton University. He was appointed an instructor in history at St. Paul's in 1913, remaining there until 1917. He was elected to the New Hampshire General Court in 1916 and enlisted in the American Expeditionary Force in 1917. Winant returned to his position at St. Paul's in 1919 after his military service, and was elected to the State Senate in 1920. He lost money in oil stocks in 1929, which he had profited from through the 1920s. Republican Governor of New Hampshire from 1925-1927 and 1931-1935. FDR appointed Winant to be the first head of the Social Security Board in 1935, a position he held until 1937. Ambassador to Great Britain 1941-1946. President Harry S. Truman appointed him U.S. representative to UNESCO in 1946, although he retired to his home in Concord shortly after to write his memoirs. Winant committed suicide in 1947 and was buried at St. Paul's School.

Wince-Smith, Deborah L.

Trained as a classical archaeologist, Ms. Wince-Smith graduated Phi Beta Kappa and Magna cum Laude from Vassar College and received her master’s degree from King’s College, Cambridge University. She is a frequent speaker at conferences and symposia and an author on technology policy and innovation. During the Reagan Administration, Ms. Wince-Smith served as the Assistant Director for International Affairs and Competitiveness in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. As a Program Manager at the National Science Foundation from 1976-1984, she managed U.S. research programs with Eastern European countries and U.S. universities. First Assistant Secretary for Technology Policy in the Department of Commerce Technology Administration from 1989 to 1993. In that capacity, she developed technology policies and national initiatives to strengthen U.S. productivity and economic competitiveness. She served on White House policy councils, chaired the Interagency Committee on Federal Technology Transfer, and directed the President’s National Technology Initiative. She was also the U.S. representative to the multilateral Intelligent Manufacturing Systems Consortium with government and private sector leaders from the U.S., Europe, Japan, and Canada. Became president of the Council on Competitiveness in December 2001, a non-profit coalition of chief executives from leading businesses, academia, and organized labor focused on improving the competitiveness of U.S. industry and raising the standard of living in America. University of Chicago Board of Governors for Argonne National Laboratory. Member of the Council of the Woodrow Wilson Center. Member of the University of California Review Committees for Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Member of the Boards of Overseers of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Member of the Pilgrims of the United States and the International Women’s Forum. Senior fellow at the Congressional Economic Leadership Institute. Member of the Board of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc.

Wolfe, Henry Cutler


Wrote “The Imperial Soviets” (1940). He was with the American Relief Administration in Russia in 1922, another front for assisting the Bolsheviks. Wolfe was a contributor to Harper’s magazine, Saturday Review, New York Times, Wall Street Journal and others.

Wood, Leonard


A Major General. Grand Officer, Order of the Golden Grain (China); Grand Officer, Order of the Rising Sun (Japan); Grand Officer, Legion of Honor (France); Grand Officer, Order of Mauritius and Lazarus (Italy); Roosevelt Medal; Ambassador to Argentina (1910); Chief of Staff, United States Army, 1910-1914; Commander, Department of the East, 1914-1917; chairman, special mission from U.S. to Philippine Islands, visiting Japan and China, 1921; governor-general, Philippine Islands, 1921. Candidate for Republican Presidential nomination, 1920; Congressional Medal of Honor, 1898, "for distinguished conduct in campaign against Apache Indians."

Woods, George Donald


Director of the Chase International Investment Corp., director, chairman and consultant First Boston Corporation, president World Bank 1963-1968, member Rockefeller Commission Report (to solve the problem of overpopulation) 1970, member Chatham House.

Woolley, Clarence Mott


Family an inheritor of the Van Rensselaer land fortune dating to 1630, president of Morgan financed American Radiator Corporation 1902-1924, vice-chairman of the War Trade Board in 1917, chairman New York Federal Reserve 1922-1936, board member of General Motors, General Electric director, director Council on Foreign Relations 1932-1935

Worcester, Robert M.



President of the World Association for Public Opinion Research, founder (1969) and chairman of MORI, which is a highly respected British polling company with associated companies in Europe, Australia, Asia, and Latin America, described as an "anglophile American" who was born in Kansas but heads the British Pilgrims (in 2005). He is author or co-author of more than a dozen books, is a regular contributor to newspapers and magazines, and as Visiting Professor of Government at LSE, speaks not only with his pollster's expertise, but as a political scientist and internationalist, frequently appearing on American and Canadian radio and television. He is a governor of the English-Speaking Union and a trustee of the Magna Carta Trust. He is a freeman of the City of London and a governor of the Ditchley Foundation, and he was a member of the Fulbright Commission. He has been awarded Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire and has been advisor to two prime ministers. He is president of ENCAMS, an environmental charity, a vice president of Royal Society for Nature Conservation/Wildlife Trusts, of the United Nations Association and of the European Atlantic Group. Sir Robert is a trustee of Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust and a former trustee of Worldwide Fund for Nature. He is also a member of the Trilateral Commission.

Wrench, Sir Evelyn


Founder of the English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth (1918) and of the U.S. English Speaking Union (1920). Founder of the Overseas League. Member of the Newcomen Society.

Wright, Joshua Butler


Counselor at the American embassy in Petrograd (former capital of Russia) in 1916, secretary of the American delegation at the Opium Conference at The Hague in 1913, U.S. Commissioner at the Brazilian Centennial Exposition in Rio de Janeiro in 1922, secretary of the U.S. delegation to the 5th International Conference of American States in Santiago, Chile, in 1923.

Wriston, Henry M.



President Brown University 1937-1955, trustee Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 1943-1954, director Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1950, vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1951, president Council on Foreign Relations 1951-1964.

Wriston, Walter Bigelow


Officer of the State Department, served 4 years in the Army during World War II, three of them as the commander of a Signal Corps unit in the Philippines, chairman Citibank/Citicorp 1970-1984, director Council on Foreign Relations 1981-1987, director of General Electric, Rand Corporation, Chubb Corporation (insurance), United Meridian Corporation, Fremont Group, York International, ICOS Corporation, AEA Investors, Sequoia Ventures and others.

Young, Owen D.

exec. committee


Member Yale Institute of Human Relations, decorated the Order of the Rising Sun by Japan 1921, chairman General Electric 1922-1939, director Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1923-1940, chairman International Chamber of Commerce 1925-1928, director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1940, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1938-1940, chairman committee on the Inquiry into the Character and Cost of Public Education of New York 1934.

Young, Samuel Baldwin Marks


Lieutenant General from Pittsburgh who fought in the Civil War, fought in the Spanish-American War (1898-1899) and was Presidential Chief of Staff in 1903. He became the first president of the War College, 1902-1903, in Washington, D.C.

Zirin, James D.

exec. committee

Princeton University (A.B., 1961). The University of Michigan Law School (J.D., 1964). Partner in Sidley, Austin, Brown & Wood's New York office where he is a member of the litigation department. Mr. Zirin has been a trial lawyer for over 30 years. Prior to joining the firm in 1993, he had been a partner in Breed, Abbott & Morgan and an Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York where he served in the criminal division for three years under Robert M. Morgenthau (son of the well known Pilgrim Henry Morgenthau, Jr., who came up with the Morgenthau Plan which economically ruined Germany after WWII). Recently Mr. Zirin accepted New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg's (Sun Valley meetings) appointment to a four year term on the Commmission to Combat Police Corruption (CCPC). Mr. Zirin has appeared in state and federal courts around the nation. His practice has featured the defense of major accounting firms charged with violations of professional responsibility and in substantial class actions. These matters have included the American Express salad oil and Equity Funding cases where he represented Deloitte Haskins & Sells, and the IOS and DeLorean litigations where he represented Arthur Andersen. His clients have also included The Rockefeller Foundation, Merrill Lynch, Citibank and Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. He represented a Brazilian trader who was a significant figure in the silver debacle of 1979 and 1980. He has handled white collar criminal cases, shareholders litigation, and directors and officers liability cases. His experience includes litigation involving reinsurance on the London market, arbitration and alternate dispute resolution. He recovered over $100 million in cash and property for Armco in its requirements contract litigation with Allied Chemical. He has appeared in major estates litigation, most notably the Rothko case, the estate of William S. Todman as well as the litigation involving the estate of the widow of the expressionist artist, Max Beckmann. He served as an arbitrator in the complex disputes involving the limited partnership owning the Helmsley Palace Hotel. Mr. Zirin is a frequent contributor of articles on legal affairs to Forbes, Barron's, the London Times, the Washington Times and the New York Law Journal. He has spoken on the litigation aspects of "Accessing the American Capital Markets" at the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange, Sao Paulo, Brazil; on officers and directors liability at an insurance colloquium in Santiago, Chile; and on the resolution of China disputes through international arbitration at Fudan University, Shanghai. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and of the executive committee of The Pilgrims of the United States. He is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers, a member of its governing downstate committee and currently chairs its alternatives for dispute resolution committee. He is a trustee of New York Law School; a member of the Consolidated Corporate Fund Leadership Committee of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and a member of the Board of Editors of the New York Law Journal.



 Webster Griffin Tarpley 2008 BARACK H. OBAMA: THE UNAUTHORIZED BIOGRAPHY Copyright © Webster Griffin Tarpley, 2008 All Rights Reserved Published by Progressive Press P.O. Box 126, Joshua Tree, Calif. 92252, Length: 264,000 words. Typeset left-justified in 11 pt. Times New Roman, for optimum value and ease of reading. Classification: Nonfiction, Politics, Biography ISBN: 0-930852-91-5. EAN: 978-0-930852-91-7 DIGITAL ADVANCE REVIEW EDITION September 2008 Cataloging-in-Publication Data Tarpley, Webster Griffin Barack H. Obama: the unauthorized biography / Webster Griffin Tarpley ISBN-13: 978-0-930852-91-7 (Digital), 978-0-930852-81-8 (Offset edition) 1. Obama, Barack. 2. Presidential candidates – United States. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION: OBAMA FROM THE FORD FOUNDATION TO THE TRILATERAL COMMISSION..............................................................................................................................4 CHAPTER I: OBAMA’S ROOTS IN POLYGAMY AND THE FORD FOUNDATION..............12 CHAPTER II: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY AND RECRUITMENT BY ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI ..............................................................................................................................37 CHAPTER III: FOUNDATION-FUNDED RACISM IN CHICAGO: JEREMIAH WRIGHT AND MICHELLE .................................................................................................................................91 CHAPTER IV: APPRENTICESHIP WITH FOUNDATION-FUNDED TERRORISTS: AYERS AND DOHRN............................................................................................................................134 CHAPTER V: OBAMA’S HEART OF DARKNESS: REZKO, AUCHI, ALSAMMARAE, AND CHICAGO GRAFT....................................................................................................................182 CHAPTER VI: GRABBING A SENATE SEAT WITH A LITTLE HELP FROM HIS TRILATERAL FRIENDS..........................................................................................................215 CHAPTER VII: THE HOPE POPE AND HIS TRILATERAL MONEY MACHINE..................265 CHAPTER VIII: “OUR SOULS ARE BROKEN” – “FEEL, DON’T THINK! BE VISCERAL!” – MICHELLE OBAMA, POSTMODERN FASCIST IDEOLOGUE.............................................287 CHAPTER IX: OBAMA’S TRIUMPH OF THE WILL: THE 2008 PRIMARIES .....................309 CHAPTER X: OBAMA: A LOOMING WORLD TRAGEDY ...................................................369 CHAPTER XI: OBAMA AS SOCIAL FASCIST.......................................................................393 APPENDICES ...........................................................................................................................415 NOTES ......................................................................................................................................426 INTRODUCTION: OBAMA FROM THE FORD FOUNDATION TO THE TRILATERAL COMMISSION You know, I’ve come to the conclusion that poverty is closer to the root of the problem than color. – Robert F. Kennedy, 1968 This book marks my first foray into the field of presidential candidate biography since the publication of my George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography (1992). I have been impelled to return to the business of presidential candidate biography by a profound sense of alarm and national emergency, because of the threat to the American people and to the future survival of the world posed by the Trilateral Commission puppet and Manchurian candidate, Barack Hussein Obama. During the early months of 2008, I issued a series of articles which analyzed the dynamics of Obama’s postmodern coup d’état from the standpoint of comparing the Illinois Messiah’s lemming legions and Kool-Aid cult fanatic following with the incipient and inchoate fascist movement which coalesced around the young Benito Mussolini between 1919 and 1922, in a period of crisis similar to the one we are traversing today. These articles were supplemented by a theoretical introduction restating the basic characteristics of a fascist mass movement, and also by an extended comparison between Obama’s campaign platform and the record in office of Jimmy Carter, who is the most recent example of a puppet president controlled by the Trilateral-Rockefeller banking elite. I also benefited from valuable contributions from my friends Bruce Marshall and Jonathan Mowat. The resulting book was entitled Obama the Postmodern Coup: the Making of a Manchurian Candidate, and was offered to the public for the first time on Monday, April 7, 2008, thanks to the superlative efforts of the eminent publisher John Leonard of Progressive Press in California. Our original intention had been to include a biography of the mystery candidate Barack Hussein Obama, but in the end we decided that it was better to issue a first volume well in advance of the April 22 Pennsylvania primary. Now, a few months later, we are delivering a second installment in the continuing process of exposing and unmasking the enigmatic Messiah Obama. We ask for the reader’s indulgence for the fact that this book had to be assembled in haste, but we are confident that it contains the concepts necessary to understanding the threat posed by Obama, from the standpoint of elementary class consciousness. THE ONLY STUDY BASED ON AN EXPLICIT CLASS ANALYSIS OF ELITISTS VS. WORKING PEOPLE The 2008 campaign has been remarkable for having had the great merit of focusing attention on the issue of class, elitism, and oligarchy, with Obama furnishing the obvious villain on the elitist side. This book is a product of the anti-oligarchical or American school of historical writing. The analysis is conducted from the standpoint of the New Deal tradition. Class consciousness as used here means first of all the method exemplified by Plato in his Republic, above all awareness of the abuses of the one (tyranny), the few (oligarchy), and the many (mob rule or ochlocracy). Our world is generally a world of oligarchy, which is now threatening to pass through an interlude of mob rule and then into tyranny. This book is also based on the class analysis of Machiavelli’s Discourses, which is infinitely superior to that of Marx. In Machiavelli’s terms, the Obama campaign is a project of the nobility (gentiluomini) and the urban bankers (ottimati or patrizi, in Britain as well as the US) to mobilize the city mob, especially excitable youth (plebe) against the middle class (popolo), under extreme crisis conditions. This book is also founded on the experience of the Introduction: Obama from the Ford Foundation to the Trilateral Commission 5 Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal as the most recent successful historical model in how to organize the American people to deal with a world economic depression. A critical unauthorized biography of Senator Barack Hussein Obama is all the more urgent today because nothing competent in this line has been forthcoming so far. Back in 1991, when I began writing the unauthorized biography of George Bush the elder, I found that the biographical literature about the candidate was rather limited. There was a campaign biography from 1980, a campaign biography from 1988, and some biographical essays for 1992. These had all been generated from Bush family documents and printouts. There were also a limited number of critical studies, which were either very brief, incomplete, or useless for other reasons. Another biography of Bush the Elder which appeared after the election turned out to be just another cover-up. But all in all, the biographical literature was relatively limited, and there were no real autobiographies, memoirs or books written by the candidate. With Obama, the picture is radically different. Obama is a word-monger. The candidate himself claims to be the author of not one but two books, although it is clear that he has had much help from the ghost-writing staff of the Trilateral-Bilderberg combine. The first is a long autobiographical memoir entitled Dreams from My Father, which Obama sent into the world back in 1995. This book documents Obama’s obsession with the polygamous Kenyan father who showed no interest in him, with race and racism, and above all with himself. It is a document which already suggests that the author is not just a racist, but also a deeply troubled existentialist megalomaniac, since it is surely a rare man who writes his own autobiography before he has reached the age of 35, when he still has accomplished absolutely nothing. This is the book which we define as Obama’s postmodern Mein Kampf. Obama is also the author of a more conventional catalog of campaignoriented political positions The Audacity of Hope, with its title drawn from one of the ranting sermons of Obama’s racist guru and hatemeister, the Reverend Jeremiah Wright. 1995: DREAMS FROM MY FATHER – OBAMA’S POSTMODERN MEIN KAMPF The first time I heard Obama speak, the first words that passed through my mind were, “slippery as an eel.” This is the main problem with the things that Obama himself has written, as well as with his campaign in general. Both books written by Obama make it their primary business to deceive the reader, for obvious purposes of political gain. Dreams is designed to mislead about the candidate himself, while The Audacity of Hope seeks to muddy the waters concerning his political ideas and policies. Far too often the audacity of hope that we are promised turns out to be nothing more than the mendacity of dope, on the part of a candidate whose mental impairment owing to narcotics abuse during his college years is certainly comparable to that of the notorious George W. Bush — as we can see in Obama’s striking inability to speak coherently in the absence of the glass plates of a Teleprompter sitting in front of his nose. The Audacity of Hope has been described by the reactionary Ann Coulter as Obama’s dime-store Mein Kampf. This is accurate in at least one way, since both books deal with the quest for racial identity and the need to overcome the various barriers to the assertion of that identity. Well before Miss Coulter had come on the scene, I had published an article on the Internet referring to Obama’s postmodern Mein Kampf, which represents a more exact description of Obama’s actual ideology and world outlook, which is that of an existentialist reader of the Third World pro-terrorist ideologue, Frantz Fanon. Obama’s book is also an attempt to capitalize on the popularity of Alex Haley’s Roots. Obama’s memoir may thus be described as Roots lite, but with the identity trip being carried out by a Fanon-style existentialist. 6 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography THE MENDACITY OF DOPE But the books by Obama himself are only the beginning of the cloud of obfuscation and deception which envelops the Perfect Master. There are easily two dozen biographical studies of the Illinois Senator, and they are almost without exception characterized by fawning adulation, adolescent hero worship, and messianic hagiography. They add up to so many versions of the Life and Miracles of St. Barack the Good. I have found it easy to dispense with the vast majority of these meretricious and venal little books. One or two exceptions do stand out: there is, for example, Shelby Steele, a kind of black neocon, who makes many intelligent observations about Obama’s character. Then there are the hard-line neocon critics of Obama. Some of them have managed to perform an important public service by forcing the odious figures of the gangster Tony Rezko, the Reverend Jeremiah Wright, the terrorist William Ayers, and the terrorist Bernardine Dohrn — all of whom belong to Obama’s immediate social circle — into the public eye in the face of hysterical opposition by NBC, MSNBC, The New York Times, the Washington Post, and the other assorted media whores for Obama. But, for any task of analysis more complicated than the straight exposing and outing of Obama’s rogues’ gallery of personal friends and associates, the neocon methods break down and often lapse into absurdity. The biggest absurdities are that Obama is really a Moslem, or else that Obama is really a Marxist AND Communist. We state emphatically here at the outset: Obama is a creature and puppet of finance capital and of the Wall Street bankers and investment bankers, as represented by the Trilateral Commission, Bilderberger Group, Council on Foreign Relations, Skull and Bones Society, Ford Foundation, and Chicago School of Friedmanite economics. The family business which Obama inherited from his mother (a Ford Foundation anthropologist and counterinsurgency operative who also worked for the World Bank and the US Agency for International Development) was to work for foundations. And this is what Obama has done in his life, working at various times for or with the Gamaliel Foundation, the Woods Fund, the Joyce Foundation, the Annenberg Foundation, and other foundations and entities which notoriously look to the Ford Foundation for guidance and leadership. Obama is best described as a foundation-bred counterinsurgent, that is to say an operative in the service of the US financier ruling class whose task it is to wreck and abort any positive outcomes that might be forthcoming from the political ferment which is shaking the globe, and above all from the deep political upsurge which is clearly at hand in this country. Obama claims to be a uniter, but the simplest empirical survey will show that he is the most explosive divider seen in this country in decades, since he has succeeded in splitting both the Democratic Party and the US population in general according to the classic fault lines of white against black, black against Hispanic, black against Asian, black against Jewish, men against women, old against young, rich against poor. Having seen Obama accomplish all of this in less than a year and a half on the campaign trail, we can confidently predict that an Obama presidency would in all probability put the United States well on its way to civil war. Giving Obama and his financier controllers the White House would represent an act of national suicide for this country, with the most catastrophic implications for the world as a whole. This analysis is corroborated by the fact that Obama, alone among all the protagonists of the 2008 presidential contest, possesses either a postmodern fascist mass movement, or a very plausible facsimile thereof. These are the lemming legions who are not supporting a program of measures that the government might take, but who are hysterically loyal to and obsessed with Obama as a fantasy figure and charismatic savior – in other words, as an emerging fascist leader. As those who lived through Italy in 1922 and Germany in 1933 remind us in the writings they have left behind, there is simply no comparison between a normal, corrupt, bourgeois parliamentary regime and a fascist seizure of power. These Introduction: Obama from the Ford Foundation to the Trilateral Commission 7 are qualitatively distinct, and set Obama apart from all of his competitors in a way that we can only ignore at our own very great peril. The only way to conduct a satisfactory analysis of the Obama agitation is to use a class standpoint, rather than a racial criterion or an outlook based on gender. Obama is an operative for the finance oligarchs. The Democratic Party bureaucracy is supporting Obama and opposing Senator Clinton because this is the decree of Wall Street, the Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberger group, the Ford Foundation, Skull and Bones, the Chicago School, the Council on Foreign Relations, and other ruling class institutions. The Democratic Party bosses like Howard Dean and Donna Brazile are not supporting Obama because they care about what happens to black voters. The Democratic Party has proved repeatedly that it cares nothing whatever about the fate of black voters. At the same time, it is very naïve to assume that the explanation for the slander campaign of the controlled corporate media against Hillary Clinton is that the media whores for Obama are motivated by misogyny and hatred of women. That may be a factor in individual cases, but the main reason the controlled media are vilifying Senator Clinton is that they have been ordered by their Wall Street paymasters to do so. The main issues in this contest are class issues, and not racial or gender issues. Blue-collar working-class voters are not generally opposed to Obama because of race, but rather because they can sense in his elitism and condescension that he is a candidate loyal solely to the dictates of the financiers. The phalanx of right-wing radio commentators who call themselves conservatives is attempting to portray Obama as an ultraliberal, “the most liberal senator in the Democratic Party,” according to a study produced by National Journal. This is a very weak, tired, unconvincing way to deal with Obama, and it is ultimately a loser. This is not very scary, and to do justice to the horrifying reality of the Obama threat, it ought to be very scary indeed. To say that Obama is a liberal, as Rush Limbaugh incessantly does, is to say that he is just more of the same, from the same tired old playbook of Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis. If Obama is just the latest liberal and there is nothing new under the sun, then ho-hum. This approach fatally underestimates how radically different and how extremely dangerous Obama really is. Sean Hannity does a little better with his mantra of “Stop the radical.” But it soon turns out that this means radical liberal, which is also not going to launch a thousand ships against Obama. The first instinct of most right-wingers is to look at Obama’s middle name of Hussein, and perhaps at his Moslem father and step-father and at his time in school in Indonesia, and announce that Obama is a Moslem. But this will hardly do. Obama’s father and step- father were united not by the Koran, but rather by their shared devotion to Johnny Walker, which increased as they got older. And if Obama himself were a secularized Moslem, so what? Voters have a right to know Obama’s religious history in full detail, but there is no religious test for office. But Obama is something very sinister indeed. Obama himself is either an atheist, or much more likely a Satanist of the apostate Jeremiah Wright-James Cone-black liberation theology school, a Christian heresy which places racist hatred instead of charity at the center of its edifice of faith. Wright is ultimately the high priest of a death cult. Obama is, more precisely, an existentialist fascist made of equal parts 1969 Weatherman race war theory and Frantz Fanon’s cult of violent Third World rebellion. This is what low-income blue collar voters in West Virginia have understood far better than all the effete snobs who profess postmodernism at Harvard. The other approach is to paint Obama as a Marxist and communist, in the Cold War McCarthyite tradition. Here is an article by Dana Milbank, a decadent member of Skull and Bones who frequents the Keith Olberman Grand Guignol propaganda show on MSNBC-Obamavision, also known as the Brzezinski network. Milbank is a cynical cataloguer of the politically grotesque. The following is 8 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography Milbank’s satire of a group of aging and rabid neocons who gathered recently in a Washington café to review the evidence that Obama was a communist, a Marxist, and a subversive. This group, assembled by America’s Survival Inc., met in the basement of Ebenezer Coffee House at Second and F streets NE. Milbank writes: Here are some things we can look forward to learning about Barack Obama: that he was mentored in high school by a member of the Soviet-controlled Communist Party; that he launched his Illinois state Senate campaign in the home of a terrorist and a killer; that while serving as a state senator, he was a member of a socialist front group; that his affiliations are so dodgy that he would have trouble getting a government security clearance; that there is reason to doubt his “loyalty to the United States.” “We believe that any public figure with links to foreign and hostile interests should be asked to explain those associations,” the organizer, Cliff Kincaid, told about two dozen conservatives and a few reporters. “In the case of Obama, a relatively new figure on the national scene, we submit the facts suggest that he would have serious difficulty getting a security clearance in the United States government. An FBI background check was once used to examine one’s character, loyalty to the United States, and associations.” “He’s a member of an organization [that is] openly a front for two socialist groups,” reported another participant, Trevor Loudon. “Obama was raised and educated in a very Marxist-rich environment, which often would limit his worldview,” reported a third, Max Friedman. But the star of the show was the ancient Herbert Romerstein, who once plied his trade for the Un-American Activities committee. “We decided to start going back and seeing what things influenced him even before he was born,” Romerstein announced without a trace of irony, before tying Obama to the Communist Party of the 1930s in Hawaii and Soviet spies on the island. “This is the atmosphere that young Barack Obama grew up in.” The smoking gun? Obama’s “mentor” during his teens, according to Kincaid, was “a key member of a Sovietcontrolled network that was sponsored by Moscow and active in Hawaii.” “The Weather Underground terrorists,” Romerstein added, “were instrumental in getting him into office in the first place.” “It’s clear that the communists and the socialists are backing him,” Kincaid confirmed. It was beginning to sound like a UFO convention. But the panelists took it seriously, firing questions back at the audience. “Was Barack Obama working for Bill Ayers?” Kincaid wondered aloud. Romerstein demanded: “How come for 20 years he sat in the pews and listened to a raving anti-American racist? How did he bring his two young children to this church to hear Wright rave on?” The evidence was compelling enough for participant Friedman. For him, the Rosetta Stone was Obama’s chief strategist, David Axelrod, who Friedman alleged was the protégé of a man with “a Communist Party-front record” in Chicago. “The more I look at this, I’m seeing there are a lot of red-diaper babies around here,” he deduced. “By putting these pieces of the puzzle together, I’m beginning to see something much bigger.” (Dana Milbank, “Obama as You’ve Never Known Him!” Washington Post, May 23, 2008.) This treatment shows how easy it is for a lightweight elitist scribbler like Milbank to satirize these neocon critics of Milbank’s Perfect Master. Even a superficial flack like Milbank has no trouble making these poor neocons look like relics from the hated and notorious House Un- American Activities Committee who are daring to pollute the sublime dream of today’s golden youth. Obama has only the vaguest echoes of his mother’s vague devotion to old Karl Marx (the British agent whose case officer was David Urquhart of the British Foreign Office). Obama is most emphatically a product of the foundations and their cult of social manipulation and political subversion, but always in the service of a social order centered on Wall Street. Obama is himself an Introduction: Obama from the Ford Foundation to the Trilateral Commission 9 operative of finance capital at the highest level. If his hardware comes from the Ford Foundation where his mother was employed, Obama’s software comes from the Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberger group, the Council on Foreign Relations, the RAND Corporation, Skull and Bones, the Chicago school of economics – in other words, the highest levels of the Anglo-American financier oligarchy. If Mussolini started off as an agent of the British and French embassies and of certain Venetian financiers, and Hitler began his career as an agent for German military intelligence, Obama’s pedigree is the complex of institutions we have just stated. Obama is connected to Wall Street by a million adamantine threads. Obama’s main controller, guru, adviser, and handler is none other than Zbigniew Brzezinski, the man who ran the catastrophic Trilateral administration of Jimmy Carter thirty years ago. Such is the reality of Obama as he emerges from these pages. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND IS INDISPENSABLE In order to understand Obama and the congeries of foundation-funded racist and terrorist provocateurs and international gangsters who represent his immediate social circle, some significant historical background is indispensable. Obama’s mother worked for the Ford Foundation, and Obama has worked for foundations like the Gamaliel, the Joyce, the Woods, and the Annenberg Chicago Challenge all his life. But what do foundations do? Emphatically, they do not practice good works of charity; they deal in cynical social and political manipulation in the service of the ruling class. So it is necessary to explain the strategic doctrine which has governed the activities of the US foundation community since the 1960s, especially in the framework of Reagan’s Executive Order 12333, which privatized the US intelligence community into front companies, law firms, and especially foundations. The public now knows that Obama attended Jeremiah Wright’s church, where the incendiary doctrine of black liberation theology, a school atypical of the black church, is proclaimed. But where do Wright and his sidekicks Otis Moss III and Dwight Hopkins come from? Are they an authentic and spontaneous expression of the black church, or are they controlled assets deployed in a cynical divide-and-conquer strategy by foundations and divinity schools that represent the most parasitical interests in Wall Street? The historical approach is the only way to clarify these issues. Obama claims to be an apostle of bipartisan cooperation and the transcendence of legislative wrangling and haggling. His background in this regard is real, but it is not what the public thinks. Obama is a product of the infamous Illinois bipartisan Combine, a joint venture by the Illinois Republican and Democratic Parties to savagely loot the people of that state. Obama’s godfathers include not just corrupt machine pols like Mayor Daley and Governor Blagojevich, but also the Levantine gangsters and underworld figures Rezko, Auchi, and Alsammarae, all part of what the FBI has been probing under the heading of Operation Board Games. Obama’s bosom buddy Rezko is now a convicted felon, having been found guilty on June 5, 2008 on 16 of 24 counts in Chicago federal court, including for scheming to get kickbacks out of money-management firms wanting state business, and a contractor who wanted to build a hospital in northern Illinois. Auchi and Alsammarae are also convicted felons. Obama’s long history in graft and corruption make him the most corrupt and dirtiest presidential candidate in many decades. Americans have now been told that the 1960s Weatherman terrorist bombers and provocateurs (and foundation operatives) Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn have sponsored Obama’s career as a foundation asset and later as a holder of elective office. But what were the Weathermen? And, were Ayers and Dohrn honest revolutionaries who chose terrorism, or were they intelligence community operatives sent in to destroy the student movement and peace movement by taking over Students for 10 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography a Democratic Society (SDS) in the wake of the New York City teachers’ strike, and then scuttling SDS from within, in a matter of months? Only historical background can clarify the question of how Obama’s penchant for associating with known criminals makes him the most radical subversive ever to get this close to the presidency. The public is being urged to regard Obama as a politician of phenomenal organizational ability because of his ability to game the absurd rules of the Democratic Party. But what if Obama had been a protected asset of Zbigniew Brzezinski and the Trilateral Commission since about 1981- 1983, and a man whose entire career has been fostered and promoted by the Trilateral-Bilderberger Wall Street group? What if Obama’s campaign ran on Rockefeller-Soros Trilateral cash, with the backing of the matchless Trilateral network of media whores and agents of influence? Here again, adequate historical background is necessary. The last time that the Trilateral Commission fielded a relatively unknown puppet with the goal of seizing power through an insurgency based on surprise, the result was the catastrophic presidency of Jimmy Carter, who turned foreign affairs over to Brzezinski, while placing economic policy in the hands of Trilateral agent Paul Adolph Volcker, who destroyed what was left of the US industrial economy. Today Obama is attempting to profile himself as something of an economic populist. Only an appeal to history can show how today’s Trilateral puppet Obama will go beyond yesterday’s Trilateral puppet Carter, this time imposing austerity in the name of third world solidarity, sacrifice in the name of global warming, and perhaps even reparations for racism. As with Carter, the beneficiaries will be the Rockefeller-Soros Wall Street interests. Obama promises hope and change, but his campaign bears uncanny similarities to the early days of Italian fascism in 1919-1922. Only historical background can show the many parallels between Obama and the young Mussolini. This book is not an invitation to contemplation. It is a call to mobilize. At this writing, we are at the half-way point in a postmodern fascist coup in the United States. There is still time to prevent this coup from succeeding. In January 1933, just before Hitler seized power, people in Germany were as careworn and overwhelmed and overstressed as many Americans feel today. A combination of bankers and corporate chiefs had decided they needed more than a dictator; they needed a dictator with his own private army of street fighters, the storm troopers. The Social Democrats (the SPD) were a huge mass party backed up by trade unions, sports clubs, women’s groups, and their own self-defense corps, but they dithered and dawdled and talked about a general strike, and never did anything. The communists (the KPD) were also a large mass party, with a big organization of unemployed workers, and their own self-defense corps of armed veterans. But the communists were convinced that they had been living under fascism for a long time, and that the Social Democrats were really social fascists and therefore even worse than Hitler. So nobody called a general strike to stop Hitler when this would have been possible. Many of the SPD and KPD leaders who refused to mobilize against the National Socialist seizure of power soon had to flee the country when their parties were outlawed and their members expelled from the parliament by the Nazis. Many of those who stayed behind were either assassinated in the streets, or died in concentration camps. Perhaps we can learn something from this chilling example of the importance of mobilizing while mobilization is still possible. If this book attracts some readers, the Obama campaign will inevitably attempt to vilify me as a racist. I therefore state formally that I am not a racist, but just the opposite. I am convinced that race is a mystification with no scientific basis whatsoever. Politics and government based on race are Introduction: Obama from the Ford Foundation to the Trilateral Commission 11 sure to fail. My own standpoint is the universality of the human personality, with all persons being ontologically equal. I lived the first years of my life in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, a town which, thanks in part to a large population of abolitionists living there, had largely achieved racial integration in the decades following the Civil War. I lived on the same street where W.E.B. DuBois had grown up by the Housatonic River and close to the integrated school he attended c.1870.1 I later lived in Flushing, New York, a part of north Queens which had been the site of the first formal demand for religious tolerance in North America – the Flushing Remonstrance of 1657. In the 1950s, this community was thoroughly integrated down to my Cub Scout troop, where the den mother was Mrs. Andrew Jenkins, a black lady and the mother of one of my friends. Flushing was so tolerant that, around the time of the New York World’s Fair of 1964, it began to attract residents from the Far East, and now hosts a large Chinese community. So I reject any charge of racism. At the same time, I reject the absurd taboos which the bankrupt ideologues of foundation-style multiculturalism and political correctness are seeking to impose, since these are forms of insidious class prejudice against the working people of all races in this country. In many ways, this book continues the critique of foundation-based multiculturalism from a New Deal standpoint which was offered by the late Arthur M. Schlesinger in his The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society. Those who actually read this book will be able to evaluate my argument that racism in the United States today is very largely the product of a deliberate and cynical divide-andconquer policy carried forward above all by the foundations and by the oligarchs and elitists who control them – that is to say, by precisely those groups who have created Obama. We need a return to the New Deal and a Marshall Plan for the cities, not another fruitless discussion about race of the kind proposed by Obama. To finish off racism, we will need full employment, something which has hardly been seen in this country since 1945. Full employment is also the key to solving most of the problems associated with the flows of immigrants from Latin America and Asia, since a return to economic progress will immediately create a labor shortage that will put these issues in the proper perspective. To obtain an economic recovery for the benefit of all the people from the present Bush world economic depression, we will need updated versions of New Deal programs, and on the way to getting them we will need to break the power of the foundations, who will attempt to maintain the fragmentation and subjection of the US population by every means at their disposal. This book, it is hoped, will represent a step towards exposing the destructive elitist manipulation of society by the foundations and the sinister intentions of the leading foundation operative on the scene today, Obama. CHAPTER I: OBAMA’S ROOTS IN POLYGAMY AND THE FORD FOUNDATION How can I refuse the best education? – Barack Hussein Obama Senior For many Americans, Barack Hussein Obama is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. Never in recent American history has a candidate so little known approached the presidency. The only recent comparison is offered by Jimmy Carter, and Carter — who had served as governor of Georgia for four years — was an open book in comparison to Obama. After Carter had entered the White House, voters were shocked to realize that they had elected a mystery man — they had bought a pig in a poke. George W. Bush was another little-known candidate: he too talked about being a uniter and not a divider, promised a foreign policy based on humility, and pledged to govern in the spirit of compassionate conservatism. Here too, the reality turned out to be much different. Back in 1991, I realized that even though George H. W. Bush had been occupying the White House for a number of years, there was no critical and unauthorized biography of him. I therefore set out to write such a critical biography, which still stands today as the only non-apologetic study of his life. My present task is to offer readers a chance to get to know Obama before they make the irrevocable decision to grant him state power in the midst of one of the most severe crises this country has ever known. As we have suggested elsewhere in this book, one way to parse the speeches and promises of presidential candidates is to examine their advisers, handlers, and controllers, since many of these will make their way into the cabinet and into the White House palace guard. Another important method is to examine the candidate’s financial backers, and we will do so. A third approach is to bear in mind the famous dictum that biography is destiny — meaning that the life experience of any individual is bound to exert a profound influence on the way that person will tend to use the powers of a public office. It is mainly this third approach which we will implement in this section, seeking to assemble what is known about the life of Obama with a view to extracting clues about what kind of a president he might be. The guiding principle of the present treatment is that when a politician is seeking to get his hands anywhere near the famous button which can be used to launch worldwide thermonuclear war, when that politician is in effect demanding life-and-death power over American voters and their families, then there are no limits to the public’s right to know anything and everything about all facets of that politician’s life, without exclusions of any sort. For a presidential candidate, there is and can be no private sphere. Everything is fair game. Researchers are not only allowed to delve into the candidate’s background in every conceivable way — they are imperatively obligated to do so. BARRY WHO? Obama presents unprecedented difficulties for the presidential biographer. His clever handlers, controllers, and managers seem to have understood very well that a candidate with a resume, a voting record, and a history of past performance can very easily find that these things become liabilities when they are scrutinized by the opposition research of political adversaries, or simply by journalists in general. Any record at all is apt to become grist for the opponent’s attack machine. Obama appears to have been advised by Senator Daschle that it is better not to stay in the Senate very long before running for president, since every vote that a Senator makes can represent a policy I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 13 commitment which is going to offend some group or stratum in the voting public. Ironically, it turns out that in politics, the best resume is often no resume at all. Obama represents this approach in an extreme form. Maureen Dowd of the New York Times, who with her usual cynicism has rushed to join media swoon for the Illinois Senator, has called Obama “the 46-year-old virgin.” The columnist Spengler of the Asia Times observes that “We know less about Senator Obama than about any prospective president in American history. His uplifting rhetoric is empty, as Hillary Clinton helplessly protests. His career bears no trace of his own character, not an article for the Harvard Law Review he edited, or a single piece of legislation. He appears to be an empty vessel filled with the wishful thinking of those around him.” (Spengler, Asia Times, Feb. 26, 2008) Obama’s halfsister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, a schoolteacher from Hawaii, says cryptically, “He’s a very cool customer.” The candidate himself admits: “I am an imperfect vessel for your hopes and dreams.” (Todd Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) Indeed, Obama would appear to stand for nothing, with no principles, no commitments, no loyalties, and no real program. In spite of this, Obama did not spring fully armed from the head of Zbigniew Brzezinski, nor did he rise from the foam of the ocean. He does have a past, and it is to this past and its lessons that we now turn. So little is known about the life of Obama that wild rumors have proliferated about who he really is. Is he a devout Moslem? Is he an Iranian agent? Is he a Marxist crypto-revolutionary? The conclusion of the present study is that he is none of these. Obama is certainly an ambitious and ruthless demagogue who can be counted on to be wholly unscrupulous in his pursuit and exercise of power. He is the creature of those intelligence circles which we may describe as the foundationfunded Left CIA. Obama is the wholly-controlled puppet of these circles. He has been chosen for his current task first of all because of his uncanny anthropologist’s ability to size up and profile his interlocutors for the purpose of duping them all and manipulating them the more efficiently. He brings to his political campaign the detachment of an anthropologist doing field work: he treats American voters as mere ethnographic material, mere grist for his power machine. Obama is at heart a cosmopolitan, meaning that he would seek to float above the various constituent groups of the US population in the same way that the supernational and cosmopolitan Prince Metternich sought to float above the subject nationalities of the Austrian Empire until he was forced to flee to London in 1848. Obama’s connection to the American people is as tenuous as that of such figures as the German Nesselrode, the Greek Kapodistrias, and the Sardinian Pozzo di Borgo, when they all found themselves working for the Foreign Ministry of the supernational Russian Empire. Obama is also reminiscent of those Coptic Christians like the Boutros-Ghali family whom the British habitually chose as top-level civil servants during their protectorate over Egypt. Imperial regimes have often chosen to govern large populations through ethnic minorities, and an Obama administration would give the United States a taste of this kind of rule for the first time. THE MAKING OF A MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE Underneath Obama’s cool and aristocratic detachment, however, there lurks a deep resentment against the broad strata of the American people. It is not a hatred of Wall Street bankers, of CIA assassins, of war criminals, nor of mercenaries who kill people in countries far away. It must unavoidably be described as a hatred of the American people themselves, and it is therefore a sentiment which any responsible person must strongly condemn. Despite his evasive denials, Obama has a real elective cultural affinity for the “God damn America” outlook expressed by his pastor, the Reverend Jeremiah Wright. Based on the research embodied in this study, we can confidently predict that a future Obama administration would impose austerity, sacrifice, and 14 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography foreign wars on the American people with a wanton cruelty which has not been seen so far, not even under Bush the younger. It is because of their accumulated anti-American animus that Obama and his wife have been selected by the circles of the Trilateral Commission for their current attempts to carry out a postmodern coup d’état, leading in turn to what we must designate as postmodern fascism. Obama is a disciple neither of Mohammed nor of Marx. He comes rather from the school of Frantz Fanon and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. His relation to Rousseau is especially close: both the Rousseau of the noble savage who is the patron saint of modern anthropology, and the Rousseau of the collective will, who is the guiding spirit of modern totalitarian liberalism. Obama’s world is the left wing of the US intelligence community as it emerged in the wake of President Reagan’s Executive Order 12333 of 1982. It is a world composed of the Ford Foundation and other foundations specialized in social engineering, social manipulation, social control, and political counterinsurgency against possible challenges to the system of oligarchical financier domination of national affairs. It is a world populated by former Weatherman terrorists, black cultural nationalists, radical Palestinians on the CIA payroll, and left liberal ideologues financed by the foundations or even by the defense budget. It is the world of the National Endowment for Democracy, the Soros Foundation, and the veterans of the Jimmy Carter Administration. BIRTH AND FAMILY Many sources allege that Barack Hussein Obama was born on Aug. 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii. But even this most basic fact of Obama’s existence is highly controversial, and as this book goes to press, is a contested issue in the courageous law suit of Philadelphia lawyer Philip J. Berg, who asserts that Obama is not a natural-born citizen of the United States, and accordingly cannot be considered qualified for the presidency.2 His father, Barack Obama, Senior was a member of the Luo tribe or people from Nyanza Province, Kenya, in East Africa. His mother was Stanley [sic] Ann Dunham, an American woman who would later became an anthropologist and a consultant for the World Bank. Obama’s parents met when they were both students at the East-West Center of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. When Barack Obama was only two years old, his father abandoned his wife and young son in Hawaii and went to Harvard University, where he obtained a doctorate in economics, and later returned to Kenya to become a government official. Barack Obama would see his father only once more in his life. Barack Obama is listed as the author of two books: Dreams from My Father: a Story of Race and Inheritance (1995), and The Audacity of Hope (2006). From the first of these works, a number of themes emerge. First of all, Obama is obsessed with himself. His books do not really represent programs or promises concerning things that he wants to do for the American public, or to improve the state of the world. They are concerned above all with his own mental states, yearnings, desires, and confusions. Secondly, Obama is obsessed with the trauma of having been abandoned by his father at the age of two, and with the vicissitudes of having grown up as a fatherless boy with all the problematic syndromes this may imply. He was also later abandoned by his mother. Thirdly, Obama is obsessed with his African roots; he may at times portray himself as being multicultural, but his real center of gravity is his Afrocentrism. He is thus a radical subjectivist, and a postmodernist. His thoroughgoing postmodernism means that he espouses a method of thought which no American president has thus far represented. These are important things to bear in mind I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 15 as we proceed. Since Obama accords so much importance to his own African background, it is legitimate to follow him back to his grandfather. GRANDFATHER OBAMA FROM KENYA: UNCLE TOM OF BRITISH COLONIALISM Obama’s grandfather was named Hussein Onyango Obama, who was born about 1895 in Kandu province, Kenya, and died in 1979. He practiced traditional polygamy and had at least three wives: Helima, who was childless; Akumu, who was the mother of Sarah Obama and Barack Hussein Obama, Sr.; and Auma Obama. He also claimed to have married a woman in Burma when he lived there as the servant of a British officer during World War II. Grandfather Obama belonged to the Luo tribe. For those who may be scandalized by the idea that the candidate belongs to a tribe, we can establish this fact by referring to Obama’s own writings. In Dreams from My Father, Obama travels to Kenya. Here he meets a vendor, an old woman, who tries to make him pay the tourist price for a necklace. One of Obama’s relatives intervenes to help him avoid paying the inflated price reserved for foreigners. The dialogue goes like this: ‘“She says that you look like an American to her.” “Tell her I’m Luo,” I said, beating my chest!”’ (Dreams 310) So Obama, based on his own memoir, has a strong sense of tribal identity. The Luo or Lwo people are a Nilotic group from the eastern Sudan whose language (sometimes called Dholuo) belongs to the Nilo-Saharan language family. The Luo are one of the most numerous ethnic groups of East Africa, and specialize in agriculture, livestock raising, and fishing. Their demographic center of gravity is the northeastern shore of Lake Victoria. They currently inhabit areas of five nations, including the southern Sudan, northern Uganda, eastern Congo, western Kenya, and part of Tanzania. The Luos are tall and thin Nilotic peoples of haughty and aristocratic bearing, like the Tutsis. Folklore attributes to the taller Nilotics like Tutsis and Luos the desire to dominate the shorter Hutu and Kikuyu peoples. Michelle Obama, in the initial transcripts of her infamous “whitey” tape of July 2004, reportedly takes a strong position in favor of the Tutsi, which is the very essence of the overall line of Anglo-American imperialism in this part of Africa, which has always been to support the Tutsi against the Hutu. Some famous Luos include the Kenyan politician Tom Mboya (assassinated by a Kikuyu in 1959), former Uganda president Milton Obote, and the infamous butcher Joseph Kony, the head of the Lord’s Resistance Army, a new dark ages terrorist rebel group which operates in Uganda. The traditional ideological profile of the Luo is that they are clever but sometimes lethargic, and addicted to show-boating. The Luo are currently receiving US-UK imperialist support against the majority Kikuyu people in the tribal-ethnic power struggle unleashed inside Kenya. The Luo represent one of the micro-nationalities which Zbigniew Brzezinski intends to liberate in the course of his “dignity” campaign against the nation-state. The advantages for the imperialists of backing the Luo are obvious: if an independent Kurdish state would carve Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey, a Luo state would carve Sudan, Uganda, Congo, Kenya, and Tanzania. OBAMA’S LUO TRIBE: SMART, LAZY, SHOWBOATERS What kind of people are these Luo? Modern Americans have an idea of the ideology or mentality of the French, Germans, Italians, Russians, Chinese, and so forth, but what are Luos like? A standard work on Luo mentality is A.B.C. Ocholla-Ayayo’s Traditional Ideology and Ethics Among the Southern Luo (Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1976). Ochollo- Ayayo is a Luo writing a profile of the mentality and culture of his own people. Since Obama has 16 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography spoken about his grandmother as a “typical white person,” we may perhaps be allowed here to use this same method of sampling to make some generalizations about the Luo. Let us use the first Luo we meet, in this case Ochollo-Ayayo himself, as a typical Luo person, and factor in the analysis he provides as well as critical reactions to his work, some of them also from Luos. In this way we may get at least a few insights into Luo ideology and mentality. The overall profile of the Luo is that they are clever, lazy, and love showboating. Ochollo-Ayayo goes further, writing about “virtue boasting,” which comes complete with virtue songs and virtue names or praise names. The Luo cultivate witchcraft and sorcery, although they have increasingly turned in recent decades to independent churches. The Luo have been studied for the practice of geophagy (dirt eating) among children. In a review of Hans-Egil Hauge’s Luo Religion and Folklore (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1974), Ocholla-Ayayo lectures Hauge about using the wrong terminology in a discussion of polygamy among the Luo: “Rather than saying that the Luo are polygamous, it would have been more accurate to say that they practice polygyny [meaning, they have multiple wives at the same time]. The word ‘polygamy’ is ambiguous. It is also inaccurate that ‘by counting the number of huts one can tell from a distance how many wives a man has,’” since some huts do not correspond to wives, but may be used for other purposes, such as sleeping quarters for children. Ocholla-Ayayo, who taught at Khartoum in the Sudan, is so pedantic that he berates Hauge, who published his book in 1974, for not citing a book that Ocholla-Ayayo published two years later, in 1976. Much of this review is devoted to a discussion of the evil spirits (jachien), and especially the jajuok otieno, the night-runner or evil spirit who comes to steal cattle. This is an issue treated in Obama’s Dreams. E.E. Evans-Pritchard, the famous British intelligence figure and professor of sociology at Oxford, did field work among the Luo in 1936, and produced articles like “Marriage Customs of the Luo of Kenya” and “Ghostly Vengeance of the Kenya Luo,” Man 133 (1950). Evil spirits are often those of grandparents who afflict grandchildren because these latter have failed to carry out their filial duties. The night-runners become a large issue in Obama’s memoir (Dreams 435 and passim). Ocholla-Ayayo’s work is a “brittle inventory” of Luo norms, discussing questions like pastoralism, the role of cattle and their value, kinship, polygamy/polygyny, and the premises of Luo reasoning. Ocholla-Ayayo’s critics tell us more than he does. These reviewers are themselves anthropologists who deal in academic jargon, but they cannot suppress bursts of annoyance and resentment at the author because of his pedantic, pompous, lecturing and hectoring method. One reviewer writes that while the data presented by Ocholla-Ayayo are worthwhile, “the mannered and often incoherent fashion in which they are presented is likely to alienate even the most welldisposed of readers.” (Elizabeth Hopkins, ASA Review of Books 5 [1979], 216) This same reviewer finds this Luo writer’s “belabored pronouncements” to be “verging at times on the tautological.” There is also a tedious parade of erudition which the reviewer finds insufferable: “One must also lament Ocholla-Ayayo’s determination to validate the monograph to the scholarly community. The consequence is an accretion of self-conscious citations in which a hagiography as diverse as Galatians, David Hume, and Adam Smith is invoked, as well as a multitude of modern philosophers, economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and jurists. Frequent and gratuitous references to university mentors also prove regrettably intrusive and distracting.” This reviewer concludes that the “fragmented, a temporal presentation of the material and the author’s failure to explore the behavioral as well as the normative dimensions of traditional Luo ideology seriously undermine its value for the general reader.” The lack of historical analysis is a key defect. I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 17 Obama’s grandfather is described as a strange, hard, autocratic and cruel man. (Dreams from My Father 397, 406) “It is said of him that he had ants up his anus, because he could not sit still…. he was very serious always. He was always curious about other people’s business, which is how he learned to be a herbalist.” (Dreams 397) He was very fastidious and compulsively clean. Grandfather Obama lived at the time that the British colonialists first arrived in Kenya. Grandfather Obama was one of the first to imitate the practices of the British: at one point he went away for some months, and came back wearing European trousers, shirts, and shoes. Kandu province is located in the interior of Kenya, closer to Lake Victoria than to the Indian Ocean. When the British arrived in Kandu they began setting up a colonial administration with a district commissioner. The Kenyans “called this man Bwana Ogalo, which meant “the Oppressor” … he surrounded himself with Luos who wore clothes like the white man to serve as his agents and tax collectors.” (Dreams 399) One of those who went to work for the British during this time was grandfather Obama, who “had learned to read and write, and understood the white man system of paper records and land titles. This made him useful to the white man, and during the war [World War I] he was put in charge of road crews. Eventually he was sent to Tanganyika, where he stayed for several years.” (Dreams 400) When grandfather Obama returned to Kandu, he staked his claim to a plot of land, but he soon departed for Nairobi, where he again went to work for the British. Obama’s grandfather worked in Nairobi as a butler and cook for the British. He “was popular with employers and worked in the estates of some of the most important white men, even Lord Delamere.” (Dreams 401) Hugh Cholmondeley, 3rd Baron Delamere, was the undisputed political boss of the British colony of Kenya from about 1900 until his death in 1931; he was known as the Kenyan equivalent of Cecil Rhodes in South Africa, meaning that he was the dominant political personality of the colony. He had huge estates in the Rift valley. According to Wikipedia, “It is believed that on one of these Somaliland hunting trips, Delamere coined the term “white hunter” – the term which came to describe the professional safari hunter in colonial East Africa.” The relation with Lord Delamere is the first sign of anything extraordinary in the entire Obama clan. If Obama seizes the presidency, it will be due in some measure to the fact that his grandfather chose to go to work for the leading British imperialist politician in that part of the world. Using his earnings, grandfather Obama was able to buy land and cattle in Kandu. He was very strict about his property, and emerges as an obsessive-compulsive personality. He was also choleric and violent, and was known for harshly beating his wives and any men who offended him. He was often involved in shouting matches with his British employers, and once beat one of them with a cane; he was fortunate to get off with a fine and a warning. He was so violent to his wife Akumu that she tried repeatedly to get away from him, and finally deserted him for good, leaving behind the young child who would become Barack Obama’s father. A BATMAN IN THE BRITISH ARMY During World War II, grandfather Obama accompanied the British Army captain who was his employer as cook and servant. He was attached to a British regiment and was stationed in Burma, Ceylon, Arabia, and Europe. When he returned to Kandu, he was economically well-off. When he was almost 50, he decided to move to Alego, the family’s ancestral home. At that time Alego was bush country, but grandfather Obama’s ability as a farmer allowed him to build up a successful farming business. Grandfather Obama seems all in all to have had a Hobbesian temperament; he is quoted as saying: “The African is thick. For him to do anything, he needs to be beaten.” (Dreams 407) Grandfather Obama appears to have started his life as a follower of traditional animist or totemic religion. What Grandfather Obama “respected was strength — discipline…this is also why 18 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography he rejected the Christian religion…For a brief time, he converted [to Christianity], and even changed his name to Johnson. But he could not understand such ideas as mercy towards your enemies, or that this man Jesus could wash away a man’s sins. To [him] this was foolish sentiment, something to comfort women. And so he converted to Islam — he thought its practices conform more closely to his beliefs,” Barack is told by his grandmother. (Dreams 407) According to some accounts, he had been exposed to Islam during some time spent in Zanzibar. It was upon converting to Islam that Grandfather Obama took the name Hussein, which lives on as the middle name of his grandson, the current presidential candidate. Much of what we learn about Grandfather Obama comes from Sarah, his third wife; this is the person Obama calls his grandmother. She is not, however, a blood relative. Sarah Obama describes herself as a devout lifelong Muslim: “I am a strong believer of the Islamic faith,” she has told interviewers. Until his first visit to Kenya in the 1990s, candidate Obama had known very little about his grandfather. The one thing he did know was that his grandfather had opposed his father’s decision to marry the white woman Stanley Ann Dunham in Hawaii around 1960. Around this one incident, the future candidate Obama has built an image of his grandfather as a proud Afrocentric race patriot. Barack Hussein Obama, as the thorough postmodernist that he is, attempts in his writings to derive his sense of personal identity not so much from his own achievements as an individual as from his family and ethnic group. In Dreams from My Father, he tells of his bitter disappointment with the reality of his grandfather’s life: “I knew that, as I had been listening to the story of our grandfather’s youth, I, too, had felt betrayed. My image of Onyango, faint as it was, had always been of an autocratic man — a cruel man, perhaps. But I had also imagined him an independent man, a man of his people, opposed to white rule. There was no real basis for this image, I now realized — only the letter he had written to Gramps saying that he didn’t want his son marrying white. That, and his Muslim faith, which in my mind had become linked with the Nation of Islam back in the states. What Granny had told us scrambled that image completely, causing ugly words to flash across my mind. Uncle Tom. Collaborator. House n****r.” (Dreams 406) FATHER: BARACK HUSSEIN OBAMA SENIOR, “DRUNKEN LECHER” Of all of Grandfather Obama’s wives, it was Akumu who asserted herself the most, constantly contradicting her husband and arguing with him. Because of this, Akumu was frequently beaten, and made several attempts to run away. She disappeared for the last time when Barack Obama Senior was nine years old. She went back to her family, found a new husband, and went away with him to what was then called Tanganyika. Obama Senior was therefore raised by Sarah, another of Grandfather Obama’s wives. Several weeks after Akumu had fled from her harsh life with Grandfather Obama, Obama Senior and his elder sister attempted to rejoin their mother. For almost two weeks they trudged along the primitive roads of rural Kenya, sleeping in the fields and begging for food. They were both starving when a passerby took them in and sent for Grandfather Obama. This was their last attempt to find their mother, Akumu. Obama Senior was profoundly traumatized by losing his mother at the age of nine; he “could not forgive his abandonment, and acted as if Akumu didn’t exist. He told everyone that I [Grandmother Sarah] was his mother, and although he would send Akumu money when he became a man, to the end of his life he would always act coldly towards her.... Barack [Senior] was wild and stubborn like Akumu.” (Dreams 413) Barack Obama Senior is described as highly intelligent and quick to learn, but also very mischievous. After Senior’s first day at the Mission school in the village, he told grandfather I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 19 Obama that he did not want to attend school because he already knew everything that was being taught, and the teacher was a woman. Grandfather Obama shared this contempt for women, so Senior was sent to a school 6 miles away where the teacher was a man. Only after this male teacher beat him repeatedly did Senior learn to accept a woman teacher. Senior was often a truant, not attending school for weeks on end, but mastering the entire subject matter just before the final exams and coming in first in the class. During World War II, many Kenyans were inducted into the British Army. When they returned home, they began to support the cause of independence from colonial rule. Grandfather Obama agreed with the demand for independence, but he refused to become associated with the independence movements. He argued that Africans could never defeat British troops. “How can the African defeat the white man,” he told Senior, “when he cannot even make his own bicycle? ... That is why the black man will always lose.” (Dreams 417) Despite his refusal to join the independence movement, Grandfather Obama was arrested by the British and held in a concentration camp for more than six months because one of his personal enemies, an employee of the British district commissioner, had settled a score by placing his name on the list of dangerous subversives. When he finally returned home, his health was broken. OBAMA SENIOR EXPELLED FROM PREP SCHOOL FOR HANKY-PANKY Obama Senior had taken the entrance examination for the Maseno Mission School, an elite college preparatory institution which very few Africans were allowed to attend. He was admitted to this school and seemed to have a great future ahead of him, but he soon encountered disciplinary problems. He insisted on violating the rules by bringing girls into his dormitory. He and his friends stole chickens and yams from nearby farms because the dormitory food was not to their liking. At first the teachers were indulgent because Senior was such a good student, but he was caught one too many times and was expelled. When he returned home he was severely beaten by Grandfather Obama, who forced him to go to Mombasa and take a job in the office of an Arab merchant. He quarreled with the Arab and had to take a job that paid much less. He worked for a time as a goatherd. This is the origin of BHO’s claim to be a son of a goatherd. Eventually Senior moved to Nairobi and found work as a clerk for the British railway authority. He attended a pro-independence meeting, and was arrested and jailed for a few days by the British. During this time Senior married his first wife, Kezia, and soon had two children, Roy and Auma. At this time he was employed as an office boy by an Arab merchant named Suleiman. Up to now we have been forced to rely on candidate Obama’s own account of these events. From this point on, we can begin to supplement this with other sources. A more detailed view of Senior and Kezia’s early years is provided by some British journalists: ‘At 18, Barack Hussein Obama Sr. (Senior) married a girl called Kezia from the local village. It was Kezia who remained his one true love and to whom he always returned. She was a 16-year-old schoolgirl while Senior, two years older, had just got his first proper job as an office clerk in Nairobi. Senior convinced Kezia to elope with him to Nairobi. Her father, a local driver, was furious. Kezia said: “He did not like Obama. My father and brothers came to Nairobi to bring me back. They said I had to go back to school. When I wouldn’t, they said they would never speak to me again. Barack was also worried about what his father (Grandfather Obama) would think because I was so young, but he gave us his approval. He sent my mother and father 14 cows for my dowry.” Kezia and Barack Sr. set up home in Jericho, a section of Nairobi created for government employees, and began a family. First son Roy was born in March 1958.’ (London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) 20 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography In contrast to the media swoon of total adulation and uncritical acceptance of Obama here in the United States, the British Daily Mail stresses that much of the account given in Dreams from My Father is disingenuous and untrue. They comment: “Indeed, by offering up a conveniently plotted account of his personal history in this way, he might even have made a pre-emptive strike on those sure to pose the awkward questions that inevitably face a serious contender for the White House. Yet an investigation by The Mail on Sunday has revealed that, for all Mr Obama’s reputation for straight talking and the compelling narrative of his recollections, they are largely myth.” (London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) Senior’s life began to change when he encountered two American women missionary teachers. They helped him to sign up for a correspondence course leading to a secondary school certificate. He took the equivalency test at the US Embassy, and passed. He then applied to numerous universities in the United States, and in 1958 won a scholarship at the University of Hawaii. Senior, then aged twenty-three, left as soon as possible for Hawaii, deserting his pregnant wife and son, who took refuge with Grandmother Sarah. Thus, when Senior married Stanley Ann Dunham, he was a bigamist from the point of view of US law. These years represented an acute phase of the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. At about this time, the Soviets created the Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow as a special institution for the education and indoctrination of African students. The Soviets sought actively to recruit the future leaders of African countries and bring them to Moscow for a free university education in the hopes that they would remain sympathetic to the Soviet cause during the rest of their careers. We must assume that a few were also recruited by the KGB. The United States intelligence agencies carried out similar operations on a somewhat more decentralized basis for the recruitment of young prospective African leaders as agents of US influence. The recruitment of Obama Senior by the East-West Center of the University of Hawaii at Manoa could very well have occurred within the framework of such a US effort. In fact, we are told that Obama Senior and Stanley Ann Dunham met for the first time in a Russian class. Some commentators have concluded from that that candidate Obama’s mother was a Soviet or communist sympathizer. There is probably some truth in that thesis. But Obama Senior may have been studying Russian as part of a US-backed program aimed at making him at the very least a US sympathizer in Kenyan society, and perhaps something more. At any rate, it is quite possible that the spirit of the CIA hovered over candidate Obama’s parents at the time of their wedding, if there was one. The marriage of Obama Senior with Ann Dunham must be regarded as highly unusual at a time when interracial marriage was still illegal in many U.S. states. There was, however, a high statistical correlation between interracial marriage and proximity to the Communist Party. OBAMA SENIOR: AN ABUSIVE POLYGAMIST AND EGOMANIAC The Daily Mail account stresses that even though the image of Senior presented in candidate Obama’s first book is hardly sympathetic, it is nevertheless an attempt to present this unattractive individual in the best possible light: “We have discovered that his father was not just a deeply flawed individual but an abusive bigamist and an egomaniac, whose life was ruined not by racism or corruption but his own weaknesses. And, devastatingly, the testimony has come from Mr Obama’s own relatives and family friends. Relatives say he was already a slick womaniser and, once in Honolulu, he promptly persuaded a fellow student called Ann - a naive 18-year-old white girl - to marry him. Barack Junior was born in August, 1961.” (Sharon Churcher, “A drunk and a bigot - what the US Presidential hopeful HASN’T said about his father,” London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 21 Part of candidate Obama’s technique in composing his reminiscences of his fugitive father is unquestionably to project backward into the world of almost half a century ago the categories of race, Afrocentrism, and multiculturalism which were not in fact operative in those days in the ways that the current candidate suggests. As the British series points out, ‘“Mr Obama Junior claims that racism on both sides of the family destroyed the marriage between his mother and father. In his book, [candidate Obama] says that Ann’s mother, who went by the nickname Tut, did not want a black son-in-law, and Obama Senior’s father didn’t want the Obama blood sullied by a white woman. In fact Ann divorced her husband after she discovered his bigamous double life. She remarried and moved to Indonesia with young Barack and her new husband, an oil company manager. Obama Senior was forced to return to Kenya, where he fathered two more children by Kezia. He was eventually hired as a top civil servant in the fledgling government of Jomo Kenyatta - and married yet again. Now prosperous with a flashy car and good salary, his third wife was an American-born teacher called Ruth, whom he had met at Harvard while still legally married to both Kezia and Ann, and who followed him to Africa. A relative of Mr Obama says: “We told him [Barack] how his father would still go to Kezia and it was during these visits that she became pregnant with two more children. He also had two children with Ruth.” It is alleged that Ruth finally left him after he repeatedly flew into whisky-fuelled rages, beating her brutally. Friends say drinking blighted his life - he lost both his legs while driving under the influence and also lost his job. However, this was no bar to his womanising: he sired a son, his eighth child, by yet another woman and continued to come home drunk. He was about to marry her when he finally died in yet another drunken crash when Obama was 21.”’ (Sharon Churcher, “A drunk and a bigot - what the US Presidential hopeful HASN’T said about his father,” London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) The eyewitness accounts of Obama’s first trip to Kenya assembled by the Daily Mail suggest that candidate Obama was filled with shock and consternation when he realized that his fantasy picture of his absentee father did not correspond to anything real: ‘Mr Obama’s 40-year-old cousin Said Hussein Obama told The Mail on Sunday: “Clearly, Barack has been very deeply affected by what he has learned about his father, who was my father’s older brother. You have to remember that his father was an African and in Africa, polygamy is part of life. We have assured Barack that his father was a loving person but at times it must be difficult for him to reconcile this with his father’s drinking and simultaneous marriages.” Said adds: “His father was a human being and as such you can’t say that he was 100 per cent perfect. My cousin found it difficult when he came here to learn of his half-brothers and sisters born to four different mothers. But just as Africans find the Western world strange so Americans coming here will find Africa strange.”’ (Sharon Churcher, “A drunk and a bigot - what the US Presidential hopeful HASN’T said about his father,” London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) For years, candidate Obama had attempted to interpret the little he knew about his father’s life in terms coherent with popular radical books like Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth. In reality Obama Senior might have been a sad and deluded drunk out of Eugene O’Neill: ‘Far from being an inspiration, the father whom Mr Obama was coming to know seemed like a total stranger. In his book, he attempts to put the best face on it. His father, he writes, lost his civil service job after campaigning against corrupt African politicians who had “taken the place of the white colonials.” One of Obama Senior’s former drinking partners was Kenyan writer Philip Ochieng. Ochieng says, however, that his friend’s downfall was his weak character. Although charming, generous and extraordinarily clever, Obama Senior was also imperious, cruel and given to boasting about his brain and his wealth, he said. “He was excessively fond of Scotch. He had fallen into the habit of 22 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography going home drunk every night. His boasting proved his undoing and left him without a job, plunged him into prolonged poverty and dangerously wounded his ego.” Ochieng recalls how, after sitting up all night drinking Black Label whisky at Nairobi’s famous Stanley Hotel, Obama Senior would fly into rages if Ruth asked where he had been. Ochieng remonstrated with his friend, saying: “You bring a woman from far away and you reduce her to pulp. That is not our way.” But it was to no avail. Ruth sued for divorce after her husband administered brutal beatings. In fact he was a menace to life, said Ochieng. “He had many extremely serious accidents. Both his legs had to be amputated. They were replaced with crude false limbs made from iron. He was just like Mr Toad [from The Wind In The Willows], very arrogant on the road, especially when he had whisky inside. I was not surprised when I learned how he died.”’ (Sharon Churcher, “A drunk and a bigot - what the US Presidential hopeful HASN’T said about his father,” London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) The Daily Mail was able to track down Obama Senior’s third wife. ‘Ruth refused to comment on the abuse charges when we tracked her down to the Kenyan school where she now works. She said: “I was married to Barack’s father for seven years so, yes, you could say Barack is my stepson. Barack’s father was a very difficult man. Although I was married to him the longest of any of his wives he wasn’t an easy person to be around.” Mr Obama has acknowledged that his father grappled with a drinking problem. But with a gift for words that makes Mrs Clinton’s utterances seem stiff and stale, he has turned it into another component of the myth. Drink, he says, like drugs is one of “the traps that seem laid in a black man’s soul.”’ (Sharon Churcher, “A drunk and a bigot - what the US Presidential hopeful HASN’T said about his father,” London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) This other American wife is named Ruth Nidesand. The son she had with Obama Senior, who is therefore Obama’s half-brother, has been located by the British press in China. We read: ‘Barack Obama’s half-brother has been helping to promote cheap Chinese exports in a low-profile business career while the Democratic senator has been winning worldwide fame in his race for the White House. He has gone to extraordinary lengths to avoid public attention and his family links remain unknown to most of his acquaintances in Shenzhen, a border boomtown in southern China where he has lived since 2002. Mark Ndesandjo is the son of Barack Obama’s late father and his third wife, an American woman named Ruth Nidesand who runs the up-market Maduri kindergarten in Nairobi.3 Obama, however, refers to him simply as “my brother” and says he was the only uncontested heir after their father, a Kenyan, died in a car crash in 1982.’ (Sunday Times, July 27, 2008) As for the rest of Obama’s eight to ten siblings: ‘The Italian edition of Vanity Fair said that it had found George Hussein Onyango Obaa living in a hut in a ramshackle town of Huruma on the outskirts of Nairobi. Mr Obama, 26, the youngest of the presidential candidate's half-brothers, spoke for the first time about his life, which could not be more different than that of the Democratic contender. "No-one knows who I am," he told the magazine, before claiming: "I live here on less than a dollar a month." According to Italy's Vanity Fair his two metre by three metre shack is decorated with football posters of the Italian football giants AC Milan and Inter, as well as a calendar showing exotic beaches of the world. Vanity Fair also noted that he had a front page newspaper picture of his famous brother - born of the same father as him, Barack Hussein Obama, but to a different mother, named only as Jael. He told the magazine: "I live like a recluse, no-one knows I exist." Embarrassed by his penury, he said that he does not does not mention his famous half-brother in conversation. "If anyone says something about my surname, I say we are not related. I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 23 I am ashamed," he said. For ten years George Obama lived rough. However he now hopes to try to sort his life out by starting a course at a local technical college. He has only met his famous older brother twice - once when he was just five and the last time in 2006 when Senator Obama was on a tour of East Africa and visited Nairobi.’ (Daily Telegraph, August 21, 2008) Obama has often paraded his devotion to the poor, to the “least of these” in Gospel terms. But although Obama talks a good game of charity, it appears that he has never given a penny to this wretched man who lives in poverty and despair made more acute by the contrast with his half-brother, the glittering international celebrity. If Obama’s black African brother gets no charity from Barky and Michelle, what can the American people expect except snake-like cruelty? The Daily Mail account of Obama Senior in Kenya concludes with the finding that candidate Obama has been permanently traumatized by his discovery as an adult in his mid-30s of the sordid details of his father’s actual biography. These details are worthy of attention, since psychological dramas, reaction formations, and related forms of psychological vulnerability have often been used in the recent past by the various White House palace guards to manipulate and control elected presidents. We must therefore pay special attention to the Daily Mail’s conclusion that: ‘Family members and acquaintances believe that the real cloud over Mr Obama’s life has been the discovery that his father was far from the romantic figure that his mother tried to portray. A family friend said: “He is haunted by his father’s failures. He grew up thinking of his father as a brilliant intellectual and pioneer of African independence only to learn that in Western terms he was basically a drunken lecher.” This ugly truth, say friends, has made Mr Obama ruthlessly determined to use every weapon that he has to succeed, including the glossily edited version of his father’s story. “At the end of the day Barack wants the story to help his political cause, so perhaps he couldn’t afford to be too honest,” said Ochieng. Significantly, it was only four years after his father’s death that Mr Obama travelled to his father’s ancestral Kenyan village. There he learned the full story of his father’s life and met some of his relatives. One of his half-sisters, Auma, is now a council worker in southern England, but some of his other relatives are still living in huts in the village, without plumbing or electricity, farming a few scrawny goats and chicken and growing fruit and maize. They speak the tribal Luo language and depend on handouts from family members who have emigrated to the UK and the United States for their few luxuries, notably the transistor radios that they use to follow Mr Obama’s rocketing political fortunes. He has positioned himself as a devout Christian (having found God, he says, after years as an atheist) ….”’ (Sharon Churcher, “A drunk and a bigot - what the US Presidential hopeful HASN’T said about his father,” London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) Candidate Obama writes in Dreams of My Father, “Someone once said that every man is trying to either live up to his father’s expectations or make up for his father’s mistakes, and I suppose that may explain my particular malady.” Candidate Obama may therefore be aware to some degree of the psychological drama which he exhibits. But this still leaves important questions: Has he ever grown up? Does he have the psychological strength necessary for independent and autonomous action, as mandated by the constitutional powers of the president enumerated in the U.S. Constitution? Due in large part to the adulation and propitiation of Obama by the controlled corporate media, these life-and-death questions are far from having been answered. MATERNAL GRANDFATHER, STANLEY DUNHAM, KANSAS ATHEIST Obama’s maternal grandparents came from Wichita, Kansas. His grandfather, Stanley Dunham, the person he calls Gramps, had worked on oil rigs during the great depression of the 1930s. Stanley 24 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography Dunham had far less social standing than Madelyn Dunham, who came from a somewhat better family; this class divide between a worker and petty bougeoise caused tension during their marriage. According to one account, Madelyn Dunham’s family had been slaveholders: “one of Obama’s great-great-great-great grandfathers, George Washington Overall, owned two slaves who were recorded in the 1850 Census in Nelson County, Kentucky. The same records show that one of Obama’s great-great-great-great-great-grandmothers, Mary Duvall, also owned two slaves.” (Wikipedia) “When World War II came, Stanley enlisted in the Army. Madelyn became a Rosiethe- Riveter at Boeing Co.’s B-29 production plant in Wichita. And Stanley Ann Dunham arrived in late November 1942. (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) After the war, Stanley went to college with the help of the G.I. Bill, and bought a house with a subsidized loan from the Federal Housing Program. Stanley and Madelyn Dunham would eventually live in 13 different places. Stanley Armour Dunham is described by Obama as something of a freethinker or bohemian, presumably meaning that he dabbled in atheism, which was considered something radical in the early 1960s. He inclined toward the Unitarian Universalist point of view of religious syncretism, and was proud that his church was able to draw on the sacred texts of five great world religions.4 He was friendly with several Jews, Obama tells us, and liked to listen to Nat King Cole. (Dreams 17) Grandfather Stanley was sympathetic to black issues and causes; Obama tells us that he had suffered some insults himself because “he looked like a ‘wop.’” (Dreams 21) Later on, as we will see, he took Barack Obama with him when he went to visit a group of black communists in Hawaii around 1970. Stanley Dunham died in 1992. MADELYN “TOOT” DUNHAM – GRANDMOTHER Madelyn Dunham is called Tutu or Toot or Tut in Obama’s reminiscence and in other accounts; this is the word for grandparent in the Hawaiian language. (Dreams 7) Interestingly, the Obama campaign has refused to facilitate interviews by interested journalists with Madelyn Dunham: “the Obama campaign declined to make Madelyn Dunham, 84, available.” (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) For some reason, the Obama campaign has been very reluctant to allow Madelyn Dunham to interact with the press. Do they think that a white grandmother would cause resentment among blacks, or is there something that they are hiding? Madelyn Dunham is now well-known as the grandmother whom Obama threw under the bus in his desperate maneuvering in the wake of the explosion of the Jeremiah Wright “God damn America” scandal in mid-March 2008. MOTHER: STANLEY ANN DUNHAM, PRO-COMMUNIST ANTHROPOLOGIST Obama’s mother was unquestionably the greatest single influence on his formative years. Her legal name was indeed Stanley Ann Dunham. She was named Stanley by her father because he had wanted very much to have a son. This incongruous gesture recalls the predicament of “A Boy Named Sue” in the humorous song by Johnny Cash. Obama makes some attempt in his reminiscences to portray his mother as a bland Eisenhower-era middle American from Kansas, but this once again represents typical disingenuous window-dressing. Obama’s attempt to spin his mother into something she was not has even been noted in the normally deferential Chicago Tribune account: ‘Implicit in [Obama’s portrayal of his mother] is this message: If you have any lingering questions or doubts about the Hawaiian-born presidential candidate with a funny name, just remember that Mom hails from America’s good earth. That’s the log cabin story, or his version of Bill Clinton’s “Man from Hope.” That presentation, though, glosses over Stanley Ann Dunham’s formative years, spent not on the Great Plains but more than 1,800 miles away on a small island in I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 25 the Pacific Northwest. Obama visited the Seattle area last October, and in a speech to a Democratic Party rally at Bellevue Community College, he mentioned that his mother attended Mercer Island High School before moving on to Hawaii. In Dreams, Obama wrote that the family moved to Seattle “long enough for my mother to finish high school.”’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) In reality, Ann Dunham started out as something of a bluestocking, a nonconformist and radical who was profoundly ill-at-ease with the superficial normalcy of the Eisenhower years. She was a left liberal, a feminist and a parlor atheist. The Dunham family moved to the Seattle area in the mid- 1950s, and it was there that Ann Dunham attended Mercer Island High School, where not just the existentialists Sartre and Kierkegaard, but even “The Communist Manifesto” were in the curriculum. Coming as she did from a heterodox and nonconformist family, it is not surprising to find Ann Dunham described as having been both a communist sympathizer and a liberal. Obama thus qualifies in some sense as a red diaper baby. Madelyn and Stanley, originally Methodist and Baptist respectively, along with their daughter joined the East Shore Unitarian Church in nearby Bellevue, Washington. ‘“In the 1950s, this was sometimes known as ‘the little Red church on the hill,” said Peter Luton, the church’s senior minister, referring to the effects of McCarthyism. Skepticism, the kind that Stanley embraced and passed on to his daughter, was welcomed here.’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) Ann Dunham actively embraced the cause of skepticism and freethinking. ‘“She touted herself as an atheist, and it was something she’d read about and could argue,” said Maxine Box, who was Dunham’s best friend in high school. “She was always challenging and arguing and comparing. She was already thinking about things that the rest of us hadn’t.”’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) Ann Dunham also showed a lively interest in international politics, quite possibly with a tendency to sympathize with the Moscow line: ‘“If you were concerned about something going wrong in the world, Stanley would know about it first,” said Chip Wall, who described her as “a fellow traveler. . . . We were liberals before we knew what liberals were.”’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) “Fellow traveler” is a term used during the McCarthy era to describe a communist sympathizer. The “fellow traveler” issue became prominent at Mercer Island High School when Ann was studying there, thanks to one of the anti-Communist witch hunts of the House Committee on Un- American Activities, the infamous HUAC. ‘In 1955, the chairman of the Mercer Island school board, John Stenhouse, testified before the House Un-American Activities Subcommittee that he had been a member of the Communist Party. At Mercer High School, two teachers — Val Foubert and Jim Wichterman — generated regular parental thunderstorms by teaching their students to challenge societal norms and question all manner of authority. Foubert, who died recently, taught English. His texts were cutting edge: “Atlas Shrugged,” “The Organization Man,” “The Hidden Persuaders,” “1984” and the acerbic writings of H.L. Mencken.’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) As we can see, there is nothing communist about these texts, which are variously libertarian, British intelligence, foundation-funded, and simple muckraking, but Foubert and Wichterman must have loomed as a new Lenin-Trotsky or Stalin-Mao duo in the provincial imaginations of the local parents. ‘Wichterman taught philosophy. The hallway between the two classes was known as “anarchy alley,” and students pondered the challenging notions of Wichterman’s teachings, including such philosophers as Sartre and Kierkegaard. He also touched the societal third rail of the 1950s: He questioned the existence of God. And he didn’t stop there.’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) With Stanley always looking for better opportunities, the family moved to Hawaii. Ann Dunham “began classes at the University of Hawaii in 1960, and shortly after that…had fallen in love with a 26 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography grad student. He was black, from Kenya and named Obama.” (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) Ann married Obama Senior when she was 18 years old. They met in a Russian language class, which may or may not indicate sympathy for Soviet communism (it could have indicated a desire to join the intelligence community): each one could have been there for many reasons, including training by a US intelligence agency. One person who knew Barack Obama Senior and Ann Dunham and their social set in those days is the Democratic Congressman Neil Abercrombie, who has recalled that ‘while Obama was impatient and energized, Stanley Ann, whom Abercrombie described as “the original feminist,” was endlessly patient but quietly passionate in her arguments. She was the only woman in the group.’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) Those who had known Ann Dunham as an independent woman not interested in marriage and children were surprised by her sudden decision to marry Obama Senior. ‘“I just couldn’t imagine her life changing so quickly,” said [one such friend], thinking about her independent-minded friend who had disdained marriage and motherhood.’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) Evidently the irresistible appeal of a husband from the third world had eclipsed Ann’s feminism. Ironically, the third world turned out not to be the repository of unalloyed goodness which a disciple of Rousseau would have expected. The original feminist Ann Dunham would soon find herself the victim not just of a bigamist but of a polygamist who would abandon her and her infant son without a second thought. Barack Obama today bears the mental scars of this experience. Grandfather Onyango, back in Kenya, was fiercely opposed to Obama Senior’s marriage. He wrote the Dunhams a ‘“long, nasty letter saying that he didn’t approve of the marriage.” This former house servant for the British colonialists “didn’t want the Obama blood sullied by a white woman.” His main argument was that this American girl would never agree to return to Kenya and live under conditions of polygamy. Onyango wrote: “How can you marry this white woman when you have responsibilities at home? Will this woman return with you and live as a Luo woman? Will she accept that you already have a wife and children? I have not heard of white people understanding such things. Their women are jealous and used to being pampered. But if I am wrong in this matter, let the girl’s father come to my hut and discuss the situation properly. But this is the affair of elders, not children.”’ (Dreams 422) Ann Dunham may have felt compelled to get married because she was already pregnant. As we read in one journalistic account; ‘Six months after they wed, another letter arrived in Kenya, announcing the birth of Barack Hussein Obama, born Aug. 4, 1961. Despite her husband’s continued anger, Sarah Obama said in a recent interview, she “was so happy to have a grandchild in the U.S.”’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) There is also some question about the documentation and thus of the legality of the marriage of Obama Senior to Ann Dunham. This wedding may not have been properly documented, as Obama himself tells us. “How and when the marriage occurred remains a bit murky, a bill of particulars that I have never quite had the courage to explore,” Obama writes in Dreams. In other words, this may have been a common law marriage.5 The implication is that presidential candidate Barack Obama may be an illegitimate child born outside of wedlock, or, in plain English, a bastard.6 A FEMINIST DOORMAT FOR A POLYGAMIST The later Congressman Neil Abercrombie sensed at the beginning that this marriage was not destined to last. Obama Senior was self-absorbed and self-centered, and evidently regarded the marriage as a mere temporary convenience for the time of his stay in Hawaii: ‘Obama was one of the most ambitious, self-focused men he had ever met. After Obama was accepted to study at I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 27 Harvard, Stanley Ann disappeared from the University of Hawaii student gatherings, but she did not accompany her husband to Harvard. Abercrombie said he rarely saw her after that. “I know he loved Ann,” Abercrombie said, but “I think he didn’t want the impediment of being responsible for a family. He expected great things of himself and he was going off to achieve them.”’ (Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2007) In 1963, Obama Senior abandoned his wife and infant son in order to enter a doctoral program in economics at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His decision can only be characterized as cruelly egotistical and irresponsible. Obama Senior had received two fellowships. One was to pursue a doctorate in economics at the New School for Social Research in New York City. This fellowship was generous enough so as to permit both Ann and baby Barack to accompany him to New York. The Harvard fellowship was smaller, reportedly not sufficient to support Ann and her baby. Obama Senior callously argued that he had no choice but to accept the Harvard fellowship. As Ann Dunham later told her son Barack: ‘“He received two scholarships, one in New York, which paid enough to support all three of us. Harvard had just agreed to pay tuition. ‘How can I refuse the best education?’ he told me. That’s all he could think about, proving that he was the best.”’ (Dreams 126) Naturally, Obama Senior and/or Ann could have supplemented the fellowship with a part-time or full-time job if the main goal had been to keep the family together. Once it was clear that Obama Senior was determined to abandon his family, Ann could have sued him for divorce and child support payments, since Obama Senior’s polygamous outlook had no standing under US law. Instead of acting to assert the best interests of her infant child, Ann Dunham chose supinely to let herself be abused and mistreated by Obama Senior, who thus emerges as a monster of egomania. Ann was apparently so deluded by her relativistic and Rousseauvian ideological categories that she was unable to fight for her son’s future. Barack Obama glosses over Obama Senior’s abandonment of his mother in detached prose in the passive voice: “A separation occurred, and he returned to Africa to fulfill his promise to the continent.” (Dreams 10) Obsessed with his racialist ideology, Obama chooses not to recognize that his mother was treated as a doormat, and was too weak to assert herself against the outrageous actions of Obama Senior. Perhaps Obama’s contempt for women is rooted in his mother’s craven willingness to capitulate to the selfishness of Obama Senior. For Ann Dunham, Rousseau was much more powerful than feminism when it really mattered. When Obama was about to visit Senior in Kenya for the first time, poor Ann Dunham told Obama: I hope you don’t feel resentful towards him…It wasn’t your father’s fault that he left, you know. I divorced him.” (Dreams 125) This account is at variance with the fact of abandonment, and shows that even after many years, Ann refused to accept the reality of the outrageous treatment she had received, and of her own failure to fight for her son. It is worth noting in passing that Obama qualifies as a fatherless young boy who was also abandoned by his mother before the age of 10. This pattern produces a psychological profile full of debilitating psychological complexes, including the obsessive quest for an ersatz or substitute father, and the need to be assured of one’s own personal worth by a series of sexual partners, be they male or female. The last president to exhibit this pattern was William Jefferson Blythe III, the posthumous son better known as Bill Clinton, whose father was killed in an automobile accident before he was born. For some time after that, young Bill Clinton lived with his grandparents while his mother allegedly worked as a nurse in another city. Bill Clinton’s case of this syndrome was complicated by the fact that his stepfather, Roger Clinton, was an alcoholic who physically abused 28 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography the future president’s mother. Bill Clinton’s need to obtain the validation of his ego from the wellknown parade of women requires no further comment. Bill Clinton’s philandering clearly resulted from a lack of ego strength: no matter how much he achieved in life, he always needed to be assured of his personal worth by a parade of women, one of whom turned out to be Miss Lewinsky. However, there is already evidence that before all is said and done, it will become evident that Bill Clinton has done a much better job of controlling his own compulsive urges than Obama has, since there is evidence that the Illinois Senator has veered recklessly into the world of bisexuality. As the columnist Spengler of the Asia Times points out, Michelle Obama – who often sounds like a feminist when she is talking about her own immediate concerns – shows no indignation about the tragic spousal abuse which Ann was willing to undergo: ‘Michelle Obama speaks with greater warmth of her mother-in-law than of her husband. “She was kind of a dreamer, his mother,” Michelle Obama was quoted in the January 25 Boston Globe. “She wanted the world to be open to her and her children. And as a result of her naivete, sometimes they lived on food stamps, because sometimes dreams don’t pay the rent. But as a result of her naivete, Barack got to see the world like most of us don’t in this country.” How strong the ideological motivation must be of a mother to raise her children on thin fare in pursuit of a political agenda. “Naivete” is a euphemism for Ann Dunham’s motivation… Many Americans harbor leftist views, but not many marry into them, twice.’ (Asia Times, February 26, 2008) Indeed: what kind of left liberal feminist is going to accept abandonment by a man whom she knew to be at least a bigamist? ANN DUNHAM, FORD FOUNDATION OPERATIVE: THE MICROLOAN RACKET Ann Dunham became famous posthumously when Time Magazine placed a picture of her with Barry (Obama) as a toddler – complete with halo – on the cover of its April 21, 2008 issue – in a forlorn attempt to humanize the recently bittergated Obama just before the Pennsylvania primary. The overall intent here is to whitewash this quasi-Marxist, Rousseauvian leftist anthropologist into a sort of middle American humanitarian – an attempt so transparent that Time began receiving letters impugning its journalistic integrity. Nevertheless, we do learn more about Ann’s later career as Ford Foundation operative. Her specialty was the cynical financier racket known as microloans or microcredits – tiny sums of money lent at substantial interest rates to tiny third world entrepreneurs, with the classic case being the purchase of a cell phone to provide phone service to some rural village – all in lieu of real communications and transportation infrastructure which the finance oligarchs at the World Bank and the regional lending agencies had no intention of financing. Microloans represented the World Bank’s notion of small is beautiful “appropriate technology” – meaning that if you are a backward country, then backward, third-rate technology is all you will get, so you had better take it with gratitude. Microloans also served to tether the third world masses to the mentality of finance capital, familiarizing them with notions of interest rates, the deadlines for installment payments, and all the dreary apparatus of usury. This entire cynical enterprise reached a paroxysm a decade after Ann Dunham’s death, when Muhammad Yunus of the Bangladeshi Grameen Bank won the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize for his work in pioneering micro-credits. By this time, the micro-credit was widespread, with a 2004 report showing that some 3,200 micro-credit institutions were reaching more than 92 million clients, mainly in the poorest countries of the underdeveloped world. It was an exercise in loan sharking and predatory lending to the most desperate people in the world, the most defenseless victims of economic globalization. When Yunus won his Nobel, he was widely praised: “Muhammad Yunus is a revolutionary in the best sense of the word,” said Sam Daley-Harris, director of the Microcredit Summit Campaign in Washington, I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 29 D.C. He was in fact a counter-revolutionary in the service of rapacious finance capital, and this was a good description of the mature Stanley Ann Dunham, Obama’s mother. As for Ann, she no doubt kept telling herself that she was doing something very radical. The adulatory Time account tells us that after her divorce from her Indonesian second husband Lolo Sotero or Soetero, Ann ‘took a big job as the program officer for women and employment at the Ford Foundation, and she spoke up forcefully at staff meetings. Unlike many other expats, she had spent a lot of time with villagers, learning their priorities and problems, with a special focus on women’s work. “She was influenced by hanging out in the Javanese marketplace,” [her acquaintance] Zurbuchen says, “where she would see women with heavy baskets on their backs who got up at 3 in the morning to walk to the market and sell their produce.” Ann thought the Ford Foundation should get closer to the people and further from the government, just as she had.’ In other words, her programs would subvert the existing government by pretending to take the side of the oppressed masses – just what Soros and the other Wall Street jackals would have desired. Ann’s ‘home became a gathering spot for the powerful and the marginalized: politicians, filmmakers, musicians and labor organizers. “She had, compared with other foundation colleagues, a much more eclectic circle,” Zurbuchen says. “She brought unlikely conversation partners together.”’ These eclectic and bohemian tastes live on in Barry. Time goes on: ‘Ann’s most lasting professional legacy was to help build the microfinance program in Indonesia, which she did from 1988 to ‘92— before the practice of granting tiny loans to credit-poor entrepreneurs was an established success story. Her anthropological research into how real people worked helped inform the policies set by the Bank Rakyat Indonesia, says Patten, an economist who worked there. “I would say her work had a lot to do with the success of the program,” he says. Today Indonesia’s microfinance program is No. 1 in the world in terms of savers, with 31 million members, according to Microfinance Information Exchange Inc., a microfinance-tracking outfit. […] Every so often, Ann would leave Indonesia to live in Hawaii—or New York or even, in the mid-1980s, Pakistan, for a microfinance job.’ (Amanda Ripley, “Raising Obama,” Time, April 21, 2008) As for Barack Obama, his thoughts were elsewhere; he writes that in these years of living in the ethnically diverse atmosphere of Hawaii, “I was too young to know that I needed a race.” (Dreams 27) A strange attitude for a candidate who now poses as being virtually trans-racial and even post-racial. LOLO SOETERO AND INDONESIA: COSMOPOLITANISM AND ANTI-AMERICANISM Obama’s mother Ann then remarried; her second husband was Lolo Soetero Mangunharjo, a student from Indonesia who was also studying at the University of Hawaii. Lolo Soetero later became an official of the Director General’s office in the TNI Topography division of the Indonesian Army, and still later worked as an oil company executive in Indonesia. Soetero was studying in Hawaii under a program sponsored by the Indonesian government. At first the Indonesian government was that of Sukarno, who had led the independence struggle against Dutch colonialism in the 1940s. Sukarno, along with Nkrumah of Ghana, Nasser of Egypt, Tito of Yugoslavia, and Nehru of India had founded the non-aligned movement at the Bandung conference of 1955. This movement was made up of Third World developing countries who refused to subordinate themselves permanently to the United States or the Soviet Union, but who tried to constitute a third way in world affairs during the Cold War era. In 1965, the CIA supported the Indonesian coup d’état of General Suharto, who overthrew the Sukarno regime and initiated a bloody reign of terror which lasted for several years and which 30 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography included the massacre of several hundred thousand Indonesian communists, leftists, and supporters of Sukarno. In 1967, when Soetero’s Indonesian passport was revoked because of political unrest in Indonesia, Ann Dunham and Barack, who was then in first grade, accompanied him back to Jakarta. It appears that Lolo Soetero was called back to Indonesia because as a student he was automatically considered a politically unreliable supporter of the now ousted Sukarno regime. As soon as he returned to Indonesia, Soetero was interrogated by the authorities and then was drafted into the Indonesian army, spending at least a year in military service in New Guinea. Obama lived with his mother and stepfather in Jakarta between 1968 and 1973. Obama attended local schools in Jakarta from ages 6 to 10, where classes were taught in Indonesian. When he was in third grade he wrote an essay saying that he wanted to become president, although he was not sure of what country. ANN DUNHAM: RAGE AGAINST THE UGLY AMERICAN During the time that Lolo was employed in the government relations office of an American oil company, Ann was massively exposed to The Ugly American. Obama tells us: “sometimes I would overhear him and my mother arguing in their bedroom, usually about her refusal to attend his company dinner parties, where American businessmen from Texas and Louisiana would slap Lolo’s back and boast about the palms they had greased to obtain the new offshore drilling rights, while their wives would complain to my mother about the quality of the Indonesian help. He would ask her how it would look for him to go alone, and remind her that these were her own people, and my mother’s voice would rise to almost a shout. They are not my people.” Obama describes his mother during this phase: “in a land where fatalism remained a necessary tool for enduring hardship, where ultimate truths were kept separate from day-to-day realities, she was a lonely witness for secular humanism, a soldier for New Deal, Peace Corps, position-paper liberalism.” (Dreams 47, 50) SENIOR AND LOLO: FAITHFUL TO JOHNNY WALKER, NOT THE KORAN The two third-world men Ann Dunham had chosen to marry had a few things in common: both were nominal Moslems whose devotion to Johnny Walter Black Label scotch whiskey was greater than their devotion to the Koran. Her marriage to Lolo Soetero also ended in divorce, but she remained in Indonesia until her life was almost over; she died in 1995. One witness to Ann Dunham’s life during these years was one of her later professors; this was “Alice Dewey, a granddaughter of the philosopher John Dewey and an emeritus professor of anthropology at the University of Hawaii, who was the chairman of Ann Dunham’s Ph.D. thesis committee and became a close friend over many years.” Alice Dewey told a reporter that ‘Dunham “divorced happily” from Soetero—who died in 1987 of complications from a liver ailment—in part because “he gradually became more and more like a Westerner and she became more and more like a Javanese.” Obama told me he could only laugh at the false press accounts that portray Soetero as some kind of radical Muslim who had sent him to an Islamic school. “I mean, you know, his big thing was Johnny Walker Black, Andy Williams records,” Obama said. “I still remember ‘Moon River.’ He’d be playing it, sipping, and playing tennis at the country club. That was his whole thing. I think their expectations diverged fairly rapidly.” (Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) Ann Dunham, we see, had gone native in Indonesia. The commonality between the two men she married was Islam according to some, but the deeper commonality would appear to have been Johnny Walker, in which they both indulged heavily. After Ann Dunham’s divorce from Lolo Soetero, she went back to live in Hawaii, where she began the graduate study of anthropology. But she then returned to Indonesia to carry out her I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 31 anthropological field work. At this point, Barack Obama, aged about 9, was left with his grandparents. Abandonment by his father was now thus followed by prolonged separation from his mother, leading to unpredictable psychological consequences. If Larry Sinclair’s allegations are accurate, Barack Obama is a closet bisexual, and the resulting potential for the blackmailing of a possible future president is an issue which voters will obviously need to consider very carefully before putting such a person into the White House.7 Alice Dewey further described Obama’s mother as ‘the most hardworking person I maybe ever have met. And did it without seeming to. She was cheerful, down to earth. She absolutely was the kind of person you wanted on your side in any situation, from a barroom brawl to an academic argument, and she was always there for the little guy, particularly the little woman.” For most of the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, she shuttled between Hawaii and Indonesia, doing academic research and paying the bills by teaching English or working for nonprofit organizations such as the Ford Foundation.’ (Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) The Ford Foundation looms large over Obama’s life: it was his mother’s employer, and later the decisive influence over his church in Chicago. ANN DUNHAM’S LATER YEARS: FORD FOUNDATION, US AID, WORLD BANK OPERATIVE Some journalistic accounts have correctly stressed that Ann Dunham in the latter part of her career became a much more important person than is commonly recognized. One reason that she has been underestimated is undoubtedly the attempt by the Obama campaign to make the candidate’s mother appear as bland and conventional as possible. But she was in fact an international civil servant who played a key role in developing the notion of microloans, one of the main tokenist World Bank strategies for parrying the demand for real Third World economic and infrastructural development under the reign of globalization. As Kim Chipman of Bloomberg writes, ‘Barack Obama’s mother was most at home a world away from her Midwest roots, trekking the old Silk Road or arranging small loans for weavers in Indonesia. “I’m so tired of seeing her described as just a white woman from Kansas,” says Bronwen Solyom, 63, who first met Ann Dunham in the 1970s when they were graduate students in anthropology at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu. “She was much more than that.”’ Ann Dunham was also known for her later work as an anthropologist and social activist for Ford Foundation counter-insurgency projects in Indonesia under the reactionary Suharto regime. Chipman notes, ‘Terance Bigalke, who worked with Dunham at the Ford Foundation in Jakarta, says she also fostered social activism in her children through her work on behalf of the world’s poor. “She had such a strong concern for people who were in difficult circumstances economically,” says Bigalke, 59. That concern led her to study the underground economy of Jakarta street vendors.’ Ann Dunham’s interest in anthropology had begun in Indonesia, Chipman found. Her first months in Indonesia “sparked a lifelong passion that later led Dunham to return to Hawaii for graduate studies in anthropology and an 800-page Ph.D. thesis on Indonesian blacksmithing. Her interest in the local culture was aroused almost immediately, when she started teaching English to Indonesians.” In effect, whatever her subjective intentions, Ann Dunham profiled the Indonesian population for the United States Agency for International Development (US AID), the Ford Foundation, the World Bank, all key institutions for dollar imperialism. Chipman shows that Ann Dunham’s interest in anthropology was closely linked to her contributions to imperialist strategy: ‘Friends say Dunham found her calling through her work, which evolved from studying batik and ironwork to obtaining microfinancing for craftspeople, 32 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography especially women, in rural areas of developing countries. “She was a scholar who was one of the first to see about microbanking,” Abercrombie says. In 1986, Dunham did a one-year development project in Pakistan. That year, mother and daughter took a two-week journey along the old Silk Route to China. Dunham’s work for the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan was followed by stints at People’s Bank of Indonesia and Women’s World Banking in New York. She also did consulting work for the World Bank and US AID. “She was getting to pretty high-powered positions, working in world organizations as an expert, but she always liked the people at the bottom.”’ Naturally, any anthropologist doing field work needs to feel or feign a sympathetic interest in people being interviewed, the ethnographic material of the study. This does not mean that the sentiments are always genuine, but the anthropologist will be more effective if they are. According to the Time magazine cover-up cover story in April 2008, Dunham became an important official of the Ford Foundation with special responsibility for women’s and gender issues. Her own track record in serving as a doormat for her first husband, the imperious Obama Senior, would hardly qualify her as a feminist. Dunham’s subjective devotion to third world people was by all indications sincere. ‘In her 40s, Dunham talked about adopting a baby. “She loved kids, and we were taking too long making her a grandmother,” says Maya, noting that her mother never got to meet any of her grandchildren. After seeing a news report about the offspring of children in Korea born to African-American soldiers, she decided that would be the perfect addition to her multiethnic family, Dewey says. Dunham was “very specific about what she wanted,”’ Maya says. Instead, Dunham found herself battling both ovarian and uterine cancer. Until her death, she displayed the unflappable temperament that she passed on to Obama, Dewey says. “She took it in stride,” she says. “She didn’t fuss about it.”’ (Kim Chipman, “Obama Drive Gets Inspiration From His White Mom Born in Kansas,” Bloomberg, February 11, 2008) Obama’s mother thus evokes a stoic or quietist quality which we have seen in her passivity when she was abandoned by her first husband. If, as candidate Obama categorically states in his own book, Ann Dunham represented the decisive influence on his formative years, what can we conclude to be the content of that influence? We have followed Ann Dunham from her youth as a provincial atheist and radical left liberal, through her subsequent phases as a communist sympathizer, Third World enthusiast, anti-racist, anthropologist, and to her final stage as a consultant to the Ford Foundation, US AID, and the World Bank. Is there an invariant to this process? Ann Dunham was certainly concerned about the problems of global poverty and economic underdevelopment, but she appears to have been incapable of understanding which institutions were responsible for holding back mankind’s economic progress. Worse, she ended up by going to work for precisely those institutions. Who then, in her mind, was responsible for underdevelopment? The acerbic but perceptive commentator Spengler of the Asia Times believes that he has discovered the ruling passion of both Ann Dunham and her son Barack Obama, and that this ruling passion is radical anti-Americanism. Spengler’s perspective is doubtless tinged with the cultural and historical pessimism of Mitteleuropa, but his findings nevertheless compel careful attention. Spengler starts by noting that Soetero had been sponsored as a graduate student by one of the most radical of all Third World governments…. When Ann Dunham chose to follow Lolo Soetero to Indonesia in 1967, she brought the six-year-old Barack into the kitchen of anti-colonialist outrage, immediately following one of the worst episodes of civil violence in post-war history. Dunham’s experience in Indonesia provided the material for a doctoral dissertation celebrating the hardiness of local I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 33 cultures against the encroaching metropolis. It was entitled, “Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia: surviving against all odds. In this respect Dunham remained within the mainstream of her discipline. Anthropology broke into popular awareness with Margaret Mead’s long-discredited Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), which offered a falsified ideal of sexual liberation in the South Pacific as an alternative to the supposedly repressive West. Mead’s work was one of the founding documents of the sexual revolution of the 1960s, and anthropology faculties stood at the left-wing fringe of American universities.’ (Spengler, Asia Times, Feb. 26, 2008) It might be more accurate to call this left-wing fringe the postmodern fringe. The specific brand of leftism in play here is once again Rousseau’s doctrine of the noble savage, which unquestionably provides the foundation for the anthropology of the entire 20th century. Rousseau’s argument was that the original sin of human civilization had been to develop beyond the most primitive stage of Paleolithic hunting, gathering, and foraging. The fall from grace occurred with the introduction of village life, metallurgy, and most of all the state, with accompanying notions of property. Rousseau, who had lived in Venice as a secretary to the French ambassador, asserted that it was civilization itself which made human individuals evil and corrupt. The healing of civilization therefore required a return to the reign of the noble savage — meaning in practice the retrogression of civilization back to the old stone age. Margaret Mead’s fake scholarship about the sexual mores of the South Sea Islanders represented a part of this effort to put civilization into reverse gear. Various modern day thinkers, from radical environmentalists to neocon theoreticians like Leo Strauss have also endorsed this notion of turning back the clock of civilized progress: it is a very, very reactionary notion, and would of course imply genocide on an unimaginable scale if ever attempted. Spengler goes on to note: “Barack Obama received at least some instruction in the Islamic faith of his father and went with him to the mosque, but the importance of this experience is vastly overstated by conservative commentators who seek to portray Obama as a Muslim of sorts. Radical anti-Americanism, rather than Islam, was the reigning faith in the Dunham household. In the Muslim world of the 1960s, nationalism rather than radical Islam was the ideology of choice among the enraged. Radical Islam did not emerge as a major political force until the nationalism of a Gamal Abdel Nasser or a Sukarno failed.” It might be more accurate to state that radical Islam was one of several ideological counteroffensives launched by Anglo-American imperialism during the 1950s in order to undercut the vast appeal of Nasser, Sukarno, and the other militant nonaligned leaders. OBAMA: AN ANTHROPOLOGIST PROFILING THE AMERICAN PEOPLE AS ETHNOGRAPHIC MATERIAL Spengler comes to the following chilling conclusion: “Barack Obama is a clever fellow who imbibed hatred of America with his mother’s milk, but worked his way up the elite ladder of education and career. He shares the resentment of Muslims against the encroachment of American culture, although not their religion. He has the empathetic skill set of an anthropologist who lives with his subjects, learns their language, and elicits their hopes and fears while remaining at emotional distance. That is, he is the political equivalent of a sociopath. The difference is that he is practicing not on a primitive tribe but on the population of the United States.” (Spengler, Asia Times, Feb. 26, 2008) 34 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography It is in this context that we should interpret the following comment from Ann Dunham’s former anthropology professor, Alice Dewey. ‘“It’s too bad she’s not here,” Alice Dewey says. “She’d be saying, with a little chuckle, ‘Here’s one of our own’ and ‘He’s going to show them.’” (Kim Chipman, “Obama Drive Gets Inspiration From His White Mom Born in Kansas,” Bloomberg, February 11, 2008) This raises the question of a possible future president who would be animated by a resentment of or even hatred towards the American people, or at least towards the blue-collar or white lower middle-class sectors of the American people, the ones most frequently accused by wealthy elitists of harboring racial prejudice. Obama may indeed harbor such feelings of hatred or resentment. It does no good to object that Obama does not propose an explicit program of using austerity and sacrifice (as demanded by the Trilateral financier oligarchy) as a means for punishing blue-collar American and the white working poor for their alleged racist crimes; Obama is much too slick an operator to make any such admissions. If anything, it is Jeremiah Wright who has already made the admissions for him. Obama approaches his task of campaigning with the cynical and manipulative detachment of an anthropologist carrying out field work among some old stone age people, like the Yanomami Indians: he is treating the American people as ethnographic material in the great Trilateral experiment of depression crisis management, and the results will be horrifying. “HE’S GOING TO SHOW THEM” Precisely what is it, we must ask, that Obama is going to show the American people if he should succeed in taking power? Will he proceed to act out the deeply felt resentments of his mother against American society? Will he exact revenge for the racial slights and humiliations which he believes he has undergone? It was during his time in Indonesia that young Barack Obama underwent a dramatic experience which helped to establish the primacy of race and racial identity in his thinking. (Dreams 51 ff.) He was at the time nine years old, and his mother was working at the US Embassy in Jakarta. While sitting in an office waiting for his mother, young Obama was looking through some issues of Life magazine. Here he found an article which he says he experienced as an “ambush attack.” The article described the plight of a black man who had decided to use a harsh chemical treatment in order to lighten the color of his skin. Obama says he was horrified to see a picture of the man, whose skin had been flayed off by the chemicals, leaving him scarred and disfigured. ‘“I imagine other black children, then and now, undergoing similar moments of revelation,” Obama later wrote. According to a recent magazine article, Obama’s account cannot be taken at face value because ‘no such photo exists, according to historians at [Life] magazine. No such photos, no such article. When asked about the discrepancy, Obama said in a recent interview, “It might have been in Ebony or it might have been ... who knows what it was?” (At the request of the Chicago Tribune, archivists at Ebony searched their catalogue of past articles, none of which matched what Obama recalled.) In fact, it is surprising, based on interviews with more than two dozen people who knew Obama during his nearly four years in Indonesia, that it would take a photograph in a magazine to make him conscious of the fact that some people might treat him differently in part because of the color of his skin.’ (Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) Perhaps Obama is bending the facts in order to document what he considers to be his own growth in personal awareness from a relative indifference to racial matters to race and racial identity as a central concern, which he obviously believed by 1995 — perhaps under the influence of such race theoreticians as the Reverend Jeremiah Wright — to represent a superior level of awareness. Obama’s mother Ann Dunham died in 1995 of ovarian cancer, a few months after the publication of Dreams from My Father. I. Obama’s Roots in Polygamy and the Ford Foundation 35 OBAMA AND ISLAM Because Obama’s biological father and stepfather were both at least nominally Moslems, and because Obama attended Moslem schools for at least part of the time that he lived in Indonesia, a controversy has arisen due to the accusation by right-wing commentators that Obama remains a crypto-Moslem. In an attempt to answer this drumbeat, on January 24, 2007, the Obama campaign released the following statement: “To be clear, Senator Obama has never been a Muslim, was not raised a Muslim, and is a committed Christian who attends the United Church of Christ in Chicago.” But this seemed to dodge the issue of Obama’s attendance at the Moslem schools in Indonesia. On March 14th, 2007, the Obama campaign offered this statement to correct their previous statement: “Obama has never been a practicing Muslim.” The statement added that as a child, Obama had spent time in the neighborhood Islamic center during his stay in Jakarta. In his book Dreams from My Father, Obama talks of studying the Quran and describes the public school as “a Muslim school.” (See Dreams) The testimony of Obama’s half-sister is also relevant: “My whole family was Muslim, and most of the people I knew were Muslim,” said Maya Soetoro-Ng, Mr. Obama’s younger half sister. But Mr. Obama attended a Catholic school and then a Muslim public school….” (New York Times, April 30, 2007) Tine Hahiyary was one of Obama’s teachers and the principal of the school he attended in Indonesia from 1971 through 1989, and has testified that Obama attended Islamic religious training during his time at the school. His teacher was named Maimunah and she resided in the Puncak area, the Cianjur Regency. “I remembered that he had studied mengaji” (or mengagi, meaning rote recitation of the Quran), Tine reported.8 Obama himself writes that “In the Muslim school, the teacher wrote to tell mother I made faces during Koranic studies.” (See Dreams) A blogger from Jakarta has written more recently that ‘The actual usage of the word ‘mengaji’ in Indonesian and Malaysian societies means the study of learning to recite the Quran in the Arabic language rather than the native tongue. ‘Mengagi’ is a word and a term that is accorded the highest value and status in the mindset of fundamentalist societies here in Southeast Asia. To put it quite simply, ‘mengaji classes’ are not something that a non-practicing or so-called moderate Muslim family would ever send their child to. To put this in a Christian context, this is something above and beyond simply enrolling your child in Sunday school classes. The fact that Obama had attended mengaji classes is well-known in Indonesia and has left many there wondering just when Obama is going to come out of the closet.” In another internet report posted in 2007, Obama’s classmate Rony Amiris, now a manager of the Bank Mandiri in Jakarta, describes him as being a devout Muslim. “Barry was previously quite religious in Islam,” Amiris recalled. “We previously often asked him to the prayer room close to the house. If he was wearing a sarong he looked funny,” added Rony. In 2007, Emirsyah Satar, CEO of Garuda Indonesia, stated in an internet interview: “He [Obama] was often in the prayer room wearing a sarong, at that time.”9 A blogger calling himself American Expat in Southeast Asia, who says he has lived in Indonesia for some 20 years, has written on that “Barack Hussein Obama might have convinced some Americans that he is no longer a Muslim, but so far he has not convinced many in the world’s most populous Muslim country who still see him as a Muslim and a crusader for Islam and world peace. Barack Hussein Obama’s race, his staunch opposition to the war in Iraq, his sympathy to Islam and Muslims worldwide and his Muslim heritage receive Indonesian media coverage. There is no mention of his apostasy.”10 Mussolini, as part of his propaganda towards the Moslems of North Africa and the Middle East, described himself once as holding a Bible in one hand and a Koran in the other. Napoleon did the 36 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography same. Hitler appealed to Moslems living under British rule from Egypt to Afghanistan by dropping hints that he was either sympathetic to Islam or else actually a Moslem, and many Moslems were either flattered by these references or actually believed them. Mussolini and Hitler were in reality atheists. OBAMA’S SIBLINGS: NINE CHANCES FOR A NEW BILLY CARTER OR NEIL BUSH The siblings of sitting presidents have often been a source of corruption and scandal. Dwight Eisenhower was lucky in that his brother Milton was eminently respectable and served as the president of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. But Richard Nixon had much trouble with his brother Donald. Bill Clinton was embarrassed by his brother Roger, and this has also been the lot of Hillary Clinton in regard to her brother Hugh. George Bush the elder harvested negative publicity from the cooperation of his brother Prescott Bush Jr. with Japanese organized crime figures. A famous presidential brother implicated in criminal or unethical activity was Billy Carter, who accepted large bribes from the government of Libya. Most damaging of all to the taxpayers has been Neil Bush, the younger brother of the current tenant of the White House, whose role in the bankruptcy of Silverado Savings and Loan cost the Resolution Trust Corporation upwards of $3 billion. Neil Bush was also scheduled to meet with Scott Hinckley, the elder brother of purported lone assassin John Hinckley Jr., on the day after John Hinckley opened fire on President Reagan. (See Tarpley, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography, 1992) But all of this pales in comparison with the nepotism, graft and corruption we are likely to witness in an Obama presidency. Obama has an estimated total of 9 siblings, all half brothers and half sisters. One who has appeared in his campaign is Maya Sotero-Ng, a daughter of Ann Dunham and Lolo Soetero. The offspring of Barack Hussein Obama Senior are thought to number eight in all, by three mothers in addition to Ann Dunham. CHAPTER II: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY AND RECRUITMENT BY ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI … the intelligence community has deposited provocateurs in at least some of our schools so that the conditions necessary for learning have been, through the ensuing turmoil, destroyed. – Vincent J. Salandria, 1971. Obama was fortunate enough to enjoy some very special educational opportunities. These opportunities were not due to any special intellectual ability or capacity for hard work on the part of our future candidate. They were rather due to the fact that his mother by now had become an important operative for the Ford Foundation, and the foundation community takes care of its own because of the obvious advantages of recruiting from households in which the oligarchical, multicultural, and postmodern values of the foundation world are assumed as axiomatic. Obama’s mother and grandparents clearly did everything they could to advance his upward mobility through schooling, and this paid off when he was accepted into the most exclusive prep school in Hawaii. Because of Obama’s much-advertised racial identity, there can also be no doubt that preferential admissions for minorities based on affirmative action must also have played a significant role. Obama is therefore not the product of a meritocracy or a career open to talents; he is rather the fruit of special treatment meted out under the aegis of minority quotas favored by the foundation world as the keystone of their strategy for keeping the American people so fragmented as to perpetuate oligarchical financier rule. If we need to generalize about Obama, we can say that his hardware was provided by the Ford Foundation and its various lesser foundation satellites, while his software was added later through his association with the Trilateral Commission and the Bilderberger Group in the person of Zbigniew Brzezinski, the evil genius of the Jimmy Carter administration of 1977- 1981. To these phases of Obama’s story we now turn. ELITIST PREPPY AT THE PUNAHOU SCHOOL OF HAWAII When Obama was ten years old, his mother Ann sent him back to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents so he could attend the prestigious Punahou School, an elite and exclusive prep school whose alumni also include America Online founder Steve Case: ‘“Ann saw first of all that he was so bright that he needed to come and really be challenged by a good school,” says Benji Bennington, 73, the retired curator of the East-West Center at the University of Hawaii. Dunham also hoped that “maybe he’d meet a few blacks while here, because he was not meeting them in Jakarta.” The family was reunited about a year later when Dunham separated from Soetero and returned to Honolulu for graduate school.’ “He was very much the patriarch as a young person,” says sister Maya. “Our mother was incredibly strong but also incredibly sensitive. She would cry easily. He was always protective of her.” When Dunham moved back to Jakarta for her anthropology field work, Barack saw his mother and half-sister only for Christmas and summer break.’ (Kim Chipman, Bloomberg, op. cit.) Obama entered the fifth grade at Punahou and stayed there until he graduated from high school with honors in 1979. He reports that he was one of three black students at the school, although there were many Asians and Pacific islanders. Obama’s Dreams from My Father provides incidents of Obama’s feeling of racial humiliation while attending this school and chronicles his embrace of a specific black or African-American racial identity as a matter of his own deliberate and conscious choice. This path of development may be compared with Hitler’s discovery of his own Germanic 38 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography racial identity which forms an important part of Mein Kampf. There is, however, some question as to whether Obama’s account of his repeated racial mortification by racist or thoughtless whites is accurate, or whether it represents a fictitious construct designed to bolster his credibility for his later career in Chicago as a black identity politician. Obama was on the basketball team at Punahou and seems to have enjoyed some prestige. Some accounts report that, while he was a student in the late 1970s, he carved his name in the pavement outside the cafeteria of Punahou School. These graffiti reportedly read: “King Obama.” Here begins Obama’s intense, consuming preoccupation with race, the great central issue of his subsequent life, in spite of what he now says. He learns about the imperative of race from a black friend named Ray: “Our rage at the white world needed no object, he seemed to be telling me, no independent confirmation; it could be switched on and off at our pleasure.” (Dreams 81) Obama experiences this assumption of a racial identity as a narrowing and constriction of the spirit of his own personality which he is nonetheless driven to accept: “following this maddening logic, the only thing you could choose as your own was withdrawal into a smaller and smaller coil of rage, until being black meant only the knowledge of your own powerlessness, of your own defeat. And the final irony: should you refuse this defeat and lash out at your captors, they would have a name for that too, a name that could cage you just as good. Paranoid. Militant. Violent. N****r.” (Dreams 85) During one phase, Obama became intensely preoccupied with the literary expression of his own situation as found in the works of such writers as James Baldwin, Ralph Ellison, Langston Hughes, Richard Wright, W.E.B. DuBois, and Malcolm X. All but the last of this number, he judged, had been consumed by anguish, doubt, and self-contempt. Almost all of them had “eventually succumbed to its corrosive force,” and these had ended up as “exhausted, bitter men, the devil at their heels.” (Dreams 86) Malcolm X, Obama found, was better and stronger: “even as I imagined myself following Malcolm’s call, one line in the book stayed with me. He spoke of a wish he’d once had, the wish that the white blood that ran through him, there by an act of violence, might somehow be expunged. I know that, for Malcolm, that wish would never be incidental.” (Dreams 86) The Daily Mail stresses Obama’s later account of racial humiliation at Punahou: ‘…while there, says Mr Obama, he was tortured by fellow pupils – who let out monkey hoots – and turned into a disenchanted teenage rebel, experimenting with cocaine and marijuana. Even his grandparents were troubled by dark skin, he says in his book, recalling how once his grandmother complained about being pestered by a beggar. “You know why she’s so scared?” he recalls his grandfather saying. “She told me the fella was black.” Mr Obama says his soaring ‘dream’ of a better America grew out of his ‘hurt and pain.’ This is the incident Obama referred to later in his Philadelphia speech on racism of March 2008, after the first phase of the Jeremiah Wright scandal had exploded. The British reporters doubt that this was the real story: ‘“Friends, however, remember his time at school rather differently. He was a spoiled high-achiever, they recall, who seemed as fond of his grandparents as they were of him. He affectionately signed a school photo of himself to them, using their pet names, Tut and Gramps. The caption says: “Thanks... for all the good times.” He worked on the school’s literary magazine and wore a white suit, of the style popular with New York writers like Tom Wolf at the time. One of his former classmates, Alan Lum, said: “Hawaii is such a melting pot that it didn’t occur to me when we were growing up that he might have problems about being one of the few African-Americans at the school. Us kids didn’t see colour. He was easy-going and well-liked.” Lon Wysard, who also attended the academy, said the budding politician was in fact II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 39 idolised for his keen sportsmanship. “He was the star basketball player and always had a ball in his hand wherever he was,” Wysard recalled.’ (London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) OBAMA AS EXISTENTIALIST POET One of Obama’s classmates and friends during this time was Keith “Ray” Kakugawa, who later observed that “Barry’s biggest struggles then were missing his parents. His biggest struggles were his feelings of abandonment.” Ray later went deeply into the drug culture and served three years in prison because of illegal narcotics, emerging as homeless in the spring of 2007. A window into the mentality of the youthful Obama is available in the form of a short poem he wrote during these years, and which is quoted by Purdum in Vanity Fair. Purdum reports that Obama ‘immersed himself in the writings of James Baldwin, Ralph Ellison, Langston Hughes, and Malcolm X, only to find the same anguish, the same self-doubt, a self-contempt that neither irony nor intellect seemed able to deflect,” as he did in this poem for the school literary magazine, Ka Wai Ola: I saw an old, forgotten man On an old, forgotten road. Staggering and numb under the glare of the Spotlight. His eyes, so dull and grey, Slide from right to left, to right, Looking for his life, misplaced in a Shallow, muddy gutter long ago. I am found, instead. Seeking a hiding place, the night seals us together. A transient spark lights his face, and in my honor, He pulls out forgotten dignity from under his flaking coat, And walks a straight line along the crooked world. When I mentioned the poem to Obama, he at first had no memory of it. After I read it to him, he said, “That’s not bad. I wrote that in high school? You know, it sounds in spirit that it’s talking a little bit about my grandfather.”’ (Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) Based on this evidence, Obama was most likely a typical teenage existentialist, preoccupied above all with his own feeling states, self-doubt, and pessimism. It is curious that he cannot remember a statement as personal as this, even when shown it years later. Is Obama’s memory still intact? And if not, why not? A whole range of possibilities, from drug abuse to early onset Alzheimer’s to simple prevarication need to be considered. HAWAII CPUSA CELL: FRANK MARSHALL DAVIS During Obama’s high school years in Hawaii, he came into close contact with an older black man whom he described in his memoir as Frank. This turns out to be one Frank Marshall Davis, a devoted long-term member of the Communist Party of the United States. Marshall had moved to Honolulu from Kansas in 1948; according to the pro-communist history Professor Gerald Horne of the University of Houston, Davis made the move “at the suggestion of his good friend Paul Robeson,” the well-known black singer and actor who was also a CPUSA member. Both Davis and Robeson were from Chicago, and this may have something to do with Obama’s later decision to move there. ‘As Horne describes it, Davis “befriended” a “Euro-American family” that had “migrated to Honolulu from Kansas and a young woman from this family eventually had a child with a young student from Kenya East Africa who goes by the name of Barack Obama, who 40 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography retracing the steps of Davis eventually decamped to Chicago.” (Cliff Kincaid, “Obama’s Communist Mentor,” Accuracy in Media, February 18, 2008) Obama’s association with a prominent Communist furnished the basis for the charge made against Obama by Allen Keyes during the Senate campaign of 2004 that he was a “hard-core academic Marxist.” Frank Marshall Davis was publicly identified as a member of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA). Obama was almost like a son to Davis, listening to his poetry and hanging on each word of his advice. Davis, along with some other older black men, appear to have constituted a sort of CPUSA cell or sleeper cell in Hawaii. Obama was taken to visit them in his early teens by his grandfather, Stanley Dunham. Davis was a part of this now-informal group. Frank Marshall Davis was mentioned in the 1951 report of the Commission on Subversive Activities to the Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii as a CPUSA member. The House Un- American Activities Committee (HUAC) accused Davis of involvement in several communist-front organizations. The identification of Obama’s “Frank” as Frank Marshall Davis is confirmed by Trevor Loudon, a New Zealand libertarian activist, researcher and blogger in a posting of March 2007. Obama writes that he knew “a poet named Frank” who was a purveyor of “hard-earned knowledge,” and advice. Frank had had “some modest notoriety once,” and was “a contemporary of Richard Wright and Langston Hughes during his years in Chicago...,” Frank was now “pushing eighty.” Obama was impressed that “Frank and his old Black Power dashiki self” gave him advice before he left Hawaii for Occidental College in 1979, when Obama was 18. Davis has been seen by some critics as a precursor to Maya Angelou and Alice Walker. There is at least one book-length study of Davis entitled Black Moods: Collected Poems of Frank Marshall Davis by John Edgar Tidwell, a professor at the University of Kansas. In his review of Tidwell’s study published in the summer/fall 2003 issue of African-American Review, James A. Miller of George Washington University comments: “In Davis’s case, his political commitments led him to join the American Communist Party during the middle of World War II – even though he never publicly admitted his Party membership.” Tidwell is an expert on the life and writings of Davis. The decrepit intellectual periphery of the CPUSA has been notably stirred up by Obama’s candidacy, doubtless in part because of Davis. Professor Horne, who is a contributing editor of the Communist Party journal Political Affairs, mentioned the Obama-David connection in March 2007 at the Communist Party USA archives at the Tamiment Library at New York University; Horne’s talk was entitled “Rethinking the History and Future of the Communist Party.” Davis also figures prominently in The New Red Negro: The Literary Left and African-American Poetry, 1930-1946 by James Edward Smethurst, associate professor of Afro-American studies at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Here Davis appears as a black writer who remained loyal to the CPUSA even after Stalin’s infamous Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact with Hitler, at a time when other black intellectuals like Richard Wright broke with the CPUSA line. For Frank Marshall Davis, communism was the god that did not fail. But what was Frank’s understanding of communism? Obama writes in Dreams from My Father that he saw “Frank” only a few days before he left Hawaii for college, and that Davis seemed just as radical as ever. Davis called college “an advanced degree in compromise” and warned Obama not to forget his “people” and not to “start believing what they tell you about equal opportunity and the American way and all that s**t.” Davis also complained about foot problems, the result of “trying to force African feet into European shoes,” Obama wrote. Horne gloated that the Obama-Davis connection will emerge as a theme of wide study in the near future. Horne says that Obama’s giving credit to Davis will be important in history. “At some point in the future, a teacher will add to her syllabus Barack’s memoir and II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 41 instruct her students to read it alongside Frank Marshall Davis’ equally affecting memoir, Living the Blues and when that day comes, I’m sure a future student will not only examine critically the Frankenstein monsters that US imperialism created in order to subdue Communist parties but will also be moved to come to this historic and wonderful archive in order to gain insight on what has befallen this complex and intriguing planet on which we reside,” he said. Dr. Kathryn Takara, a professor of Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa agrees that Davis is the “Frank” in Obama’s book. Takara wrote her dissertation on Davis and interviewed him frequently between 1972 and 1987, before Davis died. Takara concludes that Davis demonstrated “an acute sense of race relations and class struggle throughout America and the world.” For her, Davis was a “socialist realist.” Davis had been urged by Paul Robeson and Harry Bridges, the pro-CPUSA head of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), to become a columnist for the Honolulu Record where he could work to advance the communist cause. Takara sums up Davis’s program at that time as “freedom, radicalism, solidarity, labor unions, due process, peace, affirmative action, civil rights, Negro History week, and true Democracy to fight imperialism, colonialism, and white supremacy. He urged coalition politics.” COMMUNIST PARTY USA: OBAMA IS MARX’S OLD MOLE OF REVOLUTION To advance this ideological Walpurgisnacht to an even more monstrous level, the CPUSA organ, People’s World Weekly, recently published a letter from CPUSA supporter Frank Chapman gloating over Obama’s victory in the Iowa caucuses. Chapman commented: “Obama’s victory was more than a progressive move; it was a dialectical leap ushering in a qualitatively new era of struggle. … Marx once compared revolutionary struggle with the work of the mole, who sometimes burrows so far beneath the ground that he leaves no trace of his movement on the surface. This is the old revolutionary ‘mole,’ not only showing his traces on the surface but also breaking through.” (Cliff Kincaid, “Obama’s Communist Mentor,” Accuracy in Media, February 18, 2008) The CPUSA has formally endorsed Obama for the presidency. Obama may well have learned a lot more from Davis than dialectical materialism. There are indications scattered across the internet that Davis was bisexual. Officially he was married to Helen Canfield David of Chicago, reportedly a woman of some social standing.11 If Obama’s mentor of those years in fact had homosexual proclivities, this would be significant in explaining the later bisexual features of Obama’s life. Shortly before leaving Hawaii to go to Occidental College, Obama experiences one of his many racial epiphanies when he learns that his grandmother Toot has been frightened in the street by a black man whom she suspects of being a mugger. Obama recounts that when he heard of this incident, “the words were like a fist in my stomach, and I wobbled to regain my composure. In my steadiest voice, I told [Gramps] that such an attitude bothered me, too, but assured him that Toot’s fears would pass and that we should give her a ride in the meantime. […] after they left, I sat on the edge of my bed and thought about my grandparents. They had sacrificed again and again for me. They had poured all their lingering hopes into my success. Never had they given me reason to doubt their love; I doubted if they ever would. And yet I knew that men who might easily have been my brothers could still inspire their rawest fears.” (Dreams 89) When it comes to matters of race, we have already learned that Obama is jumpy as an eyeball, and here his racial hypersensitivity is displayed once again. In recent years, we have had many illustrious representatives of the American black community come forward to acknowledge that they, too, are sometimes uneasy when they are approached by aggressive black panhandlers in the streets. 42 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography Obama, by contrast, continues to be so obsessed with this trifling incident that he included it in his notorious Philadelphia speech on race of March 18, 2008, where he compared the fears of a woman in late middle age with the violent invectives of the foundation-funded racist provocateur Jeremiah Wright. When it comes to matters of race, Obama clearly loses all sense of reality and proportions, and there is no reason to assume that anything whatsoever has changed in this regard. “FRANK” – MARXIST OR GAY EXISTENTIALIST? If Frank Marshall David had been a thorough Marxist, that would already have been bad enough. Karl Marx, as I have shown in Surviving the Cataclysm, was in most respects a kept ideologue of British intelligence, sponsored by David Urquhardt of the British Foreign Office, with a mission of fomenting destabilization by pitting workers against industrialists in continental Europe, and with a secondary task of whipping up sentiment against Russia. Like Mazzini the ultra-nationalist and Bakunin the hyper-anarchist, Marx the apostle of plebeian revolution was a prong of an ideological deployment by British intelligence to divide and conquer the main rivals of the British Empire. In an age when the oppressive dominion of the British Empire, then at the apogee of its power, was the leading reactionary political fact in the world, Marx chose to ignore that fact almost completely, and focus almost entirely on the opportunities for conflict that were emerging during the process of industrialization in the countries the British did not yet completely control. Marx, in other words, had a permanent blind spot when it came to the mixture of Whig Venetian party aristocrats and financiers who populated the City of London, and this blind spot lives on in his followers today. Still, Marx as a serious charlatan does reject Malthus, and does admit that economic science must face the problem of social reproduction, something that cruder charlatans like Malthus and Adam Smith are not willing to address. There is every reason to believe that Frank Marshal Davis imbibed the major negative aspects of Marx without absorbing the minor positive ones. “Frank” was almost certainly a member of the Communist Party USA. But the quality of his assimilation of Marxism is quite another matter. The level of Marxist theoretical development in the CPUSA was notoriously very low. The lack of theory in the old CPUSA was one of the factors that made it so easy for the FBI to infiltrate it to the point of becoming a majority. Especially when it came to recruiting in the black community, the CPUSA was infamously opportunistic, always ready to jettison dialectical materialism when it appeared possible to recruit some new members on the basis of resistance to white racism. Based on what he says, Frank is not interested in proletarian internationalism in the struggle against world imperialism. He thinks that white people cannot understand his experiences as an oppressed black man. He rejects the unity of world history. Frank has nothing to do with Marxism. He is already a black cultural nationalist, with hardly a veneer of Marxist phraseology. Frank is more of an existentialist than a Marxist himself. Immediately after the incident just reported, Obama narrates that he went to visit Frank Marshall Davis. From Davis, Obama received quantities of whiskey accompanied by a lecture on the incommunicability of race-based experience to persons on the other side of the color line, namely Obama’s grandparents, the “white folk.” Frank tells Obama that his grandfather is basically a good man but that the black experience for Gramps is a book sealed with seven seals: “He can’t know me,” says the communist Frank, “not the way I know him. Maybe some of these Hawaiians can, or the Indians on the reservation. They’ve seen their fathers humiliated. Their mothers desecrated. But your grandfather will never know what that feels like.” (Dreams 90) Frank concludes: “what I’m trying to tell you is, your grandma’s right to be scared. She’s at least as right as Stanley is. She understands that black people have a reason to hate. That’s just how it is. For your sake, I wish it were otherwise. But it’s not. So you might as well get used to it.” (Dreams 91) II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 43 OBAMA AS RACE-BASED EXISTENTIALIST: “UTTERLY ALONE” By all indications, this is the experience which made Obama not only a confirmed racialist ideologue, but also a thoroughgoing existentialist in the tradition of Heidegger and Jaspers. Obama recounts the moment thus: “The earth shook under my feet, ready to crack open at any moment. I stopped, trying to steady myself and knew for the first time that I was utterly alone.” (Dreams 91) This experience is of vital importance for understanding the mentality of the adult Obama. If Obama had been taught Marxism by Frank Marshall Davis, he would at this point say that he had decided to submerge his own existence in the greater reality of the march of class struggle through history. But he does not say that he is part of the vanguard of millions of workers. He says rather that he is absolutely, metaphysically alone. The finding here is that Obama was by this point a convinced existentialist, and that Obama’s embrace of existentialism, the point of view which pervades so much of Dreams, gave him the prerequisites for becoming a full-fledged disciple of Frantz Fanon, an implacable enemy of Western civilization, proto-fascist, an apostle of purgative violence in the Sorel-Mussolini tradition. Obama spent years wallowing in existentialist self-pity. Obama’s eager embrace of the existentialist world outlook provided some of the indispensable preconditions for his current career as a mob orator. It has equipped him to write his speeches out of a bag of alienation, despair, and absolute metaphysical loneliness, appealing with some semblance of pathos to the desire of his target audiences for community, hope, and change. At the same time, however, Obama’s existentialism has provided him with his own personal path to fascism. Many American readers may be surprised at the idea that existentialism is somehow connected to fascism, or can serve as an immediate prelude to fascism. This is probably because of the popular identification in this country of existentialism with such French writers as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, both of whom were at pains to make a show of having supported the resistance against the Nazi occupation of their country. Later research has raised doubts about how much Sartre ever did to oppose the Nazis. Sartre was a disciple of Heidegger who took part for a while in a literary group with anti-occupation overtones, but this group, called Socialisme et liberté, “soon dissolved and Sartre decided to write, instead of being involved in active resistance. He then wrote Being and Nothingness, The Flies and No Exit, none of which was censored by the Germans, and also contributed to both legal and illegal literary magazines….the French philosopher and resistant Vladimir Jankelevitch criticized Sartre’s lack of political commitment during the German occupation, and interpreted his further struggles for liberty as an attempt to redeem himself.” (Wikipedia) (Obama clearly knows the French existentialists.) We must remember that Sartre and Camus represent lesser gods in the international existentialist pantheon which is actually presided over by Martin Heidegger. Heidegger was a full throated, cardcarrying member of the National Socialist party who delivered a public paean to Hitler in the form of his inaugural address as rector of the University of Freiburg. It is in this speech that Heidegger made the comment that the decision in favor of National Socialism had already been made by the youngest part of the German nation, thereby validating the fascist myth that it is youth and youth alone who are the arbiters of the political destinies of great nations — an absurd fiction which echoes through the empty vessels of the Obama lemming legions. In Obama, we see the intimate epistemological and ethical proximity of existentialism and fascism which is exemplified by Heidegger, the world’s leading existentialist thinker and a Nazi at the same time. 44 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography EXISTENTIALISM AS ANTECHAMBER TO FASCISM The Hungarian Marxist philosopher Georg Lukacs has provided the most detailed study of the ideological precursors of fascism and National Socialism in his 1952 book Die Zerstörung der Vernunft (The Destruction of Reason). Lukacs’ summary of the existentialists Heidegger and Jaspers, both much touted by US and British philosophy departments, may give us some insights into Obama’s mentality today. Lukacs sums up: “The philosophy of Jaspers as well as that of Heidegger concludes without any achievements but nevertheless with extremely important social consequences. Heidegger and Jaspers take extremely individualistic, petty bourgeois-aristocratic relativism and irrationalism to their most extreme consequences. They end up in the ice age, at the North Pole, in a world which has become empty, a senseless chaos, nothingness as the surroundings of humanity; and their despair about themselves, about their incorrigible loneliness is the inner content of their philosophy. […] Through this, the general mood of despair in broad layers of the German bourgeoisie and above all of the intelligentsia was exacerbated, while possible tendencies towards protest were discouraged, and the aggressive reactionaries received through this a significant assistance.” (Lukacs 457) If fascism was able to educate wide sectors of the German intelligentsia into a more than benevolent neutrality, no small amount of the credit was due to the philosophy of Heidegger and Jaspers.” In the same way that existentialism helped to open the door for fascism in central Europe, we can see that existentialism served as a kind of prelude to further fascist developments in Obama’s own mental life. Lukacs is especially interested in the role of despair in fascist ideology, both before and after 1945. Lukacs writes: “The mere word ‘despair’ as content of this ideology is not enough to explain it, because we have seen that Heidegger’s despair was actually a direct preparation for Hitlerism. […] We are dealing here with something different with something greater and something more concrete. It is not just general despair about all human activity; just despair has led thinkers from Schopenhauer to Heidegger into the reactionary camp or at least into collaboration with the reactionaries. [Post-1945 existentialists] are not only in despair about things in general; their doubts and their despair are directed above all against those glad tidings which they are supposed to be proclaiming, namely the defense of the ‘free world,’” understood as the Anglo-American sphere of world power.” (Lukacs 704) For Lukacs, the pre-1945 fascists displayed cynical nihilism, while the post-1945 fascists have been characterized by cynical hypocrisy. This is a shoe that may well fit Obama. We are arguing, in other words, that Obama’s embrace of the philosophy of academic postmodernism has constituted an important stage in his development towards fascism. The postmodernism of which we speak has of course been the dominant intellectual outlook among most college and university faculties since about the 1970s. Intellectually speaking, it is a thin and unappetizing gruel, suitable for crabbed little people operating in a phase of imperialist decline. The starting point of postmodernism is the despair, disorientation, demoralization, and defeatism which emerged from the collapse of the positive social movements of the 1960s. From its very beginning, postmodernism has been much more interested in race and gender than in class. Postmodernism is an unsavory stew of existentialism, structuralism, deconstructionism, anthropological relativism, and Malthusianism, all thrown together in the cauldron of historical pessimism and cultural pessimism. The aspect of relativism has been especially important for the rejection and destruction of classical culture with its indispensable notions of human reason, human freedom, human greatness, and the heroic sense of the world historical individual. Instead, the drawings of patients in mental institutions are placed on the same plane as the works of Leonardo and Rafael, and Athens and Florence are compared unfavorably to hunting and gathering societies II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 45 where cannibalism and infanticide proliferate. Postmodernism is the creed of the morally insane. A thoroughgoing postmodernist (or “postie”) must axiomatically reject any notion of objective reality; postmodernism when challenged beats a hasty retreat into a dream world of myth, metaphor, and archetype. Postmodernism gets its philosophical underpinnings most of all from Nietzsche and the other exponents of what the academics like to call “Continental philosophy,” so as to avoid talking about the strong fascist overtones of many of these thinkers. The latent fascist potentialities of present day academic postmodernism are immense, and have only been waiting behind masks of cynicism and apathy for the appearance of an appropriate demagogue to mobilize them into the obvious forms of frenetic sociopathic activism. FRANK WARNS OBAMA HE IS ABOUT TO BE RECRUITED Before leaving for Occidental College, Obama visits Frank one last time to get his advice, somewhat on the model of Laertes going to Polonius in Hamlet. Frank tells Obama that college represents “an advanced degree in compromise.” Frank explains that Obama has to understand the “real price of admission.” The real price is “leaving your race at the door. Leaving your people behind. Understand something, boy. You’re not going to college to get educated. You’re going there to get trained. They’ll train you to want what you don’t need. They’ll train you to manipulate words so they don’t mean anything anymore. They’ll train you to forget what it is that you already know. They’ll train you so good, you’ll start believing what they tell you about equal opportunity and the American way and all that s**t. They’ll give you a corner office and invite you to fancy dinners, and tell you you’re a credit to your race. Until you want to actually start running things and then they’ll yank on your chain and let you know that you may be a well-trained, well paid n****r, but you’re a n****r just the same.” (Dreams 97) This is one of the most illuminating passages in Obama’s personal memoir. He is in effect confessing to the reader what is about to happen to him at Occidental College and above all with his encounter with Zbigniew Brzezinski at Columbia University: to become a wholly-owned asset and career sponsored by the networks of the Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberger group, and the Council on Foreign Relations. Obama describes a process of training and indoctrination so thorough that it needs to be described as brainwashing. The personal identity of the individual is largely erased, resulting in a kind of automaton or zombie. Obama has now passed beyond the stage of brainwashing into the phase of spouting slogans to get ahead. He knows that what awaits him is a phase of nominal authority masking the reality of his role of abject puppet and stooge of his masters. This chapter might be subtitled “The Confessions of St. Barack,” since he gives us a thumbnail sketch of his life, past, present, and future. This extraordinary revelation of the real nature and basis of Obama’s career is of course a potential source of immense embarrassment, so it must have taken a compulsive urge to impel Obama to include it in the published text. This elementary lack of prudence illustrates another aspect of Obama’s existentialism and fatalism: powerful, sincere emotions acquire for the existentialist a validity and justification which cannot be questioned, no matter how irrational and sociopathic those sincere emotions may be. OCCIDENTAL COLLEGE: BONG HITS FOR FANON Obama has conceded that he had made “some bad decisions” as a teenager involving drugs and drinking; this admission was made in a talk to high school students in New Hampshire in November 2007. The adulatory Vanity Fair profile attempts to make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear by congratulating Obama on his frankness in admitting his systematic drug use. Here we read: “Mr. 46 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography Obama’s admissions are rare for a politician (his book, Dreams from My Father, was written before he ran for office.) They briefly became a campaign issue in December when an adviser to Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton, Mr. Obama’s chief Democratic rival, suggested that his history with drugs would make him vulnerable to Republican attacks if he became his party’s nominee. Mr. Obama, of Illinois, has never quantified his illicit drug use or provided many details. He wrote about his two years at Occidental, a predominantly white liberal arts college, as a gradual but profound awakening from a slumber of indifference that gave rise to his activism there and his fears that drugs could lead him to addiction or apathy, as they had for many other black men.” It was doubtful that the GOP’s Karl Rove attack machine would be so charitable with Obama. Occidental black students self-segregated themselves; Obama writes that they were “like a tribe.” (Dreams 98) They attempted to enforce conformity on students they considered non-white. Obama recounts the story of Joyce, a smart young multiracial woman. Joyce complains that it is “black people who always have to make everything racial. They’re the ones making me choose. They’re the ones who are telling me that I can’t be who I am.” (Dreams 99) Obama comments that “Only white culture had individuals.” (Dreams 100) His obsession with race and identity remains constant throughout. OBAMA’S “I DIDN’T INJECT’ MOMENT At Occidental College near Los Angeles, Obama began to experiment intensively with illegal narcotics. He claims that he dabbled with marijuana and cocaine, but stopped short of shooting up heroin. Obama himself writes: “I blew a few smoke rings, remembering those years. Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it. Not smack, though – Mickey, my potential initiator, had been just a little too eager for me to go through with that.” (Dreams 93) Obama says he was confronted with “the needle and the tubing” and then got cold feet (while standing in a meat freezer in a deli) and backed out. He had been on his way to the life of an addict, like his friend Ray: “Junkie. Pothead. That’s where I’d been headed: the final, fatal role of the young would-be black man.” (Dreams 93) So Obama was on the verge of heroin but did not inject, a familiar refrain. As a freshman at Occidental, Obama had an international circle of friends — “a real eclectic sort of group,” recalled Vinai Thummalapally from Hyderabad, India. Obama became especially friendly with Mohammed Hasan Chandoo and Wahid Hamid, two wealthy Pakistanis. Thummalapally also recalls a French student, plus black and white Americans. One of these was Jon K. Mitchell, who later played bass for country-swing band Asleep at the Wheel. Mitchell says he remembers that Obama wore puka shell necklaces all the time, even though they were not in style, and that “we let it slide because he spent a lot of time growing up in Hawaii.”) (Adam Goldman and Robert Tanner, “Old friends recall Obama’s years in LA, NY,” AP via Newsday, May 15, 2008) Later, these friendships would make it possible for Obama to visit Pakistan in 1981. At that time Obama traveled to Pakistan and spent “about three weeks” with Hamid, and staying in Karachi with Chandoo’s family, said Bill Burton, Obama’s press secretary. “He was clearly shocked by the economic disparity he saw in Pakistan. He couldn’t get over the sight of rural peasants bowing to the wealthy landowners they worked for as they passed,” commented Margot Mifflin, who has a bit part in Obama’s memoir. Obama often claims that the fact he has traveled abroad makes him better able to understand international relations; his trip to Pakistan appears to have prepared him above all to make his outrageous demand for the unilateral US bombing of Pakistan, with all the inevitable slaughter, in search of “al Qaeda.” There is also some suggestion that Obama may have been visiting gay friends on this trip. II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 47 Obama tells us that it was at Occidental College that he came under the influence of Frantz Fanon. Obama writes: “To avoid being mistaken for a sellout, I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. The Chicanos. The Marxist professors and structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets. We smoked cigarettes and wore leather jackets. At night, in the dorms, we discussed neocolonialism, Frantz Fanon, Eurocentrism, and patriarchy.” (Dreams 100) Here is the aspiring president wandering through the post-modernist proto-fascist rubble field. He is overwhelmingly other-directed, obsessed with his image in the eyes of others. The name that stands out is that of Frantz Fanon, probably the biggest intellectual influence on the young Obama. BEFORE POL POT AND KHOMEINI, THERE WAS FANON Fanon (1925-1961) was a French-speaking psychiatrist born on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean. Like Rousseau before him, Fanon was promoted and made famous by Venetian cultural operatives, notably by Umberto Campagnolo of the enormously influential Société Européenne de Culture, one of the most important international think tanks of the time between 1945 and 1975. It was the Venetian foundation operative Campagnolo who first brought Fanon to Europe and made him a celebrity. The preface to the first edition of Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth in Paris in 1961 was written by the French existentialist pope, Jean-Paul Sartre. Fanon attempted to identify himself with the merging anti-colonial revolutions of the third world and joined the Algerian FLN, but he always remained a European existentialist decadent in methodological terms, and not a denizen of a third world rice paddy or favela. Fanon, a disciple of Merleau-Ponty, was always a hater of science, technology, and human progress, since he always thought of technology as something imposed by the European colonial masters which had to be rejected as part of liberation from the colonial yoke. This made Fanon a direct precursor of the New Dark Ages faction which emerged during the 1970s in the form of such figures as Pol Pot of Cambodia, the “Islamo-marxists” Ali Shariati and Bani- Sadr of Iran, and other declared enemies of western civilization. The problem was the aspirations of the third world peoples to a better life could never be fulfilled without the large scale realization of science and technology. Fanon was accordingly a thinker who appealed to degenerate third world oligarchies, anxious to get independence but equally determined to prevent the masses from gaining upward mobility through the social effects of industrialization, which this school tried to define as ethnocide because it wiped out the backward and primitive dead-end cultures festering in the backwaters of the planet. The other leading idea of Fanon was the necessity of violence, which he exalted in direct contradiction to Gandhi and Martin Luther King. Fanon was evidently under the spell of Georges Sorel, the theoretician of purgative violence who was so important for the young Mussolini. The combination of anti-science demagogy couched in hyper-revolutionary third world terms, plus a demand for violence which easily shaded over into terrorism, made Fanon’s writings a key tool for the left wings of US, British and French intelligence during the phase of decolonization in the 1960s and 1970s. Fanon was also important for the European terrorists of the Italian Red Brigades and the German Baader-Meinhof group. Fanon, much more than Marx, must be seen as one of the permanent keys to Obama’s thinking. Obama turns out to be an ultra-left existentialist, with Fanonist-Sorelian fascist overtones. Fanon expresses the utopian desire to eliminate all the problems inherited from European colonialism by bringing an entirely new world, a utopia, into being. As so often happens, the chosen tool to abolish the historical past is “absolute violence.” (Fanon citations are from The Wretched of the Earth, chapter VI, conclusion, transl. Dominic Tweedie) Violence purifies, and it is only 48 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography through violence that the dichotomy of white and black can be transcended. “Violence,” says Fanon, “is a cleansing force. It frees the native from his inferiority complex and from his despair and inaction; it makes him fearless and restores his self-respect.” Fanon also posed as an ideologue of world revolution, opining: “In guerrilla war the struggle no longer concerns the place where you are, but the places where you are going. Each fighter carries his warring country between his toes.” And again: “The national bourgeoisie will be greatly helped on its way toward decadence by the Western bourgeoisies, who come to it as tourists avid for the exotic, for big game hunting, and for casinos. The national bourgeoisie organizes centers of rest and relaxation and pleasure resorts to meet the wishes of the Western bourgeoisie. Such activity is given the name of tourism, and for the occasion will be built up as a national industry.” At the center of the belief structure of the mature Fanon is the total rejection of European civilization on racial grounds: “We must leave our dreams and abandon our old beliefs and friendships of the time before life began. Let us waste no time in sterile litanies and nauseating mimicry. Leave this Europe where they are never done talking of Man, yet murder men everywhere they find them, at the corner of every one of their own streets, in all the corners of the globe. For centuries they have stifled almost the whole of humanity in the name of a so-called spiritual experience. Look at them today swaying between atomic and spiritual disintegration. And yet it may be said that Europe has been successful in as much as everything that she has attempted has succeeded. Europe undertook the leadership of the world with ardour, cynicism and violence. Look at how the shadow of her palaces stretches out ever farther! Every one of her movements has burst the bounds of space and thought. Europe has declined all humility and all modesty; but she has also set her face against all solicitude and all tenderness. She has only shown herself parsimonious and niggardly where men are concerned; it is only men that she has killed and devoured. So, my brothers, how is it that we do not understand that we have better things to do than to follow that same Europe? Come, then, comrades, the European game has finally ended; we must find something different. We today can do everything, so long as we do not imitate Europe, so long as we are not obsessed by the desire to catch up with Europe. Let us decide not to imitate Europe; let us combine our muscles and our brains in a new direction. Let us try to create the whole man, whom Europe has been incapable of bringing to triumphant birth.” FANON: THE UNITED STATES IS A MONSTER In Fanon’s world picture, the only thing worse than Europe is the United States. Fanon’s condemnation of the United States should be carefully read, since it is here that we find the roots of Obama’s hatred of the country he chose to be his own: “Two centuries ago, a former European colony decided to catch up with Europe. It succeeded so well that the United States of America became a monster, in which the taints, the sickness and the inhumanity of Europe have grown to appalling dimensions. Comrades, have we not other work to do than to create a third Europe? The West saw itself as a spiritual adventure. It is in the name of the spirit, in the name of the spirit of Europe, that Europe has made her encroachments, that she has justified her crimes and legitimized the slavery in which she holds four-fifths of humanity.” Fanon also makes clear that European workers have become integrated into European capitalist society; contrary to Marxist theory, they have sold out. Nothing positive can be expected from these workers, since they are just as corrupt as the other Europeans. Fanon thinks that race is everything, that class is nothing, and that race war, the more violent the better, will be the answer. Here we see the germ of the anti-working class hatred which was common to Fanon, to the Ayers-Dohrn Weatherman terrorist faction of SDS, and which lives on in the statements of the Obama campaign II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 49 today: “Yes, the European spirit has strange roots. All European thought has unfolded in places which were increasingly more deserted and more encircled by precipices; and thus it was that the custom grew up in those places of very seldom meeting man. A permanent dialogue with oneself and an increasingly obscene narcissism never ceased to prepare the way for a half delirious state, where intellectual work became suffering and the reality was not at all that of a living man, working and creating himself, but rather words, different combinations of words, and the tensions springing from the meanings contained in words. Yet some Europeans were found to urge the European workers to shatter this narcissism and to break with this un-reality. But in general the workers of Europe have not replied to these calls; for the workers believe, too, that they are part of the prodigious adventure of the European spirit.” Working class voters are right to identify in Obama a class enemy, since that is exactly what he is. The utopian theme of the New Man, the radical reform of human nature itself, and the overcoming of alienation are all utopian themes which play a central role in fascist movements, as we will show in more detail in the final chapter of this book. Fanon argues strongly for a utopian approach of this type, which depends on rejecting western civilization: “The Third World today faces Europe like a colossal mass whose aim should be to try to resolve the problems to which Europe has not been able to find the answers. If we wish to live up to our peoples’ expectations, we must seek the response elsewhere than in Europe. Moreover, if we wish to reply to the expectations of the people of Europe, it is no good sending them back a reflection, even an ideal reflection, of their society and their thought with which from time to time they feel immeasurably sickened. For Europe, for ourselves and for humanity, comrades, we must turn over a new leaf, we must work out new concepts, and try to set afoot a new man.”12 Just to make sure that the point about violence was thoroughly understood by Fanon’s gullible young readers, the premier French existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre in 1961 contributed the following preface to the edition of Fanon which Obama is likely to have read: “… read Fanon; for he shows clearly that this irrepressible violence is neither sound and fury, nor the resurrection of savage instincts, nor even the effect of resentment: it is man re-creating himself. I think we understood this truth at one time, but we have forgotten it — that no gentleness can efface the marks of violence; only violence itself can destroy them. The native cures himself of colonial neurosis by thrusting out the settler through force of arms. When his rage boils over, he rediscovers his lost innocence and he comes to know himself in that he himself creates his self. Far removed from his war, we consider it as a triumph of barbarism; but of its own volition it achieves, slowly but surely, the emancipation of the rebel, for bit by bit it destroys in him and around him the colonial gloom. Once begun, it is a war that gives no quarter. You may fear or be feared; that is to say, abandon yourself to the disassociations of a sham existence or conquer your birthright of unity. When the peasant takes a gun in his hands, the old myths grow dim and the prohibitions are one by one forgotten. The rebel’s weapon is the proof of his humanity. For in the first days of the revolt you must kill: to shoot down a European is to kill two birds with one stone, to destroy an oppressor and the man he oppresses at the same time: there remain a dead man, and a free man; the survivor, for the first time, feels a national soil under his foot.” The decadent French intellectual embraces Fanon most of all because of his call for violence, thus unerringly singling out the sickest part of Fanon’s work. OBAMA’S NICOTINE ADDICTION BEGINS Obama apparently started smoking when he was at Occidental College. In his fawning cult biography of Obama, author David Mendell writes about Obama’s life as a “secret smoker” and how he “went to great lengths to conceal the habit.” Jeff Stier has analyzed the degree to which 50 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography Obama’s quarter century of smoking may have impacted his health: the conclusion is that Obama may well have more health problems than John McCain. Stier writes: “So how long and how much did Sen. Obama smoke? The information has not been officially released, and the campaign has not returned calls or emails posing this question. But he smoked a lot over his life. He admits to having smoked up to ten cigarettes a day, but usually closer to five or six. Most people underestimate how much they smoke, but let’s take him at his word. Let’s also assume he really did quit when he said he did, in February 2007 (although he admits to having fallen off the wagon). That’s about twentysix years, given that we know he was smoking by the time he was a freshman at Occidental College. That’s more than 55,000 — maybe 70,000 cigarettes! Has this aspect of Sen. Obama’s ability to serve really been explored? Just because he’s young, looks great, and exercises doesn’t mean he’s healthy. Recall Jim Fixx. An overweight smoker when he turned his life around at thirty-five, Fixx became the icon of fitness. He quit smoking and started running. Then he died in 1984 at age fiftythree — while running. Sen. Obama, while not overweight, smoked a lot longer than Jim Fixx did. And while the stresses of running may have contributed to Fixx’s death, it was his years of smoking, not his running, that caused the plaque to build up in his arteries. Doctors say the stress of being president may in fact exceed the stress of running. And it’s an unhealthier kind of stress. The public deserves to know how long and how much Sen. Obama really smoked. Does he have other risk factors for heart disease? Compared to whites, for instance, African-Americans are more likely to die of a stroke, according to the American Heart Association. This, in fact, is probably the only time race is a legitimate question to raise this campaign season — and just one of several health question on voters’ minds.” (Jeff Stier, Obama’s Health, April 19, 2008) McCain, we see, may be in better health than Obama, despite appearances. Smoking is subject to an ineffable taboo in the rich elitist, affluent suburbanite, academic, and global warming circles which provide Obama’s base of support, so he has striven to hide his horrible dirty vice from public view. Pictures showing Obama smoking have been greeted with unalloyed horror by Obama’s backers. However, the candidate has confessed that he has gone back to puffing his coffin nails as a result of the stress of the campaign trail. One reporter who penetrated Obama’s terrible secret, despite his evasive action, was the perceptive Jake Tapper, who exposed the issue in April 2008: ‘As any close friend or family member can attest, I have an unusually keen sense of smell and immediately I smelled cigarette smoke on Obama. Frankly, he reeked of cigarettes. Obama ran off before I could ask him if he’d just snuck a smoke, so I called his campaign. They denied it. He’d quit months before, in February [2007], they insisted. He chewed nicorette. But I knew what I’d smelled and I asked his campaign to double-check and to ask him if he’d had a cigarette. They reported back that he had told them he hadn’t had a cigarette since he quit. And maybe that was true. Maybe I imagined the cigarette smoke. My olfactory nerve somehow misfired. Except….last night on MSNBC’s Hardball, Obama admitted that his attempt to wean himself from the vile tobacco weed had not been entirely successful. “I fell off the wagon a couple times during the course of it, and then was able to get back on,” he said. “But it is a struggle like everything else.”’ (Jake Tapper, “Obama is Smokin’,”, April 3, 2008) Because of the importance of the presidency, it is imperative that all candidates release their medical records, including the results of any mental health treatments and of any and all HIV testing. THE LOST YEARS AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY: OBAMA’S WALL OF SECRECY Obama’s years at Columbia University between 1981 and 1983 constitute the greatest single mystery of his life. From the point of view of all available biographical material published and in II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 51 the public domain, these are quite simply Obama’s lost years. Dreams from My Father, as we have seen, is a book prodigal with details about Obama’s drug use — a question that may have a serious potential to damage his political career. By contrast Obama’s attendance at Columbia University, a member of the prestigious Ivy League, ought to be a selling point and indeed a point of honor for our candidate. Instead, any attempts to establish the relevant facts about Obama’s years at Columbia runs up against a brick wall of silence, evasion, and prevarication. The result is a gaping hole in Obama’s autobiographical narrative, a serious lacuna precisely where this inveterate showboater would normally be showcasing his academic achievements. It is in part one, chapter 6 of Dreams that Obama covers up these years at Columbia. There is almost nothing about his activity as a student, or about his mental life. The Associated Press ran up against the same wall: “The Obama campaign declined to discuss Obama’s time at Columbia and his friendships in general. It won’t, for example, release his transcript or name his friends. It did, however, list five locations where Obama lived during his four years here: three on Manhattan’s Upper West Side and two in Brooklyn — one in Park Slope, the other in Brooklyn Heights. His memoir mentions two others on Manhattan’s Upper East Side.” (Adam Goldman and Robert Tanner, “Old friends recall Obama’s years in LA, NY,” AP via Newsday, May 15, 2008) The biographical surveys of Obama published by the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune are equally incapable of providing any details about Obama’s time on the Columbia campus. As Janny Scott of the New York Times reported, ‘Senator Obama, an Illinois Democrat now seeking the presidency, suggests in his book that his years in New York were a pivotal period: He ran three miles a day, buckled down to work and “stopped getting high,” which he says he had started doing in high school. Yet he declined repeated requests to talk about his New York years, release his Columbia transcript or identify even a single fellow student, co-worker, roommate or friend from those years. “He doesn’t remember the names of a lot of people in his life,” said Ben LaBolt, a campaign spokesman. Mr. Obama has, of course, done plenty of remembering. His 1995 memoir, Dreams from My Father, weighs in at more than 450 pages. But he also exercised his writer’s prerogative to decide what to include or leave out. Now, as he presents himself to voters, a look at his years in New York — other people’s accounts and his own — suggests not only what he was like back then but how he chooses to be seen now.’ Why so secretive when he could be showboating, according to his preferred custom? Or, are we dealing with some form of mental impairment? In an article by the insufferable British snob and Obama partisan Richard Wolffe (know to the few viewers of the Olberman propaganda show, Newsweek magazine attempted to convinced its readers that Obama is some kind of Christian. This required grotesque contortions, which need not concern us here. Wolffe reflects the same cone of silence encountered by other researchers into Obama’s lost years at Columbia, about which he reports virtually no facts and few lies: Obama, alleges Wolffe, ‘enrolled at Columbia in part to get far away from his past; he'd gone to high school in Hawaii and had just spent two years "enjoying myself," as he puts it, at Occidental College in Los Angeles. In New York City, "I lived an ascetic existence," Obama told Newsweek in an interview on his campaign plane last week. "I did a lot of spiritual exploration. I withdrew from the world in a fairly deliberate way." He fasted. Often, he'd go days without speaking to another person. For company, he had books. There was Saint Augustine, the fourth-century North African bishop who wrote the West's first spiritual memoir and built the theological foundations of the Christian Church. There was Friedrich Nietzsche, the 19th-century German philosopher and father of existentialism. There was Graham Greene, the Roman Catholic Englishman whose short novels are full of compromise, ambivalence and pain. Obama meditated on these men and argued with them in 52 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography his mind.’ Notice that the racist-terrorist-Luddite Fanon, the writer who influenced Obama the most, has disappeared. He is now replaced by Nietzsche, the classic protofascist philodoxer of the nineteenth century. The top Nazi ideologue, Alfred Rosenberg rightly claimed Nietzsche along with Richard Wagner, the antisemite Lagarde and the racist Houston Stewart Chamberlain as a precursor of the Nazi movement. As we argue elsewhere, it is most likely through existentialism, of which Nietzsche was a precursor, that Obama developed as a social fascist. (“Finding His Faith,” Newsweek, July 12, 2008, Obama’s acolytes at the reactionary Chicago Tribune found even less about Obama’s Columbia years than the swooning liberals at the New York Times. Obama spent just two years at Occidental. He said in a recent interview that he had begun to weary of the parties and fretted about a lackadaisical approach to his studies. He grew more introspective and serious. His mother’s warnings were beginning to take hold. Seeking a fresh start, he transferred to Columbia University in New York City. Classmates and teachers from those days remember him as studious and serious, someone who hit the library in his off hours instead of the bars. “If I had to give one adjective to describe him, it is mature,” said William Araiza, who took an international politics class with Obama. “He was our age, but seemed older because of his poise.” (Maurice Possley, “Activism Blossomed in College,” Chicago Tribune, March 30, 2007) That’s it. Nothing more. No Dink Stover at Yale, no This Side of Paradise. Before you know it, Obama has left Columbia and is out in the big world: “After his graduation from Columbia University in 1983, he worked briefly for a New York financial consultant and then a consumer organization.” Bob Secter and John McCormick, “Portrait of a Pragmatist,” Chicago Tribune, March 30, 2007) Some postings on the Internet have alleged that Obama is seeking to hide a phase of flamboyant homosexuality during his years at Morningside Heights. This may be so. However, the principal thesis argued here, based on very strong circumstantial evidence, is that Obama is seeking to conceal the central event of his entire personal story: his recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski as a long-term controlled political asset and sponsored career of the Rockefellercontrolled Trilateral Commission. OBAMA AND ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI AT COLUMBIA, 1981-1983 Brzezinski during these years was fresh from having directed the National Security Council during Jimmy Carter’s sole term in office. As we have seen elsewhere in this book, it was in precisely this period of the early 1980s that Brzezinski, Samuel Huntington, and other long-term Trilateral planners were reflecting on the results of the Carter regime, while looking forward to wrecking and frustrating a general political upsurge in the United States (known in Huntington’s parlance as a creedal passion period) which they could already see on the horizon, and which they located at that time in the years between 2010 and 2030. It is safe to assume that Brzezinski and Huntington were also concerned with recruiting young political talent which they could develop, groom, indoctrinate, and brainwash for various purposes, including that of political candidate, over the coming decades. Brzezinski and Huntington, in short, were looking for political assets which they might employ during a quarter century perspective which was the framework for their future activity. Because of the strong Ford Foundation pedigree of Obama’s mother, young Barack would have been an obvious choice as a subject to be interviewed and vetted. The contention here is that Obama was recruited in the context of this effort, and that since then, his career has been fostered and sponsored by the circles of the Trilateral Commission. II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 53 Zbigniew Brzezinski during these years was working as the boss of the Institute for Communist Affairs at Columbia — a notorious anti-Soviet think tank and propaganda center. What little we know about Obama includes that he was a politics major with a specialty in international relations who wrote his senior thesis on the topic of Soviet nuclear disarmament. This, needless to say, is a topic which has Zbigniew Brzezinski written all over it. If Senator Obama wishes to refute the contention that he has been a member of the Brzezinski Trilateral stable of politicians and other operatives since approximately 1981-1983, he is invited to offer documentation to that end. For his part, Zbigniew Brzezinski understood quite soon in his career that his Dr. Strangelove television persona was a decided political liability in this country. It has been forgotten today, but at the time he left office at the end of the Carter administration, Brzezinski was by all odds the most hated member of a very unpopular administration. In fact, it would seem that Brzezinski ranks down to this day as the most hated government official serving in Democratic administrations since the departure from the White House of Lyndon B. Johnson in January 1969. Any doubts about this profound unpopularity had been clarified when Brzezinski was loudly booed by the delegates to the 1980 Democratic National Convention. Since those times, Brzezinski has been extraordinarily gun shy when it comes to publicity or to stating in public what he actually thinks and intends. Brzezinski, in other words, has learned that he must conceal his own political operations, lest they be disrupted by hostile scrutiny. Obama has represented one of these long-term, concealed Brzezinski operations. Obama’s presence at Columbia remains shrouded in mystery. According to published reports, many of his classmates don’t remember Obama. According to one account, he does not appear in the yearbook of his graduating class. In response to inquiries made by journalists during 2007, Columbia University was unwilling or unable to find a picture of him during his years at that university. Obama has attempted to conceal his years at Columbia with the usual cloak of complaints about the alleged racism of the place: ‘Mr Obama was later admitted to read politics and international relations at New York’s prestigious Columbia University where, his book claims, “no matter how many times the administration tried to paint them over, the walls remained scratched with blunt correspondence (about) n****rs.” But one of his classmates, Joe Zwicker, 45, now a lawyer in Boston, said yesterday: “That surprises me. Columbia was a pretty tolerant place. There were African-American students in my classes and I never saw any evidence of racism at all.”’ (London Daily Mail, January 27, 2007) Nevertheless, Obama does reveal in veiled terms that coming to Columbia was a great watershed in his life: ‘“There was a fundamental rupture in my life between Occidental and Columbia, where I just became more serious,” Obama said.’ (Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) It was Brzezinski’s intervention that made the difference, we believe. And: is Obama suggesting that this was when he turned away from illegal drugs? He never says so specifically, leaving a plethora of questions. In a September 5, 2008 interview with Matt Welch, the Libertarian Party candidate for vice president Wayne Allyn Root, a member of Obama’s Columbia class of 1983, reports that he never met or heard of anybody called Obama, and has not been able to find anyone who can among his fellow alumni. Root majored in the same department where Obama claims to have majored. Here is an excerpt from this revealing exchange: “Wayne Allyn Root: I think the most dangerous thing you should know about Barack Obama is I don’t know a single person at Columbia that knows him, and they all know me. I don’t have a classmate who ever knew Barack Obama at Columbia. Ever! Matt Welch: So tell us what we should know about Barack 54 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography Welch: Yeah, but you were like selling, you know, Amway in college or something, weren’t you? Root: Is that what you think of me! And the best damned Amway salesman ever! Welch: No, I’m sure that you were an outgoing young man, I’m just guessing. Root: I am! That’s my point. Where was Obama? He wasn’t an outgoing young man, no one ever heard of him. Tim Cavanaugh: Maybe he was a late bloomer. Root: Maybe. Or maybe he was involved in some sort of black radical politics. Welch: Ooooooooooh. Root: Maybe he was too busy smoking pot in his dorm room to ever show up for class. I don’t know what he was doing! Welch: Wait, you weren’t smoking pot in your dorm room? Root: No, I wasn’t. I wasn’t. But I don’t hold that against anybody, but I wasn’t.... Nobody recalls him. I’m not exaggerating, I’m not kidding. Welch: Were you the exact same class? Root: Class of ‘83 political science, pre-law Columbia University. You don’t get more exact than that. Never met him in my life, don’t know anyone who ever met him. At the class reunion, our 20th reunion five years ago, 20th reunion, who was asked to be the speaker of the class? Me. No one ever heard of Barack! Who was he, and five years ago, nobody even knew who he was. Other guy: Did he even show up to the reunion? Root: I don’t know! I didn’t know him. I don’t think anybody knew him. But I know that the guy who writes the class notes, who’s kind of the, as we say in New York, the macha who knows everybody, has yet to find a person, a human who ever met him. Is that not strange? It’s very strange. Welch: That’s peculiar! Do you have any theories?”13 In spite of his intent to deceive and dissemble, Obama has lavished praise on Zbigniew, as for example in his first foreign policy speech in Iowa in 2007, when he called in Zbiggy to introduce him. On this occasion, Obama paid homage to the Polish revanchist in effusive terms: “Brzezinski is someone I have learned an immense amount from,” and “one of our most outstanding scholars and thinkers.” The New York Times account of this critical and decisive phase in Obama’s life stresses the obsessive secrecy with which the Obamakins attempt to shroud this entire phase. Barack Obama does not say much about his years in New York City. The time he spent as an undergraduate at Columbia College and then working in Manhattan in the early 1980s surfaces only fleetingly in his memoir. In the book, he casts himself as a solitary wanderer in the metropolis, the outsider searching for a way to “make myself of some use.” He tells of underheated sublets, a night spent in an alley, a dead neighbor on the landing. From their fire escape, he and an unnamed roommate watch “white people from the better neighborhoods” bring their dogs to defecate on the block. He takes a job in an unidentified “consulting house to multinational corporations,” where he is “a spy behind enemy lines,” startled to find himself with a secretary, a suit and money in the bank. He barely mentions Columbia, training ground for the elite, where he transferred in his junior year, majoring in political science and international relations and writing his thesis on Soviet II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 55 nuclear disarmament. He dismisses in one sentence his first community organizing job — work he went on to do in Chicago — though a former supervisor remembers him as “a star performer.” […] In a long profile of Mr. Obama in a Columbia alumni magazine in 2005, in which his Columbia years occupied just two paragraphs, he called that time “an intense period of study.” “I spent a lot of time in the library. I didn’t socialize that much. I was like a monk,” he was quoted as saying. He said he was somewhat involved with the Black Student Organization and anti-apartheid activities, although in recent interviews, several prominent student leaders said they did not remember his playing a role. (Janny Scott, “Obama’s Account of New York Years Often Differs From What Others Say,” New York Times, October 30, 2007) One person who did remember Mr. Obama was Michael L. Baron, who taught a senior seminar on international politics and American policy. Mr. Baron, now president of an electronics company in Florida, said he was Mr. Obama’s adviser on the senior thesis for that course. Mr. Baron, who later wrote Mr. Obama a recommendation for Harvard Law School, gave him an A in the course. Columbia was a hotbed for discussion of foreign policy, Mr. Baron said. The faculty included Zbigniew Brzezinski, the former national security adviser, and Zalmay Khalilzad, now the American ambassador to the United Nations. Half of the eight students in the seminar were outstanding, and Mr. Obama was among them, Mr. Baron said. One of Obama’s friends at Columbia was his roommate Sadik or Siddiqi, who is described as “a short, well-built Pakistani” who smoked marijuana, snorted cocaine and liked to party. Obama’s campaign adamantly refused to identify “Sadik,” but the Associated Press located him in Seattle, where he raises money for a community theater. When Obama arrived in New York, he already knew Siddiqi — a friend of Chandoo’s and Hamid’s from Karachi who had visited Los Angeles. Looking back, Siddiqi acknowledges that he and Obama were an odd couple. Siddiqi would mock Obama’s idealism — he just wanted to make a lot of money and buy things, while Obama wanted to help the poor. “At that age, I thought he was a saint and a square, and he took himself too seriously,” Siddiqi said. “I would ask him why he was so serious. He was genuinely concerned with the plight of the poor. He’d give me lectures, which I found very boring. He must have found me very irritating.” Siddiqi offered the most expansive account of Obama as a young man. “We were both very lost. We were both alienated, although he might not put it that way. He arrived disheveled and without a place to stay,” said Siddiqi, who at the time worked as a waiter and as a salesman at a boutique…. The apartment was “a slum of a place” in a drug-ridden neighborhood filled with gunshots, he said. “It wasn’t a comfortable existence. We were slumming it.” What little furniture they had was found on the street, and guests would have to hold their dinner plates in their laps. …’ Obama commented: ‘“For about two years there, I was just painfully alone and really not focused on anything, except maybe thinking a lot.” In his memoir, Obama recalls fasting on Sunday; Siddiqi says Obama was a follower of comedian-activist Dick Gregory’s vegetarian diet. “I think self-deprivation was his schtick, denying himself pleasure, good food and all of that.” But it wasn’t exactly an ascetic life. There was plenty of time for reading (Gabriel Garcia Marquez, V.S. Naipaul) and listening to music (Van Morrison, the Ohio Players, Bob Dylan). The two, along with others, went out for nights on the town. “He wasn’t entirely a hermit,” Siddiqi said. Siddiqi said his female friends thought Obama was “a hunk.” “We were always competing,” he said. “You know how it is. You go to a bar and you try hitting on the girls. He had a lot more success. I wouldn’t outcompete him in picking up girls, that’s for sure.” Obama was a tolerant roommate. Siddiqi’s mother, who had never been around a black man, came to visit and she was rude; Obama was nothing but polite. Siddiqi himself could be intemperate — he called Obama an Uncle Tom, but “he was really patient. I’m surprised he suffered me.” Finally, their relationship started to fray. “I was partying all 56 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography the time. I was disrupting his studies,” Siddiqi said. Obama moved out.’ (Adam Goldman and Robert Tanner, “Old friends recall Obama’s years in LA, NY,” AP via Newsday, May 15, 2008) TRILATERAL COMMISSION POST-CARTER PERSPECTIVE, 1981-1983 During these years, Trilateral leaders Brzezinski and Samuel Huntington were pondering the future transformation of the United States into a bureaucratic-authoritarian or totalitarian state. In his book American Politics, Huntington developed a perspective for the future based on conflict between increasingly authoritarian and ultimately totalitarian state control, on the one hand, and an underlying American value system and world-outlook – which he calls the “American Creed” – on the other. In Huntington’s view, there was no doubt that the regime would become more oppressive: “An increasingly sophisticated economy and active involvement in world affairs seem likely to create stronger needs for hierarchy, bureaucracy, centralization of power, expertise, big government specifically, and big organizations generally.” (p. 228) This is a kind of shorthand for what most experts could identify as the fascist corporate state. The problem Huntington saw was the American Creed, based on liberty, equality, individualism, and democracy and rooted in “seventeenth-century Protestant moralism and eighteenth-century liberal rationalism.” (p. 229) Huntington predicted in 1981 that the conflict between individualistic values and the centralized regime may explode early in the coming century, specifically between 2010 and 2030, in a period of ferment and dislocation like the late 1960s: “If the periodicity of the past prevails, a major sustained creedal passion period will occur in the second and third decades of the twenty-first century.” At this time, he argued, “the oscillations among the responses could intensify in such a way as to threaten to destroy both ideals and institutions.” (p. 232) Such a process would be acted out as follows: “Lacking any concept of the state, lacking for most of its history both the centralized authority and the bureaucratic apparatus of the European state, the American polity has historically been a weak polity. It was designed to be so, and the traditional inheritance and social environment combined for years to support the framers’ intentions. In the twentieth century, foreign threats and domestic economic and social needs have generated pressures to develop stronger, more authoritative decision-making and decision-implementing institutions. Yet the continued presence of deeply felt moralistic sentiments among major groups in American society could continue to ensure weak and divided government, devoid of authority and unable to deal satisfactorily with the economic, social and foreign challenges confronting the nation. Intensification of this conflict between history and progress could give rise to increasing frustration and increasingly violent oscillations between moralism and cynicism. American moralism ensures that government will never be truly efficacious; the realities of power ensure that government will never be truly democratic. This situation could lead to a two-phase dialectic involving intensified efforts to reform government, followed by intensified frustration when those efforts produce not progress in a liberal-democratic direction, but obstacles to meeting perceived functional needs. The weakening of government in an effort to reform it could lead eventually to strong demands for the replacement of the weakened and ineffective institutions by more authoritarian structures more effectively designed to meet historical needs. Given the perversity of reform, moralistic extremism in the pursuit of liberal democracy could generate a strong tide toward authoritarian efficiency.” (p. 232) Huntington then quotes Plato’s celebrated passage on the way that the “culmination of liberty in democracy is precisely what prepares the way for the cruelest extreme of servitude under a despot.” II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 57 The message is clear: sooner or later, all roads lead to Behemoth. (Tarpley, Project Democracy, [Washington: EIR, 1987]) Trilateral fascination with a totalitarian transformation in this country did not start after Carter, but began well before he came on the scene. A good example is Brzezinski’s own book, Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era (1970), where the Polish revanchist conjured up the glittering image of a “technetronic era,” whereby a more controlled society would gradually emerge, dominated by an oligarchical elite unrestrained by traditional values. Brzezinski predicted that “Power will gravitate into the hands of those who control information” (Brzezinski 1), adding that surveillance and data mining will foster “tendencies through the next several decades toward a technocratic era, a dictatorship leaving even less room for political procedures as we know them” (Brzezinski 12). Information Technology would become the key to mass social control: “Unhindered by the restraints of traditional liberal values, this elite would not hesitate to achieve its political ends by the latest modern techniques for influencing public behavior and keeping society under close surveillance and control.” (Brzezinski 252) These are remarks which ought to remind fatuous left liberals, who have been deluded by Zbig’s re-invention of himself in an anti-Bush and anti-Iraq war mode, that they are dealing here with one very sinister totalitarian elitist. HYPOTHESIS: A QUARTER CENTURY OF TRILATERAL INDOCTRINATION The inevitable corollary of the Brzezinski-Huntington analysis as developed in the post-Carter era is the need to prepare political operatives to intervene in the creedal passion period or general political upsurge which was expected to emerge around 2010. This would suggest that Brzezinski, Huntington, and other Trilateral operatives were keeping their eyes open for suitable political talent which they could identify, recruit, and begin grooming for use a quarter-century in the future. To those for whom such a protracted process might seem to be fantastic and conspiratorial, let it be pointed out that the career timescale involved hardly differs from the typical career of a military officer, a bank executive, or a top-flight academic. To those who are accustomed to living from one paycheck to the next, a 25-year perspective may seem like extraordinary foresight. To those accustomed to viewing the world from the apex of huge organizations, it looks like something rather routine and prosaic. The hypothesis advocated here is therefore that Obama has been a protected and controlled asset of the Trilateral Commission since his time at Columbia University between 1981 and 1983. Since the moment of his recruitment, Obama’s career has been promoted, fostered, preferred, and otherwise protected by the Trilateral financier network. DEVAL PATRICK: BRZEZINSKI’S SPARE OBAMA The interchangeability of Obama and Massachusetts governor Deval Patrick is important because the two of them remind us of the procedures used by the Trilateral managers the last time they installed a puppet president – Jimmy Carter. As Zbigniew Brzezinski tells us with startling brutality in his memoir entitled Power and Principle, the Trilaterals did not put all their eggs in one basket when it came to grooming a puppet for the 1976 election. Their favored choice was that messianic peanut farmer from Plains, Georgia who in fact won the presidency. But they always retained a fallback option as well. As Brzezinski relates, this was another southern Democratic Governor, Reubin Askew of Florida. If Carter had overdosed, suffered a nervous breakdown, or 58 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography been indicted, Askew would have been rushed into the breach to take his place. Since the spare candidate or fallback option needed had to be a relatively prominent public figure, it is virtually impossible to conceal the fact that an understudy is waiting in the wings. The existence of Patrick as Obama’s virtual twin is therefore of critical importance for the argument that Obama is in fact a Manchurian candidate created and controlled by the Trilateral commission and its allies. The parallels are indeed striking, starting with the fact that both Obama and Patrick are fatherless boys who are therefore susceptible to seeing a powerful institution or authority figure as an ersatz father. Patrick was born on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois, into an African-American family living on welfare in a two-bedroom slum apartment. In 1959, his father Laurdine “Pat” Patrick, a member of jazz musician Sun Ra’s band, deserted Deval, his mother, and his sister in order to pursue his music career in New York City, where he had fathered a daughter by another woman. Deval’s relationship with his father, like Obama’s, was a lamentable one. Deval was in middle school when he was picked up by a foundation called A Better Chance, a national non-profit organization for identifying, recruiting, co-opting, and developing leaders among smart black students. Thanks to this foundation backing, Deval was able to attend the exclusive, costly, and elite Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts – a local prep school equivalent to Obama’s Punahou School in Hawaii. Patrick graduated from Milton Academy in 1974, and from Harvard College in 1978. At Harvard, Patrick was co-opted into the ultra-elitist Fly Club, Harvard’s answer to Yale’s Skull and Bones secret society. He then spent a year working for the United Nations in Africa. In 1979, Patrick enrolled in Harvard Law School. While in law school, Patrick was elected president of the Legal Aid Bureau; Obama would top that by becoming the editor of the law review. Patrick got his first job defending poor families in Middlesex County, Massachusetts – similar to Obama’s apprenticeship as a community organizing counter-insurgency operative. Patrick’s wife, like Obama’s, is an upwardly mobile member of the black affirmative-action overclass. OBAMA DISCREDITED IN MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE, RHODE ISLAND Patrick spoiled Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island (where the television comes from Boston) for Obama’s future chances by his blatant nepotism and greedy rapacity in office. He spent $11,000 on drapery for the governor’s state house suite, changed the governor’s car from a Crown Victoria to a Cadillac, and hired a chief of staff for his wife at an annual salary of almost $75,000. He commandeered a state helicopter for his private use. Patrick lavished all this on himself while demanding austerity and service cuts for the people, as Obama is also sure to do. Patrick was also remarkably corrupt: he placed a call to Citigroup Executive Committee chair Robert Rubin on behalf of the financially beleaguered mortgage company Ameriquest, a subsidiary of ACC Capital Holdings, of which Patrick is a former board member. Patrick later attempted to lie his way out of this predicament with the absurd claim that he was calling not as governor but as a private citizen. When this ploy failed, the skewered Patrick plaintively confessed: “I appreciate that I should not have made the call. I regret the mistake.” Patrick, like Jeremiah Wright, was a devotee of the blowback theory of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, a hallmark of left CIA sponsorship. On the sixth anniversary of the 9/11 events on September 11, 2007, Patrick declaimed: “It was a mean and nasty and bitter attack on the United States. But it was also about the failure of human beings to understand each other and to learn to love each other. It seems to me that lesson of that morning is something that we must carry with us every day.” In II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 59 another telling incident, one of Patrick’s aides (a certain Carl Stanley McGee) was arrested in Florida in December 2007 for the sexual assault of a 15-year old boy in a Florida hotel. Early in Patrick’s term, only 48 percent of Massachusetts voters approved of the way he was handling the job, while 33 percent disapproved — a relatively high number for a governor’s honeymoon period, said Andrew E. Smith, director of The Survey Center at the University of New Hampshire. 44 percent said Massachusetts is headed in the right direction, while 56 percent said the state is off course. (Boston Globe, April 8, 2007) BUSINESS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION Obama’s first job after leaving Columbia was with Business International Corporation (BIC), a private intelligence company which provided information and know-how to US companies seeking to do business overseas. Obama worked as a consultant and financial journalist. So far as is known, Business International Corporation was never identified as a CIA front company, but it had the telltale earmarks of one. Its business of journalism and reporting, ferreting out information about conditions in foreign countries was a perfect cover story for spying of all sorts. Business International went out of existence when it was acquired the London Economist Intelligence Unit, an operation that notoriously moved in the orbit of British intelligence. Once again, Obama covers up whatever may have happened in reality by throwing up a smokescreen of racial conflict. This time it was the first temptation of St. Barack by the devil (“white” society, as always). Dan Armstrong, who knew Obama when he was working at BIC, has stressed that Obama’s account of the firm and his job there is far from accurate: ‘Mr. Armstrong’s description of the firm, and those of other co-workers, differs at least in emphasis from Mr. Obama’s. It was a small newsletter-publishing and research firm, with about 250 employees worldwide, that helped companies with foreign operations (they could be called multinationals) understand overseas markets, they said. Far from a bastion of corporate conformity, they said, it was informal and staffed by young people making modest wages. Employees called it “high school with ashtrays.” Mr. Obama was a researcher and writer for a reference service called Financing Foreign Operations. He also wrote for a newsletter, Business International Money Report. […] “It was not working for General Foods or Chase Manhattan, that’s for sure,” said Louis Celi, a vice president at the company, which was later taken over by the Economist Intelligence Unit. “And it was not a consulting firm by any stretch of the imagination. I remember the first time I interviewed someone from Morgan Stanley and I got cheese on my tie because I thought my tie was a napkin.”’ (Janny Scott, “Obama’s Account of New York Years Often Differs From What Others Say,” New York Times, October 30, 2007) Armstrong’s view is that Obama has distorted what went on at BIC to make himself look good, specifically by concocting a moment in which he turns away from the corrupt fleshpots of whitey’s world. THE TEMPTATIONS OF ST. BARACK Obama writes the following about his career at BIC in Dreams: “Eventually a consulting house to multinational corporations agreed to hire me as a research assistant. Like a spy behind enemy lines, I arrived every day at my mid-Manhattan office and sat at my computer terminal, checking the Reuters machine that blinked bright emerald messages from across the globe. As far as I could tell I was the only black man in the company, a source of shame for me but a source of considerable pride for the company’s secretarial pool.” Armstrong refutes most of these points, noting that there were other black people working there at the time, and noting: 60 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography … after reading his autobiography, I have to say that Barack engages in some serious exaggeration when he describes a job that he held in the mid-1980s. I know because I sat down the hall from him, in the same department, and worked closely with his boss. I can’t say I was particularly close to Barack – he was reserved and distant towards all of his co-workers – but I was probably as close to him as anyone. I certainly know what he did there, and it bears only a loose resemblance to what he wrote in his book. First, it wasn’t a consulting house; it was a small company that published newsletters on international business. Like most newsletter publishers, it was a bit of a sweatshop. I’m sure we all wished that we were high-priced consultants to multinational corporations. But we also enjoyed coming in at ten, wearing jeans to work, flirting with our co-workers, partying when we stayed late, and bonding over the low salaries and heavy workload. Barack worked on one of the company’s reference publications. Each month customers got a new set of pages on business conditions in a particular country, punched to fit into a three-ring binder. Barack’s job was to get copy from the country correspondents and edit it so that it fit into a standard outline. There was probably some research involved as well, since correspondents usually don’t send exactly what you ask for, and you can’t always decipher their copy. But essentially the job was copyediting. It’s also not true that Barack was the only black man in the company. He was the only black professional man. Fred was an African-American who worked in the mailroom with his son. My boss and I used to join them on Friday afternoons to drink beer behind the stacks of office supplies. That’s not the kind of thing that Barack would do. Like I said, he was somewhat aloof. Out of these mundane facts, Obama (or more likely his ghostwriters) construct a modern morality play to burnish the credentials of an ambitious young proto-pol: “…as the months passed, I felt the idea of becoming an organizer slipping away from me. The company promoted me to the position of financial writer. I had my own office, my own secretary; money in the bank. Sometimes, coming out of an interview with Japanese financiers or German bond traders, I would catch my reflection in the elevator doors—see myself in a suit and tie, a briefcase in my hand—and for a split second I would imagine myself as a captain of industry, barking out orders, closing the deal, before I remembered who it was that I had told myself I wanted to be and felt pangs of guilt for my lack of resolve.” (Dreams) Armstrong notes ironically: “If Barack was promoted, his new job responsibilities were more of the same – rewriting other people’s copy. As far as I know, he always had a small office, and the idea that he had a secretary is laughable. Only the company president had a secretary. Barack never left the office, never wore a tie, and had neither reason nor opportunity to interview Japanese financiers or German bond traders.” Obama wants the reader to believe that he was saved from a life of corporate ambition by a telephone call from his African, Kenyan sister, who wanted to tell him that their brother (or half-brother) David had been killed in a motorcycle accident: “Then one day, as I sat down at my computer to write an article on interest-rate swaps, something unexpected happened. Auma called. I had never met this half sister; we had written only intermittently …a few months after Auma called, I turned in my resignation at the consulting firm and began looking in earnest for an organizing job.” (Dreams) Armstrong points out that what Obama “means here is that he got copy from a correspondent who didn’t understand interest rate swaps, and he was trying to make sense out of it.” PORTRAIT OF THE CANDIDATE AS A YOUNG MEGALOMANIAC In Armstrong’s view, the entire story of this turning point in the life of the selfless young community organizer was a tissue of lies: “All of Barack’s embellishment serves a larger narrative II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 61 purpose: to retell the story of the Christ’s temptation. The young, idealistic, would-be community organizer gets a nice suit, joins a consulting house, starts hanging out with investment bankers, and barely escapes moving into the big mansion with the white folks. Luckily, an angel calls, awakens his conscience, and helps him choose instead to fight for the people. I’m disappointed. Barack’s story may be true, but many of the facts are not. His larger narrative purpose requires him to embellish his role. I don’t buy it. Just as I can’t be inspired by Steve Jobs now that I know how dishonest he is, I can’t listen uncritically to Barack Obama now that I know he’s willing to bend the facts to his purpose.” Dan Armstrong, “Barack Obama Embellishes His Resume,” Here appears an aspect of Obama’s life which has since become notorious – the identification of his undistinguished self with Jesus Christ, the Messiah and Son of God. If Armstrong is right about this parable of the temptations, Obama really does believe that he is the Savior, and has thought this for almost fifteen years at minimum. Some choose to mimic Christ, some choose to mimic Napoleon, but the common denominator is megalomania, the most succinct summary of Obama’s mentality – and, ironically, one that puts him in the same psychopathological class with his apparent polar opposite, George W. Bush, who is also a megalomaniac, as Dr. Justin Frank has pointed out. There was another dangerous temptation lurking in Obama’s life. Obama had expressed his scorn for those he called “half-breeds” who preferred white people to blacks. After college, he lived with a white woman, but then decided to push her away when he realized that he would have to assimilate into her (“white”) world, and not vice versa. He later married Michelle, the upwardly mobile black woman lawyer. Obama’s choices were based on very solid political reasoning: if he had come forward to run for the presidency with a white woman for his consort, he would have been politically doomed by the resentment of black women, many of whom would have interpreted this choice as a confirmation of racial stereotypes held by black males against them, stereotypes concretely expressed in preference for white women. A white wife would have been political suicide. When the Greenwich Village poetaster LeRoi Jones wanted to become the black nationalist organizer Amiri Baraka, it was imperative that he jettison his white wife, who would have been a fatal impediment for his planned activity in the service of the Prudential Insurance Company – provoking clashes with poor Italians in the streets of Newark, New Jersey as part of a counterinsurgency scheme. NADERITE PUBLIC INTEREST RESEARCH GROUP, NEW YORK CITY After BIC, Obama moved on for a stint at Ralph Nader’s Public Interest Research Group in New York City, a nonprofit group which billed itself as promoting “consumer, environmental and government reform.” According to Janny Scott, Obama “became a full-time organizer at City College in Harlem, paid slightly less than $10,000 a year to mobilize student volunteers.” Nader’s groups attempt to carry out feasible reforms in the areas of health, safety, and consumer issues, all under the banner of “good government” – the eternal slogan of reform Democrats and upscale suburbanites who are horrified by the venality of politics among poor people and the underclass. Obama’s specific assignment was the one he has tried and failed to carry out in 2008: to take projects that were designed to appeal to affluent suburbanites and sell them to people much lower on the socioeconomic scale. His job was an exercise in condescending Malthusian elitism: ‘Mr. Obama says he spent three months “trying to convince minority students at City College about the importance of recycling” — a description that surprised some former colleagues. They said that more “bread-and-butter issues” like mass transit, higher education, tuition and financial aid were 62 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography more likely the emphasis at City College. “You needed somebody — and here was where Barack was a star — who could make the case to students across the political spectrum,” said Eileen Hershenov, who oversaw Mr. Obama’s work for Nypirg. The job required winning over students on the political left, who would normally disdain a group inspired by Ralph Nader as insufficiently radical, as well as students on the right and those who were not active at all.”’ (Janny Scott, “Obama’s Account of New York Years Often Differs From What Others Say,” New York Times, October 30, 2007) Obama failed then, and he is failing again this time in his quest to market elitist issues among those with urgent economic needs. GAMALIEL FOUNDATION, CHICAGO: ALINSKYITE COUNTERINSURGENCY Obama embarked on what he says, even now, was the hardest work of his life: the three and a half years of community organizing in the impoverished neighborhoods of Chicago’s far South Side. His job: to work with the Developing Communities Project, a church-based effort that aimed to organize low-income residents to improve local conditions. … his friend Valerie Jarrett, former chairman of the Chicago Stock Exchange, told me. Obama himself described the years in Chicago to me as the time when he “finally and fully grew up.” (Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) Obama loves to boast that he served for some years as a community organizer. The problem for most people is that they have very little concrete notion what this might mean. This needs a few words of explanation. The Developing Communities Project was an operation of the Gamaliel Foundation, the temple of the organizing methods associated with Saul Alinsky, who had been preaching community organizing since the World War II era. The Gamaliel Foundation was also a satellite of the Ford Foundation, the flagship US foundation devoted to preventing the emergence of any social-political challenge to the dominance of Wall Street financiers over the crumbling US society. Money for Obama also came from the Woods Fund, a foundation created by the reactionary Woods family, who owned coal mines that provided the coal for Commonwealth Edison, where the dominant figure was Thomas Ayers, the father of Obama’s terrorist friend, foundation operative Bill Ayers. The best term for Saul Alinsky was that he was a counter-insurgent, quite independent of his personal understanding of the matter. Alinsky’s community organizing specified that people ought to be organized locally and on the basis of the lowest common denominator, generally some petty local grievance, although sometimes based on poverty, but only if it were understood as a purely local issue. Alinsky was obsessed with everything that was fragmented, parochial, localistic, balkanized, sub-divided neighborhood by neighborhood, precinct by precinct, block by block. In his dream world, one local group of Hungarian steelworkers would fight to get a sewer fixed. A few hundred yards away, a black community group would fight the city government to get a public library. Nearby a group of women would be demanding a daycare facility. A men’s club would struggle to clean up the public park. None of these groups would be in any contact with any others. They would not act politically, would not support candidates; they would only exert pressure on corporations, governments, and so forth. Each of these tiny groups would be fragmented and impotent and helpless in a real emergency, like a depression, a war, or a police state. Above all, they would never be able to advance an alternative to Wall Street domination, which was so far beyond the local purview that it never came up – and yet, this was always the heart of the matter. It was more likely that a black local group would fight a white one, with unemployed or parents fighting the teachers’ union, or some other futile clash. Sometimes Alinsky’s methods won some trifling local concession, but often the yield II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 63 was nil. The more common outcome was that the local organizers became demoralized by a long series of defeats, and drifted off into boredom, despair, and de-politicization. This is in fact the outcome that appears to have crowned the career of Barack Obama as a community organizer in Chicago in the 1990s; after three years of futility, Obama was canny enough to depart the scene in favor of the Harvard Law School, another stepping stone in his glittering political career. Obama went to Chicago in 1985. He worked as a community organizer among low-income residents in Chicago’s Roseland community and the Altgeld Gardens public housing development on the city’s South Side. The Developing Communities Project (DCP) counter-insurgency effort was funded by the Gamaliel Foundation, which was heavily funded by the flagship Ford Foundation. DCP purported to offer job training and college prep on Chicago’s South Side. The real problems of blacks on the South Side of Chicago were the soaring unemployment and imprisonment among the area’s mostly black workers – issues that Obama never addressed. The Gamaliel Foundation’s own website informs the public that “the Gamaliel Foundation receives grants from the Bauman Family Foundation, the Public Welfare Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Ford Foundation, George Soros’ Open Society Institute, and others.” ( Obama has thus been a Ford Foundation-Soros asset going back more than twenty years. The Developing Communities Project (DCP) was associated with the Calumet Community Religious Conference (CCRC) in Chicago. Both the CCRC and the DCP were built on the Alinsky model of community agitation, wherein paid organizers learned how to “rub raw the sores of discontent,” as Alinsky put it. The element of manipulation is clear enough, even in the abstract theory. One of Obama’s early mentors in the Alinsky method was Mike Kruglik, presumably the Marty Kaufman (or part of that composite character) that Obama writes about in Dreams. Kruglik later told the New Republic that Obama “was a natural, the undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to admit that they were not living up to their own standards. As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and confrontational. With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the source of pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better.” Alinsky had told his agitators to bring people to the “realization” that they are indeed miserable, that their misery is the fault of unresponsive governments or greedy corporations. (This is already absurd, since it is the economic breakdown crisis itself that radicalizes those who experience it. The task of an organizer is to develop strategy and programs to allow a popular movement to challenge the financier elite at the highest level – state power, not petty community control or local control, where defeat is always guaranteed.) The task of the agitator is then to help them to bond together to demand what they deserve, and to agitate so energetically that governments and corporations will see “self-interest” in granting the demands of the local agitators. Obama had a four-year education in these crude Alinsky methods, which he often says was the best education he ever got anywhere – in profiling and manipulation, since these are the essence of the Alinsky divide-and-conquer method of counterinsurgency. PREVARICATION IN THE HOOD Obama paints a moderately flattering picture of himself as a community organizer in Dreams. But even here, he has faced charges of embroidering and embellishing his record to make himself look good. The criticism comes from the long-time local activist Hazel Johnson, who has disputed the account of events at Altgeld Gardens that Obama put into his book, and which he has repeated at 64 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography innumerable political appearances over the years. The local CBS affiliate in Chicago went to the Altgeld neighborhood and found that ‘some say Illinois Senator Barack Obama gave himself a little too much credit for his work as a community organizer. Obama’s past work in the troubled Altgeld Gardens housing project is a staple of his presidential stump speeches, and a significant part of his first book. …at least one resident who worked with Obama back then is unhappy with the senator’s recollection. Hazel Johnson and her daughter Cheryl are disputing some parts of the version of events Obama tells. They do not, however, dispute that he worked hard at Altgeld Gardens and say they are supporting his presidential campaign. But, Johnson says in his book, Dreams from My Father, and in campaign stump speeches, Obama gets some things wrong about the months he spent working in Altgeld Gardens in the 1980s. She and her daughter Cheryl produced a document, for example, showing Obama’s 1987 salary as an organizer in the development to be $25,000 – not the $13,000 he often talks about. There is a very simple explanation for that, Obama’s aides say. He did indeed make $25, 000 in 1987, but he was initially hired in 1985 at a salary of $13,000. And, they claim, Obama didn’t work cleaning up asbestos at Altgeld, but fiberglass, another environmental hazard. They also dispute his version of an incident in which Obama claimed Altgeld Gardens residents beat on the car of a government official they were unhappy with. “I think he portrayed us as barbaric that we ran behind CHA officials beating on the car, and that didn’t take place, because I was in that particular meeting” Cheryl Johnson said.’ Perhaps Obama thinks that the masses are after all a great beast. Interestingly, the one community source who came forward to endorse Obama’s version of events is a person who was currently on the payroll of the Gamaliel Foundation, and who can thus be located in the larger orbit of the Ford Foundation. This was the Jesuit priest Greg Golluzzo. ‘“I discussed every item of this,” said Greg Golluzzo of the Gamaliel Foundation. … Johnson says that since all of this has come up, she thinks Obama should go talk to her.’(Mike Flannery, “Altgeld Gardens Resident Who Worked With Senator in 1980s Says He Is Exaggerating His Role,”, 2007) Obama has not returned to Altgeld to answer the criticisms of Hazel Johnson. When Obama’s fellow foundation operative Gerald Kellman summed up Obama’s years of work, he recognized that it had all been a big failure: “It is clear that the benefit of those years to Mr. Obama dwarfs what he accomplished. Mr. Kellman said that Mr. Obama had built the organization’s following among needy residents and black ministers, but “on issues, we made very little progress, nothing that would change poverty on the South Side of Chicago.”14 So Obama was a failure as a community organizer. His other big project, the Chicago Annenberg Challenge, was also a failure in improving education in Chicago, as we will see. HILLARY REJECTED ALINSKY; OBAMA EMBRACED HIM Other commentators have tried to show that Obama is still using Alinsky methods in the running of his presidential campaign. One right-wing observer writes: “Obama also appears to have mastered the playbook used by…the legendary amoral guru of left wing activism, Saul Alinsky….” (Kyle-Anne Shiver, Obama’s Alinsky Jujitsu, American Thinker, February 25, 2008) In fact, rightwing writers on the Clinton-Obama contest have attempted to equate the outlooks of these two candidates based on the bare fact that they both came into contact with the Alinskyite counterinsurgency doctrine. The big difference is that Obama looked at the Alinskyite school of organizing, and decided to join it. Hillary looked at Alinsky in considerable depth, found it totally inadequate, and turned away. Hillary’s views are found in her senior thesis from Wellesley College which, contrary to popular belief, is readily available to the public. Hillary saw an Alinsky who tried to escape ideological II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 65 categories: ‘“Alinsky, cringing at the use of labels, ruefully admitted that he might be called an existentialist,” she found. [We already know what that can mean.] Rodham tried to probe his moral relativism — particular ends, Alinsky maintained, often justify the means — but Alinsky would only concede that “idealism can parallel self-interest.” Hillary tentatively accepted Alinsky’s contention that the problem of the poor isn’t so much a lack of money as a lack of power, as well as his skeptical view of federal anti-poverty programs as ineffective. (Alinsky took the facile view, shared by the GOP, that Johnson’s War on Poverty was a “prize piece of political pornography,” even though he collected funds from the Office of Economic Opportunity.) It is clear that Alinsky wanted everything to come out of the do-it-yourself bag of the local community organizer, a kind of nomadic left-wing anarchist who viewed the state as an adversary. Organizing in the Democratic Party was too broad, and might develop into an actual challenge to the ruling class, the very thing that Alinsky’s owners were using him to head off. Hillary conceded what was obvious: “A cycle of dependency has been created,” she wrote, “which ensnares its victims into resignation and apathy.” Hillary advanced a “perspective” or critique of Alinsky’s methods, citing especially scholars who claimed that Alinsky’s small gains actually delayed attainment of bigger goals for the poor and minorities. Hillary noted the “few material gains” that Alinsky’s methods were capable of obtaining, such as forcing Kodak to hire blacks in Rochester, New York, or delaying the University of Chicago’s expansion into the Woodlawn neighborhood, the very Hyde Park community later represented by Barack and policed by Michelle. Hillary attributed part of Alinsky’s failure to shifting demography and the diminishing role of neighborhoods in American life. She also showed that many projects depended completely on the presence of Alinsky personally – hardly a recipe for empowering others: “One of the primary problems of the Alinsky model is that the removal of Alinsky dramatically alters its composition,” she wrote; “Alinsky is a born organizer who is not easily duplicated, but, in addition to his skill, he is a man of exceptional charm.” Hillary’s final verdict was that the Alinsky school of micro-organizing could never work in a mass society; the Alinsky “power/conflict model is rendered inapplicable by existing social conflicts” — over-arching national issues such as racial tension and segregation, prosperity and economic depression. Alinsky never had any success in forming an effective national movement, she said, suggesting the futility of “the anachronistic nature of small autonomous conflict.” Alinsky sometimes threatened small-scale disruptions to extort temporary, local concessions. Hillary concluded that the mini-conflict approach to large-scale power is limited. “Alinsky’s conclusion that the ‘ventilation’ of hostilities is healthy in certain situations is valid, but across-the-board ‘social catharsis’ cannot be prescribed,” she wrote. Hillary brought Alinsky to Wellesley in January 1969 to speak at a private dinner for a dozen students; he expressed dissatisfaction with New Left protesters such as the Students for a Democratic Society. Rodham closed her thesis with the obligatory flourish by saying that she reserved a place for Alinsky in the pantheon of social justice activists next to Martin Luther King, Walt Whitman, and perennial socialist presidential candidate Eugene Debs. She also ironically suggested that Alinsky was a part of the establishment: “In spite of his being featured in the Sunday New York Times,” she wrote, “and living a comfortable, expenses-paid life, he considers himself a revolutionary. In a very important way he is. If the ideals Alinsky espouses were actualized, the result would be social revolution. Ironically, this is not a disjunctive projection if considered in the tradition of Western democratic theory. In the first chapter it was pointed out that Alinsky is regarded by many as the proponent of a dangerous socio/political philosophy. As such, he has been feared — because each embraced the most radical of political faiths — democracy.”’ (Bill Dedman, 66 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography “Reading Hillary Clinton’s Hidden Thesis,” MSNBC, May. 9, 2007) Alinsky offered Hillary a job as a community organizer, which she had the good sense to refuse. Obama later accepted just such a job from the Gamaliel Foundation after Alinsky’s death.15 OBAMA’S ROOTS TRIP TO KENYA After quitting his job as a community organizer, Obama decided to make his obligatory pilgrimage to Kenya, where he had never been. By this time his father was deceased. He traveled by way of London. A conversation about political and economic conditions in Africa with a young Englishman in the airplane gives Obama another chance to reflect on his favorite obsession, race. Here he found yet another opportunity to reflect on his “own uneasy status: a Westerner not entirely at home in the West, an African on his way to a land full of strangers.” (Dreams 310) He has an opportunity to travel around Europe for three weeks in a grand tour that most American middle class families of whatever race were already unable to provide for their children, or for themselves in retirement. Obama tells us that he visited London, Paris, Madrid, and Rome, and then concluded that it was all a terrible mistake: …by the end of the first week I realized that I’d made a mistake. It wasn’t that Europe wasn’t beautiful; everything was just as I’d imagined it. It just wasn’t mine. I felt as if I were living out someone else’s romance; the incompleteness of my own history stood between me and the sites I saw like a hard pane of glass. I began to suspect that my European stop was just one more means of delay, one more attempt to avoid coming to terms with the Old Man. Stripped of language, stripped of work and routine – stripped even of the racial obsessions to which I’d become accustomed and which I had taken (perversely) as a sign of my own maturation – I had been forced to look inside myself and had found only a great emptiness there. (Dreams 301- 302) Obama, we see, was a convinced existentialist. OBAMA AND THE DECLINE OF THE WEST Here Obama’s racist psychopathology is displayed in the sharpest relief. Had he already been imbibing Wright’s hate-mongering theories about the Italian garlic noses and the inferiority of the Irish? Europe represents a huge chunk of the historical experience of humanity as a whole, but Obama’s racist obsession leads him to conclude that it does not belong to him – despite the obvious facts that the language, institutions, science, technology, and all the related components of his life derive from European models. Obama rejects what he sees, and clings to the empty abstraction of Afrocentrism, albeit tinged with a heavy dose of existentialism. If he had gone to China, Obama would not have pondered that the majority of the man-days lived by humanity have probably been Chinese; he would have rejected China too, on the same explicitly racist grounds. Obama explicitly rejects the unity and wholeness of human history. He imagines that history is made up of a series of self-contained and hermetically sealed races, and that no race exercises any influence over the internal life of another race. With this, historical reality goes out the window, and is sure to be replaced by racist myths. Obama turns out to be close to the pre-fascist pessimist Oswald Spengler, the 1920s theoretician of the Decline of the West, who also thought of each Kultur as being axiomatically independent of and untouched by all the others, with each one living out its own appointed life span. Obama’s contemptuous dismissal of Europe obliges us to label him as a fanatic and an incurable racist. II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 67 Obama’s maître à penser Jeremiah Wright has mocked and derided European classical music in general and Georg Friedrich Handel in particular. The common ground between Obama and Wright, which some have suspected even as others indignantly denied it, turns out to be quite substantial. Turning away from Europe, Obama was confronted with the pervasive polygamy of his own father, his own tribe, and his own Kenyan ancestors. Obama’s 40-year-old cousin Said Hussein Obama later recalled, “My cousin found it difficult when he came here to learn his six half-brothers and sisters were born to four different mothers.” In reality, the number of Obama Senior’s offspring may be even greater, as we have already seen. “The person who made me proudest of all,” Obama added in his memoir, “was Roy. Actually, now we call him Abongo, his Luo name, for two years ago he decided to reassert his African heritage. He converted to Islam, and has sworn off pork and tobacco and alcohol.” (Dreams 441) This Abongo “Roy” Obama is a Luo activist and a militant Muslim who now contends that the black man must “liberate himself from the poisoning influences of European culture.” In other words, Roy has also embraced Fanon. Roy has called on his younger half-brother to embrace his African heritage. (Dreams 441) Roy’s role, if any, in the violent tribal conflict which has been convulsing Kenya in 2007-2008 is not known. HARVARD LAW SCHOOL: ANOTHER WALL OF SECRECY, 1988-1991 Obama then entered Harvard Law School in 1988. In February 1990, he was elected the first African-American editor of the Harvard Law Review, and received a first wave of positive publicity in the New York Times. Obama graduated from Harvard Law magna cum laude in 1991. Obama’s professors were aware that he was slippery: “He then and now is very hard to pin down,” said Kenneth Mack, then a classmate and now a professor at the law school. Becoming the first black president of the law review was a highly political process, and not only an academic or technical one. Winning the position was a matter of political finesse, and clearly of some successful manipulation. “He was able to work with conservatives as well as liberals,” says Obama’s friend Michael Froman, who is currently an executive at Citigroup. Obama’s greatest fan appears to have been Professor Laurence Tribe, the Carl M. Loeb Professor at Harvard University. Tribe taught Obama and employed him as a research assistant. He remembers him as a “brilliant, personable, and obviously unique” person. Tribe said that Obama’s theoretical perspective on applying modern physics to law was “very impressive.” Obama never talks about this theory, but it reeks of the unbridled relativism that can make of the Constitution whatever one wants. Tribe is of course a darling of the liberal media who later argued Al Gore’s Florida case before the Supreme Court in December 2000. Tribe says that Obama was one of his two best students ever, and adds: “He had a very powerful ability to synthesize diverse sources of information.” (Wallace Wood, Rolling Stone) Obama is alleged to have contributed to Tribe’s bizarre 1989 article in the Harvard Law Review entitled “The Curvature of Constitutional Space: What Lawyers Can Learn From Modern Physics.” This is a 39-page treatise which argues that constitutional jurisprudence should be revised in a way which recalls the process by which Einstein’s theory of relativity replaced Newtonian mechanics. On the surface, Tribe and Obama were arguing against the absurd and suffocating “original intent” method of the right-wing reactionary Federalist Society. But their arguments would also open the door to boundless arbitrary caprice and abuse by removing any notion of natural law from the method of construing the Constitution. Obama is thus capable of rejecting the manacles of original intent for a Cole Porter doctrine of “anything goes” in legal positivism, which would open the door 68 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography to fascist innovation in a way that even “original intent” has not been able to do. Once again, we are looking here at the transition from reaction to fascism. OGLETREE AND REPARATIONS Another significant mentor for Obama was the black Professor Charles Ogletree, who is one of the leading proponents of reparations for slavery. Reparations are a favorite tactic of the foundations and the counter-insurgency community in general, since this ploy holds out the promise of a whole new cycle of futile and self-defeating racial conflict in the United States, thus safeguarding financier rule for another historical epoch. It is especially absurd in the light of the growing numbers of Latinos, Asians, and other more recent immigrants who have no connection whatsoever to slavery and Jim Crow. The serious approach would be a class-based approach, with working people of all ethnic and racial groups forming a united front to extract from Wall Street the necessary means for social and economic renewal in housing, health care, jobs, education, mass transit, and related areas. This is exactly what the reparations issue is designed to prevent. When Wright went to the National Press Club, the only specific demand he made was for an apology for slavery. It is widely assumed that such an apology, while fully justified in itself, would be seized on by the foundation-funded affirmative action black overclass to demand reparations, of which the black overclass would receive the lion’s share, while the inner-city ghetto would sink ever deeper into despair and poverty. “This matter is growing in significance rather than declining,” Ogletree recently commented. “It has more vigor and vitality in the 21st century than it’s had in the history of the reparations movement.” Professor Ogletree was an advisor to Obama during his 2004 Senate candidacy and serves as an advisor to him now. (AP, July 9, 2006) It is therefore quite possible that, in addition to a global warming tax and a third world solidarity tax, a future Obama regime might try to impose a slavery reparations tax. Under the likely conditions of economic breakdown in this country such an attempt, whatever the abstract balance of equities, might well lead to the worst of all possible outcomes, civil war. We will have more to say about Obama’s secret agenda for reparations later in this study. Evelyn Pringle, who has delved into the labyrinth of Chicago corruption in which Obama wallowed for so many years, has found that the mafioso and underworld figure Antoin Rezko, Obama’s prime moneybags for much of his earlier career, came into contact with Obama while he was still in law school and tried to hire him immediately as a mouth-piece for Rezko’s underworld empire: in the arguments at the spring 2008 Rezko trial, it was revealed that he ‘“met Barack Obama when he was in Harvard Law School and tried to hire him” to be the lawyer for his development company.’ A well-informed expert on Chicago political corruption, Pringle shows that Rezko and Obama go way back together: ‘Obama says he met Rezko, when he got a call right out of the blue from David Brint, after he was elected president of the Harvard Law Review, wanting to know if he would be interested in being a developer for Rezko’s real estate company, Rezmar. Because they read that he was interested in community development work, Obama says, Rezko and his two partners, Mahru and Brint, met with him to discuss the job. “I said no, but I remained friendly with all three of them,” Obama said in the Chicago Tribune on November 1, 2006. In fact, Obama told the Tribune that Rezko “might have raised $50,000 to $75,000” for one campaign alone in his failed run for Congress in 2000.’ (Evelyn Pringle, op-ed news) In Obama’s life, there are too many of these coincidences; we can feel the mysterious action of the Trilateral invisible hand. As for Obama and Rezko, they go back to 1991 or earlier. II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 69 OBAMA’S WORLD: THE FOUNDATIONS We have already seen Obama in his role as a community organizer for the Gamaliel foundation. We must stress that Obama’s role as a foundation operative begins here, but certainly does not end when he goes off to law school. No indeed: the vocation of being a foundation operative constitutes Obama’s family business. His mother was a Ford Foundation operative, and most of the jobs Obama has ever held were with foundations. When it came time for Obama to start going to church, he unfailingly chose a congregation where Ford Foundation race theory is projected onto the plane of heaven and eternity in the form of the provocateur religion of Black liberation theology. Before we go any further with Obama’s own story, it will be useful to offer an overview of the strategic orientation of US foundation operations during this timeframe. Foundations represent an extremely important part of the social control mechanisms which prevail today in the United States. The foundations are all the more effective in their chosen work of social control, engineering and political manipulation because many people are simply unaware of the immense scale of their operations, even though every broadcast on public television or National Public Radio is always accompanied by a litany of the foundations which have financed that program. One way to understand the pervasive influence of foundations is to say that they are as omnipresent in this country today as the CIA and the FBI were during the Cold War. This is partly because many intelligence community operations of the 1950s, 60s, and 70s have morphed into foundations under the auspices of President Reagan’s Executive Order 12333, which privatized many of the existing spook activities. Many naïve people still think of foundations as being humanitarian or charitable institutions concerned with education, health, and the improvement of the human condition. Nothing could be further from the truth. Like Henry Ford himself, the Pew family and many other oligarchical plans whose family fortunes have been transformed into foundations harbored fascist sympathies during the 1920s and 1930s. Today, they are overwhelmingly multicultural, politically correct, Malthusian, and neo-Luddite in their ideology. They hate science and technology because these are seen as avenues of upward social mobility for the lower orders, and as a threat to continued financier domination. Perhaps more than any other agency, the foundations have engaged in the strangulation and perversion of the American spirit over these past four decades in particular. The late Christopher Lasch, in his classic study The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy (New York: Norton, 1995), notes the important role of class prejudice in forming elite attitudes in this country today. He describes how well-to-do liberals, when confronted with resistance to their ideas of social engineering, “betray the venomous hatred that lies not far beneath the smiling face of upper-middle-class benevolence,” and turn on those who “just don’t get it.” (Lasch, 28) The result is an academic culture which appears to be contemptuous of the human potential of vast strata of the American population. This is the kind of mentality which we can see in Obama’s infamous San Francisco “Bittergate” rant. This is a condensed version of the elitist and left authoritarian mental world of the pro-oligarchical foundation bureaucrats. In order to understand Obama’s mentality and the decisions he might make as the head of the future regime, we are therefore obliged to review some critical points about the recent historical record of the Ford Foundation and its satellites. Most discussions of Obama’s career as what he calls a “community organizer” are crippled by a total lack of historical background on the Ford Foundation and its satellites, and further by any comprehension of the goals of foundation-funded social engineering. Because Obama is so totally a product of the Ford Foundation and the foundation world of which it is the center, we will have to 70 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography repeat several times in this volume that the main purpose of these foundations by the latter half of the 20th century was to exercise social control, so as to perpetuate the uncontested political domination of Wall Street financial interests over the legitimate aspirations of the various ethnic groups, economic strata, and other components of the American population. The watchword of the Ford Foundation is Divide and Conquer. The goal of its projects is always to play one group in the population against some other group so as to create conflict, strife, and division, so that the Wall Street interests can emerge unscathed and triumph. The individual foundation grant officers involved in this process may well be motivated by some hallucination of Marxism, multiculturalism, or political correctness, but it is not these values which the foundations finally serve: their goal is to disrupt and abort the emergence of anything approaching a politically conscious united front of the American people capable of demanding radical economic reforms, and especially to ward off a revival of the New Deal, new political formations based on economic populism, a Marshall Plan for the cities, including the urban ethnic minority populations, and so forth. POVERTY PIMPS FOR THE FOUNDATIONS When Obama says that he was a community organizer, it would be far more accurate to say that he was a poverty pimp for the Ford Foundation network, a paid race-monger whose job it was to organize politically naïve and desperate groups on the south side of Chicago into corporatist, deadend, fragmented, parochial projects from which they would derive little or no benefit, and the goal of which was simply to use up enough of their lives in futility until they dropped out altogether in despair. The only exception to this was the use of these community control or local control or community action advocacy projects as political pawns against certain state and local political factions, or as battering rams against other groups of working people, above all trade unions made up of municipal employees, especially teachers. This is where Obama learned to support “merit pay” as a weapon against teachers’ unions. In order to understand the foundation world, it is necessary to recall that these foundations generally represent the family fortunes of industrialists and businessmen of the 19th and early 20th centuries – the robber barons – which have been placed into tax-free status as charitable trusts, all the while perpetuating the urge for power of their founders. The foundations represent family fortunes or fondi which have attained a kind of oligarchical immortality by transcending the mere biological existence of the individuals and families who created them, and becoming permanent institutions destined to endure indefinitely. These foundations once upon a time had to maintain some credibility by funding hospitals, universities, libraries, scientific research, and other projects which often had genuine social utility. Shortly after the Second World War, there began a trend towards social engineering and social action on the part of the foundations. The leader in this was the Ford Foundation, which, because it was the largest and wealthiest of the US foundations quickly became the flagship and opinion leader for the other foundations. Foundation officers represent the very essence of the financier oligarch mentality, and one result of this is that they generally all do the same thing at the same time in their respective fields of specialization. Because of this, control over the Ford Foundation represents a social control mechanism of great strength, which has been a decisive force in shaping the decline of US society and national life, especially over the last 40 years. Dean Rusk had served Averill Harriman and Dean Acheson during the Truman administration, and then became president of the Rockefeller Foundation in the late 1950s; he ‘once described II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 71 Ford’s influence on other foundations: What the “fat boy in the canoe does,” he said, “makes a difference to everybody else.” And Ford’s influence was never stronger than after it adopted the cause of social change. Waldemar Nielsen’s monumental studies of foundations, published in 1972 and 1985, only strengthened the Ford effect, for Nielsen celebrated activist philanthropy and berated those foundations that had not yet converted to the cause. “As a result,” recalls Richard Larry, president of the Sarah Scaife Foundation, “a number of foundations said: ‘If this is what the foundation world is doing and what the experts say is important, we should move in that direction, too.’” The Rockefeller Brothers Fund, for example, funded the National Welfare Rights Organization—at the same time that the organization was demonstrating against Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York. The Carnegie Corporation pumped nearly $20 million into various leftwing advocacy groups during the 1970s.’ (Heather Mac Donald, “The Billions of Dollars That Made Things Worse,” City Journal, Autumn 1996) AGGRESSIVE FOUNDATION ACTIVISM OF THE LATE 1960S In the second half of the 1960s, the social ferment generated by defeat in Vietnam, the student movement, the antiwar movement, the civil rights movement, and the gathering economic decline of the country spurred the foundations into action. With unerring oligarchical class instinct, they could see the grave danger that might be represented for financier domination by the possible fusion in a united front of the civil rights movement, the antiwar movement, the labor movement, and the student movement. Their answer to this was to promote and fund organizational forms that were so narrow, so fragmented, and so parochial, that they prevented the necessary cooperation among these movements, thus blocking them from attaining most of their principal goals. Alan Pifer was the head of the Carnegie Foundation in 1968; in his annual report for that year, Pifer exhorts his comrades [sic] in the foundation world to help shake up “sterile institutional forms and procedures left over from the past” by supporting “aggressive new community organizations which . . . the comfortable stratum of American life would consider disturbing and perhaps even dangerous.” No longer content to provide mainstream knowledge dispassionately, America’s most prestigious philanthropies now aspired to revolutionize what they believed to be a deeply flawed American society. […] Foundation-funded minority advocates fought for racial separatism and a vast system of quotas—and American society remains perpetually riven by the issue of race. On most campuses today, a foundation-endowed multicultural circus has driven out the very idea of a common culture, deriding it as a relic of American imperialism. Foundation-backed advocates for various “victim” groups use the courts to bend government policy to their will, thwarting the democratic process. […] The net effect is not a more just but a more divided and contentious American society. (Heather Mac Donald, “The Billions of Dollars That Made Things Worse,” City Journal, Autumn 1996) Right-wing commentators like the one just cited are generally incapable of analyzing the real motivations for what the foundations do; they usually attribute the catastrophic results of foundation social engineering to some misguided instincts to do good. Nothing could be further from the truth: the goal of the foundations is to maintain the brutal regime of finance capital, and this presupposes that there be no national coalition capable of expressing a national interest in contradiction to the dictates of the Wall Street financiers. The rightwingers are therefore forced to make up fantastic stories of how Marxists have crept in to the temples of finance capital by the dark of the moon, so as to advance their work of revolution. In reality incendiary race baiting and pseudo-revolutionary and hyper-revolutionary rhetoric are most often the stock in trade of the foundation-funded political operative, who gets paid good money to inflame the mutual animosities and resentments of groups 72 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography that ought to be uniting against Wall Street, rather than squabbling with each other for some petty and futile local concession. Barack Hussein Obama is precisely one of these foundation-funded political operatives or poverty pimps. The Ford Foundation became more aggressive in its social engineering and more radical in its methods in order to ward off the threat which was latently present in the political upsurge of the late 1960s: ‘From its start, Ford aimed to be different, eschewing medical research and public health in favor of social issues such as First Amendment restrictions and undemocratic concentrations of power, economic problems, world peace, and social science. […] But by the early 1960s, the trustees started clamoring for a more radical vision; according to Richard Magat, a Ford employee, they demanded “action-oriented rather than research-oriented” programs that would “test the outer edges of advocacy and citizen participation.”’ (Heather Mac Donald) FORD FOUNDATION COMMUNITY ACTION AND THE 1960s GHETTO RIOTS The beginnings of the local control-community control-poverty pimp apparatus of domestic social engineering and counterinsurgency goes back to the Ford Foundation’s Gray Areas Project of the 1960s, which was spearheaded by an obscure and highly influential Ford Foundation operative named Paul Ylvisaker. ‘The first such “action-oriented” program, the Gray Areas Project, was a turning point in foundation history and—because it was a prime mover of the ill-starred War on Poverty—a turning point in American history as well. Its creator, Paul Ylvisaker, an energetic social theorist from Harvard and subsequent icon for the liberal foundation community, had concluded that the problems of newly migrated urban blacks and Puerto Ricans could not be solved by the “old and fixed ways of doing things.” Because existing private and public institutions were unresponsive, he argued, the new poverty populations needed a totally new institution—the “community action agency”—to coordinate legal, health, and welfare services and to give voice to the poor. According to Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan… Ford “proposed nothing less than institutional change in the operation and control of American cities . . . . [Ford] invented a new level of American government: the inner-city community action agency.” Ylvisaker proceeded to establish such agencies in Boston, New Haven, Philadelphia, and Oakland.’ (Heather Mac Donald) The initial phase of Ford Foundation intervention into the black inner-city ghetto under the rubric of the Gray Areas strategy helped to fuel the Watts, Detroit, and Newark riots of 1965-67. The community action projects that were begun in these years did not deliver what they promised, but did set the stage for the futile and self-defeating violence of “Burn, baby, burn,” which was considered fashionable in the radical chic salons of the day. “Unfortunately, because it was so intent on persuading the federal government to adopt the program, Ford ignored reports that the community action agencies were failures,” according to historian Alice O’Connor. Reincarnated as federal Community Action Programs (CAPs), Ford’s urban cadres soon began tearing up cities. Militancy became the mark of merit for federal funders, according to Senator Moynihan. In Newark, the director of the local CAP urged blacks to arm themselves before the 1967 riots; leaflets calling for a demonstration were run off on the CAP’s mimeograph machine. The federal government funneled community action money to Chicago gangs—posing as neighborhood organizers—who then continued to terrorize their neighbors. The Syracuse, New York CAP published a remedial reading manual that declared: “No ends are accomplished without the use of force. . . . Squeamishness about force is the mark not of idealistic, but moonstruck morals.” Syracuse CAP employees applied $7 million of their $8 million federal grant to their own salaries.’ (Heather Mac Donald) McGeorge Bundy should have been arrested for inciting to riot, II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 73 since that is exactly what he was doing. The political benefits of the resulting backlash would of course be harvested by demagogues like Nixon and Agnew. THE 1968 NEW YORK CITY TEACHERS’ STRIKE AS A TURNING POINT A much-neglected turning point of recent American history was unquestionably the disastrous events associated with the New York City teachers’ strike of 1968. These events have almost been forgotten, one suspects, because no foundation is eager to dredge them up. Contemporary observers, however, were clear that they had lived through a deliberately provoked catastrophe: ‘One of the most polarizing events in our recent history was the Ocean Hill-Brownsville dispute over decentralization and community control which led to the New York teachers’ strike of 1968. Martin Mayer said of this strike: “The New York teachers’ strike of 1968 seems to me the worst disaster my native city has experienced in my lifetime.” McGeorge Bundy’s Ford Foundation’s experiment caused New York City to shut down its educational system. That city became polarized: new - black militant radicals against old - left radicals, black trade unionists against anti-union black-power advocates, black against Jew, black against white, striker against non-striker, and ACLU civil libertarians against seekers of due process.’ (“The Promotion of Domestic Discord,” Vincent J. Salandria, October 23, 1971)16 MCGEORGE BUNDY: FROM VIETNAM STRATEGIC HAMLETS TO COMMUNITY CONTROL In order to fragment, divide, and frustrate the ongoing political upsurge, the organizational forms which the Ford Foundation was using its fabulous wealth to create had to be as narrow, fragmented,apolitical, exclusive, and petty as possible. “Community Action Programs were a calculated means of keeping control. To deliver a particular point of view, foot soldiers got busy. Militants and Black Power were a joke! The Ford Foundation, through its president, McGeorge McBundy, was one step ahead and positioned to penetrate the movement. In promising to help achieve full domestic equality, they played a vanguard role and become the most important organization manipulating the militant black movement.” (Pulling No Punches, October 28, 2007) McGeorge Bundy was a Skull and Bones graduate of Yale, a protégé of Dean Acheson, and the director of the National Security Council under President Kennedy who bears one of the heaviest individual burdens of responsibility for unleashing the genocidal Vietnam War. Bundy had left government in 1966, and would stay on as boss of the Ford Foundation until 1979. For much of this time, Bundy was considered to be the informal spokesman for the US Eastern Anglophile banking establishment, otherwise known as the financier oligarchy or ruling class. Accurate accounts of Bundy’s activities are very hard to come by, because no foundation has been willing to pay for an in-depth analysis of how foundation-funded social engineering is destroying this country. Bundy was, in short, a butcher, but he was also a sophisticated ruling-class political operative. Bundy was a slightly younger colleague of the generation of self-styled “wise men” who had reorganized the Anglo-American world empire in the wake of World War II. Bundy was a dyed-inthe- wool, hereditary, silver-spoon oligarch, who was conscious of representing one of the most powerful and aggressive centers of imperialist social engineering. ‘David Halberstam was correct to quote one of McGeorge Bundy’s colleagues as stating that Bundy “... is a very special type, an elitist, part of a certain breed of men whose continuity is to themselves, a line to each other and not the country.”’ (Vincent J. Salandria, “The Promotion of Domestic Discord,” an address at the 74 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography conference of the New England Branch of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, October 23, 1971) Bundy was determined to ram through the Ford Foundation counterinsurgency strategy, whatever the cost to New York City and its people: as one student of these events observes, ‘McGeorge Bundy was not a man given to self-doubt. (He once cut off discussion at a foundation meeting by announcing to a group of program officers: “Look, I’m settled about this. Let’s not talk about it any more. I may be wrong, but I’m not in doubt.”) And if he had second thoughts about the path down which he was taking the foundation, he did not express them at the time. Indeed, his speeches and writings in that period showed a confident determination to continue working with black militants.’ (“McGeorge Bundy: How the Establishment’s Man Tackled America’s Problem with Race,” Tamar Jacoby) 17 GONZALEZ: FORD FOUNDATION “REVERSE RACISM” AMONG LATINOS Bundy started by revamping the grant priorities inside the Ford Foundation to focus on black oppression, as well as the parallel problems of other ethnic minorities. It is important to note that racial oppression was never defined by the Ford Foundation in broad-based economic terms, such as the need for modern housing, new urban mass transit, top-flight medical care, high-tech jobs with union wages, a quality college education for all ghetto youth, and other reforms which would have necessitated a domestic Marshall Plan costing hundreds of billions of dollars. This was something which the oligarchs had no intention of paying for. Rather, the Ford Foundation claimed that the oppression of the black community was a matter of white racist attitudes, as reflected in institutional arrangements which prevented black self-determination, community control, and self-esteem. In this case, the oligarchs could claim that white blue-collar workers were the real culprits, since they were the ones who came into the most intensive daily contact with oppressed blacks. “Bundy reallocated Ford’s resources from education to minority rights, which in 1960 had accounted for 2.5 percent of Ford’s giving but by 1970 would soar to 40 percent.” The same methods were also applied to Hispanics and Latinos in programs that were the precursors of the lunatic provocateur propaganda of groups like Atzlan, which makes the absurd demand that many American states be restored to Mexico. The only purpose of such raving delirium is to provide grist for the right-wing xenophobic radio talk show hosts and other ideologues, who can use this transparent posturing as “proof” in the minds of their gullible listeners of a nefarious Mexican plot to subvert the United States. Under Bundy’s leadership, Ford created a host of new advocacy groups, such as the Mexican- American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (a prime mover behind bilingual education) and the Native American Rights Fund, that still wreak havoc on public policy today. Ford’s support for a radical Hispanic youth group in San Antonio led even liberal congressman Henry B. Gonzalez to charge that Ford had fostered the “emergence of reverse racism in Texas.” (Heather Mac Donald) Congressman Gonzalez, a real fighter who later pioneered in the effort to impeach George Bush the elder, complained that the Ford Foundation had promoted racism among his people, Mexican- Americans. He related how the Ford Foundation made a grant of $630,000 to the Southwest Council for LaRaza. He said: The Ford Foundation wanted to create new leadership, and in fact the new leaders it has created daily proclaim that existing leadership is no good ... ... the president of MAYO, ... likes to threaten to ‘kill’ what he terms ‘gringos’ if all else fails ... ... I II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 75 must come to the sad conclusion that, rather than fostering brotherhood, the foundation has supported the spewings of hate, and rather than creating a new political unit, it has destroyed what little there was ...’ (Salandria) We will see later on that the methods of the Ford Foundation in regard to the subversion and manipulation of the American Indian movement for financier and provocation purposes are virtually identical to the approach employed towards black and Hispanic target populations. THE FORD FOUNDATION VS. MARTIN LUTHER KING Martin Luther King was perceived by the Ford Foundation as a very serious threat, because of the inclusive united-front methods by which he proposed to merge the struggles of the black community with those of labor and the antiwar movement. The oligarchical class instinct of the Ford Foundation therefore dictated that ultra-radical racist provocateurs be thrown into the fray who would condemn Dr. King as a collaborationist Uncle Tom who was out of touch with younger firebrand radicals. The general heading for these Ford Foundation provocateurs was the Black Power movement or the pork chop cultural nationalists, who were always notoriously eager for their foundation checks. In a sense, in this, Ford was only following up on its own early initiative: the foundation’s Gray Areas program, working in six inner cities in the early 1960s, had pioneered the idea of helping the ghetto help itself. But in 1964 the War on Poverty had taken the notion one step further, urging “maximum feasible participation” by the poor as a virtue in itself - calling on ghetto people not just to help run local services but teaching them to organize politically so that they could bargain with the government. As the idea gained credence, the emphasis of many antipoverty programs shifted away from health care and education and job-training to teaching “leadership” and in effect telling “Whitey” off. Some people at the foundation were troubled by this new development. But they were largely unable to resist the growing pressure for any and all kinds of participatory programs. And it wasn’t long before Ford found itself paying for street gangs and avowed Black Power leaders. (Tamar Jacoby) And again, the decision to fund the most incendiary lunatic agitators was a very conscious one, since their outrageous statements could be used to fuel the backlash of the white middle class against the militants and their demands. FORD’S MCKISSICK, ANTI-MARTIN LUTHER KING Thanks to the sheer power of its multi-billion-dollar endowment, the Ford Foundation was able to create a new fad for shameless, race-baiting provocateurs on the national scene. H. Rap Brown became infamous for his favorite slogan that “violence is as American as cherry pie.” Rap also issued ominous threats, including his classic “If America don’t come around, we’re gonna’ burn it down.” This was the age of “burn, baby, burn,” while reactionary Republican strategists around Nixon and others thanked heaven for their extraordinary good fortune. A good example of the Ford Foundation sponsorship for the most extreme black power militants as a countergang to Martin Luther King was the grant allocation in Cleveland, Ohio: Among the most controversial of these grants went to the Cleveland chapter of CORE [Congress of Racial Equality]. Like even the most moderate civil-rights organizations, CORE had been drifting leftward through the 1960s. Its integrationist national director James Farmer 76 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography had been replaced in 1966 by the younger and angrier Floyd McKissick, who along with Carmichael was among the first proponents of Black Power. Outflanked on the left by SNCC [Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee] and even tougher ghetto leaders advocating violence and a separate black nation, McKissick felt under strong pressure to prove his militancy. He began to talk of “revolution” and to forge links with black Muslims; he explicitly repudiated the phrase “civil rights,” replacing its appeal to morality with bristling talk of racebased “power.” Before long, his escalating racial rhetoric had driven most white members out of CORE. By 1967, SNCC had actually expelled whites, and in July CORE deleted the word “multiracial” from its constitution. With this, it dropped all pretense that it was pursuing integration or the hope of progress based on racial harmony. None of this apparently bothered the Ford Foundation, which announced two weeks later - even as the Newark ghetto erupted in riots - that it was giving $175,000 to CORE’s Cleveland chapter. Bundy explained at a press conference that his board had considered the grant “with particular care.” (In fact among some 16 trustees, only Henry Ford himself had expressed any doubts.) What’s more, said Bundy, “neither Mr. McKissick nor I suppose that this grant requires the two of us - or our organizations - to agree on all public questions.” The foundation had chosen Cleveland because it had been particularly hard hit by riots the past summer; Ford’s theory was that CORE might channel the ghetto’s grievances in a more constructive way, averting further violence in the streets. The money was earmarked for voter registration and the training of community workers who were then to help other blacks articulate their needs.’ (Tamar Jacoby, “McGeorge Bundy: How the Establishment’s Man Tackled America’s Problem with Race,” Jacoby/Jacoby.html) Bundy the patrician had made McKissick the minority plebeian into his mercenary as part of an incipient war on the part of the financiers against the majority of the American people in the form of the white middle class and lower middle class. Rational spokesmen for the black community were horrified by the kinds of reckless and irresponsible agitation which the Ford Foundation was creating: ‘In Cleveland, ‘A black city councilman who opposed the program said the youths were being taught “race hatred” and that they had been heard telling younger children that “we are going to get guns and take over.” Yet Ford continued to defend the grant: “I see it,” said a foundation consultant, “as a flowering of what Black Power could be.” In August 1968, the program was renewed, with explicit instructions to include local gang leaders.’ (Tamar Jacoby) The Ford Foundation was not making mistakes; it was rather acting with diabolical effectiveness to pursue its oligarchical class agenda. BUNDY AND MAYOR LINDSAY ATTACK THE NEW YORK SCHOOLS, 1968 At this time, the mayor of New York City was a liberal Republican bankers’ boy named John V. Lindsay. Lindsay was expected by Wall Street to maintain full payment on the municipal bonds of the city, no matter what the consequences might be for schools, hospitals, transportation infrastructure and so forth. The bankruptcy of New York City which would explode in 1974-75 was now on the horizon, so it was time for the finance oligarchs to take preemptive action to divide, disrupt, and abort any potential for a united front of New Yorkers against their outrageous and exorbitant demands, which would later be carried out by the infamous Municipal Assistance Corporation or Big Mac, directed by the austerity fanatic and future Obama backer Felix Rohatyn. Bundy was able to convince Lindsay that a counterinsurgency project based on black community II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 77 control of the public schools would offer vast potential for mobilizing the black ghetto against the largely Jewish teachers’ union, the United Federation of Teachers or UFT. The result was a sinister triumph of foundation-funded social engineering and political manipulation. The idea was to give the newly created community control apparatus the right to hire and fire teachers, in flagrant violation of the legally binding contract the UFT had fought so hard to obtain from the city only a few years before. Bundy was no doubt gleeful as he contemplated the potential for busting a union in the short run, using duped black parents, egged on by foundationfunded poverty pimps: The most notorious Bundy endeavor, the school decentralization experiment in the Ocean Hill- Brownsville section of Brooklyn, changed the course of liberalism by fracturing the black- Jewish civil rights coalition and souring race relations in New York for years afterward. Bundy had led a mayoral panel under John Lindsay that recommended giving “community control” over local public school districts to parents. The panel’s report, written by a Ford staffer, claimed that New York’s huge centralized school system was not sufficiently accountable to minority populations. Black and Puerto Rican children could not learn or even behave, the report maintained, unless their parents were granted “meaningful participation” in their education. Translation: parents should hire and fire local teachers and school administrators. (Heather Mac Donald) Bundy launched the program with characteristic energy and dispatch. The very month he arrived in New York, he secured the board’s formal blessing to make race the top priority. Then he got down to studying the issue in earnest. He read everything he could get his hands on and spared no effort to get to know “Negro leaders.” He reached out to individuals and heads of organizations, meeting them individually and in small groups. There were Sunday lunches at his home and dinner meetings at the elite, all-male Century Club. The Century round-tables became a kind of an institution in themselves: a dozen or more black and white men, from government, social work and academia, would gather on the club’s musty top floor and take turns around the table, each speaking his piece, then removing their jackets and arguing late into the night.’ (Tamar Jacoby) ‘The Bundy Report on decentralization contains one inexcusable folly – inexcusable because ... Bundy ... recognized it as folly ... that communities can ‘unite’ around the issue of education. In fact, communities inevitably divide about the issue of education.’ (Salandria) If this was folly on the part of Bundy, it was very willful folly. Later Obama would repeat the same divisive tactics as head of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge. RACIST RHODY MCCOY, FORD OPERATIVE AND ROLE MODEL FOR OBAMA The success of the community control gambit for purposes of counterinsurgency and political manipulation depended in large part on the personal qualities of the boss of the new experimental community control school district. As could be expected, the Ford Foundation selected for this post the most incendiary and outrageous racist provocateur in sight: Ford chose as the head of its $1.4 million decentralization experiment in three Brooklyn school districts a longtime white-hater, Rhody McCoy, who dreamed of creating an all-black school system, right up through college, within the public schools. McCoy was a moderate, however, compared to the people he tapped as deputies. Although the school board blocked his appointment of a militant under indictment for conspiracy to murder, he did manage to hire Les 78 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography Campbell, the radical head of the Afro-American Teachers Association, who organized his school’s most violent students into an anti-Semitic combat force. According to education scholar Diane Ravitch, McCoy had an understanding with racist thug Sonny Carson that Carson’s “bodyguards” would intimidate white teachers until McCoy would diplomatically call them off.’ (Heather Mac Donald) Since the majority of the New York City teachers were Jewish leftists with radical New Deal backgrounds, the most scurrilous anti-Semitic baiting was prescribed for all the Ford Foundation operatives who wished to advance their careers: Ford’s experimental school districts soon exploded with anti-Semitic black rage, as militants argued that black and Puerto Rican children failed because Jewish teachers were waging “mental genocide” on them. The day after Martin Luther King’s assassination, students at a junior high school rampaged through the halls beating up white teachers, having been urged by Les Campbell to “[s]end [whitey] to the graveyard” if he “taps you on the shoulder.” …white teachers at one school found an anti-Semitic screed in their mailboxes, calling Jews “Blood-sucking Exploiters and Murderers” and alleging that “the So-Called Liberal Jewish Friend . . . is Really Our Enemy and He is Responsible For the Serious Educational Retardation of Our Black Children.” McCoy refused to denounce the pamphlet or the anti-Semitism behind it. Nor did Ford publicly denounce such tactics—or take responsibility after the fact. McGeorge Bundy later sniffed self-righteously: “If private foundations cannot assist experiments, their unique role will be impaired, to the detriment of American society.” But if the experiment goes awry, the foundation can saunter off, leaving the community to pick up the pieces. (Heather Mac Donald) Another commentator noted, “Not the least of the political questions left dangling at the end of the tragedy of the teachers’ strikes is the best way to make tax-exempt foundations responsible for the consequences of their actions.” (Salandria) In reality, American society would be best served by a policy of taxing these oligarchical parasites out of existence, and returning their ill-gotten loot to the public treasury. FORD OPERATIVES PROVOKE THE TEACHERS TO STRIKE With the start of the new school year in September 1968, the great Ford Foundation experiment in community control and social engineering exploded into chaos, a chaos which engulfed New York City as a whole. Everything the skeptics predicted – and more – came to pass in Ocean Hill-Brownsville, one of the three experimental districts funded by Ford. Within weeks of the foundation’s $59,000 grant, the militant activists who made up the board in this forsaken Brooklyn ghetto found themselves at odds with some dozen allegedly “incompetent” teachers charged by the board with being disloyal to the decentralization experiment. (The board was largely black, the teachers were white – and even a black judge who later investigated the dispute could find little cause, apart from race, for the board’s dissatisfaction.) In May 1968, the offending teachers were asked to leave their posts, and when the union rallied to their defense, the local board went to war against the union. The union struck; the board resisted — by hiring several hundred irregular teachers and organizing people from the ghetto to demonstrate at the schools. Then, throughout the fall of 1968, the Ocean Hill-Brownsville schools were the scene of daily violence. (Tamar Jacoby) II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 79 Every institution in the city quickly chose sides between the teachers union and the black community control apparatus, splitting New York into two opposed camps. It is this kind of ominous precedent which allows us to predict that an Obama presidency carried on with these same foundation methods of social engineering will bring civil war in the United States as a whole much nearer. In the fall of 1968, a typical day brought out pickets and counter-pickets, shouting at each other across wooden police horses, threatening each other and inciting schoolchildren. Both sides organized rallies at City Hall; both spread hateful and largely racial innuendo. Black anti-Semitism (many of the teachers were Jewish) vied in fury with whites’ race-charged fear and anger, and the cumulative venom spiraled out of control. The eight schools in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville district were at the center of the storm – and many white teachers there reported they feared for their lives. But the striking union gave as good as it got, spreading bitterness throughout the city by shutting down the entire school system and causing more than 1 million students to miss nearly 40 days of the fall term. By November, when the strike was settled, integration – and race relations in general – had been set back 20 years or more. (Tamar Jacoby) Naomi Levine described how the Ford Foundation under McGeorge Bundy used Ocean Hill- Brownsville to deliberately provoke a confrontation: Why did the Ocean Hill governing board order the “termination of employment” of the nineteen teachers and administrators in Ocean Hill in such a peremptory manner and at a time when the State Legislature was considering various proposals that would have enacted into law many of the Bundy report recommendations? Why did the union react so strongly? […] The conclusion is inescapable that the Ocean Hill governing board wanted a confrontation with the Board of Education in order to fix its powers and responsibilities once and for all, and that it created the situation to provoke such confrontation. (Salandria, “The Promotion of Public Discord,” ) Significant parts of the community control experiment were rolled back, but by then the vast damage had already been done. There was even a backlash against the high-handed and elitist approach of the Ford Foundation, but this fell far short of wiping out this poisonous and malignant institution: In the end, state education authorities approved a much watered-down version of the Bundy panel proposals. But Ford was made to pay dearly for its activist involvement. Conservative journalists and congressmen riding the backlash of the late 1960s seized on the foundation’s involvement in both Ocean Hill and Cleveland. These were only two small grants, a few hundred thousand dollars of the many millions Ford had spent on race relations – for education, voter registration, housing integration and poverty research. But that did not stop critics like Texas congressman Wright Patman, who suggested apocalyptically on the House floor that “the Ford Foundation [had] a grandiose design to bring vast political, economic and social changes to the nation in the 1970s.” Thanks largely to his efforts, in 1969 Congress passed legislation that significantly restricted all foundation giving (not just Ford’s) with excise taxes and federal oversight. (Tamar Jacoby) Wright Patman was that rarity, a genuine populist fighter against the Federal Reserve and the financier elite in general. The events around the New York City teachers’ strike of 1968 partially destroyed the government of the City of New York in a manner from which it has never really recovered. It also 80 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography set the stage for the personal ruin of Mayor Lindsay, who had in effect turned over large parts of the city to unelected and unaccountable Ford Foundation mindbenders. Here is an account of these events from the point of view of City Hall which appeared in the New York Times obituary for Mayor Lindsay in 2000: Lindsay initiatives… were widely viewed as special concessions to black New Yorkers… In 1968, Mr. Lindsay responded to black parents’ demands for more control and more black teachers in their neighborhood schools by putting into effect, on an experimental basis, a school decentralization plan in several black areas of the city, including Ocean Hill-Brownsville, in Brooklyn. Studies were cited that said integration was sputtering in New York, that schools had a poor record educating black children, that it was psychologically harmful for blacks to attend schools with mostly white teachers and administrators. The Ford Foundation, among others, had urged the city to pursue decentralization, and the Legislature had agreed to finance the plan. Challenging a white, largely Jewish school bureaucracy, whose authority was to be pared by decentralization, Rhody McCoy, the administrator of Ocean Hill-Brownsville, transferred 13 teachers and 6 administrators, most of them Jewish, out of his district. In effect, he dismissed them without pedagogic reasons, and it was said that their real offense was to oppose decentralization. The action was denounced as illegal by the United Federation of Teachers, which called a strike that closed 85 percent of the city’s 900 schools for 55 days, putting a million children out of classrooms and disrupting thousands of families. The strike’s bitterness was horrendous, with threats of violence and diatribes laced with racism and anti-Semitism; Mr. Lindsay denounced the slurs and ugly conduct as intolerable. The strike ended when the state suspended Mr. McCoy and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville board on grounds that it had violated valid union contracts by transferring the teachers and administrators without cause. Later, the Legislature fashioned a compromise, decentralizing city schools into 32 districts and giving locally elected boards power to run their elementary and junior high schools, but adopting strong protections for teachers’ jobs. But the episode left a legacy of tensions between blacks and Jews that went on for years, and Mr. Lindsay called it his greatest regret. The last six months of 1968 were “the worst of my public life,” Mr. Lindsay later said. The schools were shut down, the police were engaged in a slowdown, firefighters were threatening job actions, sanitation workers had struck for two weeks and the city was awash in garbage, and racial and religious tensions were breaking to the surface. The depth of feeling against Mr. Lindsay in the boroughs outside Manhattan was not widely understood beyond New York. But it became apparent to the nation after a Feb. 9, 1969, blizzard buried the city in 15 inches of snow. While major arteries were plowed quickly, side streets in Queens were buried for days, and homeowners greeted the visiting mayor with boos, jeers and curses. The scenes, captured on national television, conveyed a message that the mayor of New York was indifferent to the middle class. (New York Times, Dec. 21, 2000) In other words, Lindsay was widely seen as an arrogant elitist full of contempt for blue-collar and middle-class New Yorkers; these harbingers of a possible Obama regime in Washington are too obvious to require any further commentary. II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 81 A CLASSIC PATRICIAN-PLEBEIAN ALLIANCE TO CRUSH THE MIDDLE CLASS In Machiavelli’s Discourses, the perspicacious Florentine secretary points out that one of the most dangerous political alliances that can come to dominate a state is one between the wealthy patricians and the poorest inhabitants of the city. This seems to have been exactly what McGeorge Bundy was aiming at, and the results were and continue to be catastrophic based on any rational conception of American national interest. As Vincent Salandria, an intelligent lawyer, observed several years after the dust began to settle, A new political alliance is being forged in this country between the super-rich and the superpoor – especially the alienated and activist members of minority groups. The Ford Foundation, under the aggressive leadership of McGeorge Bundy, is providing the major thrust for this power bloc ... This is a dangerous game but it doesn’t seem to worry those members of the “Eastern Establishment” who are involved. They’re sure that no matter what happens they’ll still be on top. Salandria saw that the scope of the social manipulation being attempted by the Ford Foundation was so vast that it implied nothing less than a foundation coup to impose a new oligarchical political order in the United States: The Ford Foundation’s support of provocateurs and revolutionaries throughout the nation is raising numerous eyebrows. Many believe Bundy, former coordinator of intelligence for President Kennedy, is fostering a new political alliance. Its effect, at the moment, appears to be the destruction of the American constitutional system. The Foundation seems to be bypassing the legally constituted federal bureaucracy, Congress and state and local governments in order to build a movement of revolutionary proletarians.’ (Salandria, “The Promotion of Public Discord.”) It was clear that the teachers and the black parents were essentially fighting each other for a share of a pie of economic concessions that was rapidly shrinking because of the incipient economic decline and deindustrialization of the United States. These two groups would have had everything to gain by forming an alliance to extract urgently needed concessions from the Wall Street banks. As Salandria puts it, I feel that McGeorge Bundy’s social engineering experiments with ethnics are designed to cause this country to unravel under a systematic program of polarization. Where the foundations leave off, the government agencies directly involve themselves in provocateur attempts to splinter this nation. […] Coleman McCarthy has very wisely shown the evil and cynicism behind the approach used by McGeorge Bundy. He points out the only legitimate function that the intellectual should play in dealing with ethnics and racism is to: ... explain that the blacks and white working class are actually in the same urban fix together. Instead of letting them fight each other for useless inner-city leftovers, the intellectuals could act as a referee, creating a black-white coalition based on hard, mutual needs, not any sentimental notions of integration. (Salandria) It was also very clear that the Ford Foundation continues to regard the black community as second-class citizens who had to be maintained as wards and clients of the foundation community. Edith Kermit Roosevelt describes this process: The operations in New York City of the Ford Foundation typically illustrate the ruthless tactics used by the foundation’s self-described ‘elite’ 82 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography in their drive for political power. One of the Ford Foundation’s goals has been to fundamentally change the direction and control of New York City’s public-school system. City educational institutions provide the Ford Foundation with a vehicle in their drive to control minority and ethnic groups in urban areas through dollars distributed to key personnel who will be beholden to them. (Salandria) A DISASTROUS WATERSHED IN AMERICAN HISTORY Salandria, who was a leftist, typifies the rage of Italian, Jewish, Irish, Polish, and other New Yorkers who had witnessed the rape of the city by a group of leftist elitists in the pay of the Ford Foundation. He reflects: But let us not be so outraged as to lose our bearings. Yes, admittedly I have difficulty at times in maintaining my poise. This is especially true when I hear that McGeorge Bundy, the greatnephew of A. Lawrence Lowell, one of the murderers of my Italian brothers, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, through Ford Foundation grants will provide aid aimed at increasing minority opportunities in higher education. How ironic that the Ford Foundation which has polluted the urban school systems with its provocateur activities and thereby foreclosed educational opportunities for so many ethnic children, seeks to parade as the ethnics’ friend by buying off scholars of ethnic backgrounds! (Vincent J. Salandria, “The Promotion of Domestic Discord,” an address at the conference of the New England Branch of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, October 23, 1971) The aftermath of the strike was marked by a rapid rightward shift by many of the white ethnic groups. In fact, the emergence of the neoconservative or neocon movement is unthinkable without the backlash generated by the foundation operatives through these events. There were of course many other causes, but this strike was the one which more than any other turned the nation’s largest city into a raging political and social battlefield, where reason and reconciliation were inevitably the first casualties. Every left-wing organization in New York City had to take a position on one side or the other of the teachers’ strike. The Columbia University chapter of Students for a Democratic Society split into two factions over this issue. The anarchist, proto-fascist “action faction” of spoiled suburbanite youth under Weatherman co-founder Mark Rudd enthusiastically supported the Ford Foundation racist provocateurs, and were eager to bust the union. Rudd was reportedly already on the foundation payroll as a provocateur. This group quickly joined forces with the SDS national office clique around Bernardine Dohrn, and became the terrorist-fascist Weatherman tendency. Obama’s affinity for the Weather Underground bombers Ayers and Dohrn accordingly has deep roots, since these figures represent the most militant and aggressive anti-working class figures from that degraded sector of the self-styled left who chose to support and uphold the fiendish strategy of the Ford Foundation and the US intelligence community to divide and conquer on racial lines. The Weathermen gave precious left cover to McGeorge Bundy, and it is no accident that they find themselves today at the side of Obama, a second-generation racist provocateur for the foundations. The Weathermen were the most violent of those who wanted radical politics to follow the line dictated by the oligarchical foundations. So it is not surprising to find Ayers and Dohrn as darlings and grant recipients of the foundations today, even as they act as the core of Obama’s support network. The pro-labor part of the Columbia SDS chapter was the part already known as the Labor Committee, and soon expanded to other cities as the New York-Philadelphia Labor Committees, and then as the National Caucus of Labor Committees; the present author was a member of the II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 83 Cornell University branch in Ithaca, New York, starting in September 1968. The issues of those days are still central today, despite Obama’s attempt to push them out of public view. The methods used by McGeorge Bundy in New York City in 1968 to exacerbate racial conflict are essentially identical to the underlying approach of the Annenberg Chicago Challenge of the 1990s, which was organized through a consortium of foundations by the Weatherman terrorist bomber Bill Ayers, who had suddenly become respectable as a professor of education and foundation operative. Ayers recruited Obama to be the chairman of the board of this Annenberg Chicago challenge, and this was unquestionably one of the biggest steps up the career ladder for our young Messiah. The centerpiece of the Annenberg Chicago challenge was the decentralization of the school system through the creation of local school councils (LSCs), with the same kind of community control and local control illusions which had been peddled by Bundy. In this case, the effect was less explosive than in New York City, because during the 1990s a much larger percentage of the Chicago teachers’ union was black. Nevertheless, the existence of the local school councils allowed the Chicago banking community through its political operatives like Ayers and Obama to play desperate black parents against the teachers union, against municipal agencies, and against the mayor, if that were required. This is why the New York example of 1968 is so indispensable in understanding what the goals of Obama’s operations actually were. BUNDY DICTATES AFFIRMATIVE ACTION TO THE SUPREME COURT The crowning achievement of McGeorge Bundy’s career was doubtless his success in engineering a majority on the United States Supreme Court in favor of affirmative action programs by which token numbers of organic black intellectuals and community leaders would be co-opted into the elite career tracks of the prevailing finance oligarch institutions, while leaving the vast majority of the black ghetto in a situation of worsening poverty and despair. Bundy thus scored his last, and perhaps most significant, achievement in the realm of race relations – his role in the Supreme Court’s Bakke decision endorsing the use of racial criteria in university admissions. Bundy’s contribution was an article in The Atlantic making the case for affirmative action. It was, even for Bundy, an unusually subtle and brilliant argument – but if that was all it was, it would hardly matter today. What made it important was its impact on one particular reader: Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmun, who provided a crucial fifth vote in favor of the use of racial criteria. His short opinion on the case was so close to Bundy’s piece that it all but quoted him. “Precisely because it is not yet ‘racially neutral’ to be black in America,” Bundy wrote, “a racially neutral standard will not lead to equal opportunity.” Thus, he concluded. “To get past racism, we must here take account of race.” Blackmun borrowed the phrase almost verbatim, and it has stood for [many] years as the nation’s primary rationale for affirmative action. For better of worse, it encoded the key idea of the late 60s - that racial progress can come only through racial consciousness - at the center of American law. The distilled essence of Bundy’s thinking on “the Negro question,” it remains a telling emblem of all that he did to encourage black consciousness and race-based strategies. (Tamar Jacoby) With the Bakke decision, which was argued under the Carter regime, we come to the world of racial quotas, set-asides, and preferential treatment in such areas as college admissions. Far from favoring a relaxation of racial tensions and an improved climate of national unity, these methods have kept racial issues and racial stereotypes alive, as part of a cynical divide-and-conquer strategy. Clinton sponsored an extensive debate about race, and today we have Obama announcing that yet 84 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography another racial conversation is needed. Instead, the view here is that what is needed is political education based on class, poverty, exclusion, and economic decline. How can the government determine race? Will we use light meters? Will we measure skulls, as in phrenology? Will we demand family trees? These ideas must be rejected. What we can determine is if someone is in poverty, and those are the people we must urgently assist into modern, productive employment. Today, 30 years later we are in a position to see the real shape of the river as we observe the characteristic human types which this system has created. Notable among these are Barack Hussein Obama and Michelle Obama, who both assume the hypocritical stance of victims of racial discrimination, when in fact the only discrimination they have known has all been in their favor, and against the competition. Even as they amass luxury automobiles, significant wealth, mink coats, and their legendary mansion, they must parade themselves as people who repeatedly rejected the materialistic allure of the corporate world for a life of ascetic dedication and personal sacrifice in the service of high principle. They also know that at least two-thirds of the black community for which they claim to speak does not benefit, but demonstrably suffers, from this system. Because of the obvious psychological stress between their rapacious greed, and their public pose of altruism in the service of the black community, their troubled consciences require special care, and it is this care which Reverend Jeremiah Wright, Otis Moss, and Dwight Hopkins have been funded by the foundations to provide. Today Obama is running as the affirmative action candidate for president, demanding and getting unprecedented and unheard of special treatment from the hacks of the Democratic National Committee in the form of delegates from the state of Michigan, where he deliberately took his own name off the ballot to avoid humiliating defeat while saving resources. Obama demands the Democratic nomination despite the fact that Senator Clinton won the popular vote or raw vote. All this will provide yet another lesson that affirmative action perpetuates racial conflict, condemns the poor to a life of despair, and promotes a parasitic overclass of race-mongers notable for their personal mediocrity and incompetence. THE RACIST WORLD VIEW OF THE FOUNDATIONS Let there be no confusion that racial problems in the United States have proven to be so intractable precisely because they have been continuously exacerbated by never-ending campaigns of foundation-funded social engineering. Today, the full-blown liberal foundation worldview looks like this: First, white racism is the cause of black and Hispanic social problems. In 1982, for example, Carnegie’s Alan Pifer absurdly accused the country of tolerating a return to “legalized segregation of the races.” The same note still sounds in Rockefeller president Peter C. Goldmark Jr.’s assertion, in his 1995 annual report, that we “urgently need . . . a national conversation about race . . . to talk with candor about the implications of personal and institutional racism.” Second, Americans discriminate widely on the basis not just of race but also of gender, “sexual orientation,” class, and ethnicity. As a consequence, victim groups need financial support to fight the pettymindedness of the majority. Third, Americans are a selfish lot. Without the creation of courtenforced entitlement, the poor will be abused and ignored. Without continuous litigation, government will be unresponsive to social needs. Students in foundation-funded ethnic studies courses learn that Western culture (whose transmission is any university’s principal reason for existence) is the source of untold evil rather than of the “rights” they so vociferously claim. […] Liberal foundations are straining to block popular efforts to change the country’s discriminatory racial quota system.’ (Heather Mac Donald) II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 85 The dead hand of foundation grant officers has also helped to throttle the creative arts in this country by imposing their bankrupt and artificial notions of diversity and multiculturalism. These can be seen for example in the world of drama, where The large foundations now practice what Robert Brustein, director of the American Repertory Theater, calls “coercive philanthropy,” forcing arts institutions to conform to the foundations’ vision of a multicultural paradise—one that, above all else, builds minority self-esteem.’ (Heather Mac Donald) During the 1990s, it sometimes seemed that the counterinsurgency and social manipulation efforts of the foundations have been so successful as to turn the United States into a political graveyard. As Heather Mac Donald of the neocon Manhattan Institute comments, the impulse toward the activism that over the past 30 years has led the great liberal foundations to do much more harm than good remains overwhelming. In a pathetic statement of aimlessness, the president of a once great foundation recently called up a former Ford poverty fighter to ask plaintively where all the social movements had gone.’ (Heather Mac Donald) 1980s COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIONS AND COLLABORATIVES: OBAMA’S BACKGROUND By the time Barack Hussein Obama arrived on the foundations scene in the mid-1980s, the original community action/community control/local control counterinsurgency strategy of the foundation community had somewhat evolved into community development corporations. These CDCs were first of all a reflection of the fact that economic conditions had become much more desperate as a result of rampant economic misrule under the Reagan regime. The trade union movement in its traditional form had now been largely broken. The CDCs were basically apolitical, in that they presuppose that any attempt to change the policies of the government in Washington was hopeless, and that the most that could be attempted was to make the slide into deindustrialization and poverty a little more comfortable. The CDCs were also corporatist in the strict sense borrowed from the Mussolini fascist corporate state: as an organizational form, they brought together workers, bankers, foundation bureaucrats, and government officials in an attempt to cajole corporate interests into creating a few jobs in poverty-stricken and blighted neighborhoods. Alternatively, they sought some minor reform such as measures to reduce asbestos or lead poisoning in schools and public buildings. This is precisely the strategy which Barack Hussein Obama was implementing for the Gamaliel foundation, a satellite of the Ford Foundation, in the Altgeld neighborhood on the south side of Chicago. Obama was therefore a second-generation poverty pimp carrying out an overtly corporatist political plan designed to maintain the control of bankers and financiers over the city of Chicago in just the same way that McGeorge Bundy had done this in New York. Ford never exactly repudiated community control – or Black Power. Nor did it give up entirely on Bundy’s paradoxical idea that the best way to spur integration was to bolster separate black institutions and strengthen black identities. Yet Bundy and his officers quietly retreated to a far safer form of black institution-building – investment and grants for ghetto-based enterprises known as “community development corporations.” […] The theory is simple: Ford - and the government and private lenders - funnel money to a local nonprofit “board” that builds up the neighborhood and tries to attract business. These businesses create jobs, while the “corporation” – acting as a kind of local government – provides an array of social services. In the past 20 86 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography years, Ford has spent some $200 million on what it now estimates to be 2000 CDCs. The difference between today’s CDC and the community activism of the 1960s is small but critical: participation is still the key word, but the emphasis is on substantive participation – community involvement in a particular activity like rehabilitating local housing – rather than on participation for participation’s sake. Success is hard to measure. Few of these “corporations” could exist without outside support: yet to Ford and to the communities that host them, they represent an important kind of “self-help.” And that, for the moment, is still the most urgent priority – with the goal of integration still deferred indefinitely. (Tamar Jacoby) This is the kind of thing Obama is talking about when he claims that he was trying to organize a community to bring back jobs that had been lost when a steel mill shut down. The way to create jobs is to organize politically and expand the New Deal policies which have been proven effective in creating high technology jobs at union wages. Instead, Obama offered an exercise in futility leading to no tangible gains and the burnout of most of his main cadre, which was the plan. These community development corporations were also termed “collaboratives.” Once again, the scale of organization is always minuscule, the dominant ideology localist in the extreme, and the chances of any success asymptotically approaching zero. The collaboratives also include an attempt to wipe out prevailing moral values in the target population, which reminds us of Obama’s infamous San Francisco “Bittergate” tirade, in which he criticized rural populations facing high unemployment for their devotion to religion, gun ownership, ethnic pride, and the resistance to economic globalization. This is the mental world of the foundation-funded social engineer and political manipulator in unalloyed form. One analyst notes that The so-called “collaboratives” movement in community development is emblematic of the 30- year-long foundation assault on the bourgeois virtues that once kept communities and families intact. The idea behind this movement, which grows out of the failed community action programs of the 1960s, is that a group of “community stakeholders,” assembled and funded by a foundation, becomes a “collaborative” to develop and implement a plan for community revitalization. That plan should be “comprehensive” and should “integrate” separate government services, favorite foundation mantras. To the extent this means anything, it sounds innocuous enough, and sometimes is. But as with the foundations’ choice of community groups in the 1960s, the rhetoric of “community” and local empowerment is often profoundly hypocritical. (Heather Mac Donald) This is the world of local, small-scale corporatism, with communitarian overtones – this is truly Obama’s world. “PATRONAGE TROUGHS FOR POLITICAL OPPORTUNISTS” Here is another example of the same foundation social control strategy based on community development corporations as it has been implemented over the past decades in Miami, Florida, in the wake of a serious urban riot a quarter of a century ago. We quote it at length because it is important for the reader to understand as clearly as possible what cynical manipulation lurks behind the benevolent-sounding job description of “community organizer” in Obama’s constantly touted resume: If you haven’t had a couple of bloody, terrifying urban riots down the street from your corporate headquarters, the experiences of Knight-Ridder’s CEO, James K. Batten, 53, can help you capture the feeling, and lead you to one of our first “heroes.” After Miami’s lacerating Liberty City riot of 1980, Batten helped mobilize the business community. Says he: “Suddenly II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 87 there was a surge of conscience among businessmen — some of it sparked by idealism and concern for humankind, and some of it by pragmatism and self-interest. Nineteen-eighty left a sense of foreboding about what Miami really was and where it was headed. Even the most cynical recognized that no one wants to vacation in a war zone.” In the aftermath, officials from a newly formed Ford Foundation-backed outfit called LISC, for Local Initiatives Support Corp., came to Liberty City in search of struggling community development organizations to help. They found none, but they did discover Otis Pitts, an educated native of Liberty City with a varied background as a military policeman, railroad cook, and Miami city cop. After his police partner was killed by his side on a call in Liberty City, he took up youth counseling work and was running a successful agency in Liberty City when LISC found him. LISC and Pitts set up something called the Tacolcy Economic Development Corp., to which LISC provided money for plans and such, plus a small loan and expertise to get additional financing for rebuilding a looted supermarket on a pivotal corner. LISC acted as a facilitator, but the project was essentially on Pitts’s shoulders, and it had to make commercial sense. It took off when he persuaded Winn-Dixie Stores to come in as anchor tenant, after the original tenant refused to return. “I learned quickly that a deal is finite,” he recalls now. “You can’t put too many risks on one deal. As soon as something like this gets started, all the aspirations and demands of the community come together. We were under pressure to hire minority employees, to build with minority contractors, even to help start a minority grocery chain. Well, if you just keep piling up the risks like that with unrealistic expectations, the deal will collapse.” So, says Pitts, he became single-minded. “The major objective,” he says, “was to build a damn shopping center to provide quality goods and services at competitive prices in a safe and decent environment” — basically the economic cornerstone of any community. At that, he did bring in mostly black subcontractors and workers. Today, Pitts’s crisply appointed offices are located in Edison Plaza, which is just what he describes. Its success has attracted a McDonald’s to an opposite corner, and Pitts has gone on to other victories. His most recent accomplishment is the 121-unit, eight-story Edison Towers apartment house for low-income tenants, a beautifully appointed, exquisitely maintained private residence with excellent security smack in the middle of Liberty City. Financed with LISC help and mostly private funds, Edison Towers is a model of how community development corporations get the job done. The financing included a $100,000 grant from the Ford Foundation, plus loans from the foundation, LISC, Dade County, Southeast Bank, and Equitable, as well as a $1.6 million grant from a developer called Swire Properties. […] LISC — basically a creation of the Ford Foundation — is far in front of the curve on business involvement with poverty. With tax credits as a partial inducement, it has assembled more than $200 million from some 500 corporations and foundations and leveraged over $1 billion of direct investment in more than 500 community development corporations across the country. In the South Bronx alone, LISC has invested upwards of $5 million in some 36 development projects. “We make it an attractive proposition for a corporation or foundation to work through us,” says LISC President Paul S. Grogan. “They may want to attack these problems, but they don’t have the capacity themselves to evaluate the opportunities, or to make judgments about these community organizations. They don’t know the landscape. There’s still sort of a stereotype of unscrupulous neighborhood organizations that don’t do anything but take the money.” LISC officials admit that many community development corporations aren’t as successful as Pitts’s or Rivero’s, but all of them counter the “poverty pimp” images from the 1970s. “We’re able to provide the opportunity recognition and the screening, and that’s been crucial to us,” says Grogan. The lesson we can learn from LISC: “There’s an appetite and an interest on everybody’s part if you can make something happen in a businesslike way, and that 88 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography says something about the directions for the future.” (John Huey, “How We Can Win the War on Poverty,” Fortune, April 10, 1989) “POVERTY PIMPS, POVERTY-CRATS, POVERTICIANS, BUREAUCRAT-POLITICIANS” The same patterns can be observed in the history of the National Puerto Rican Coalition, a group which billed itself as having been established in 1977 to advance the interests of the Puerto Rican community. In 1981, the NPRC received about 90% of its funding in the form of a grant from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development. By 1991, 50% of the funding came from corporate grants, while 30% came from foundations, with the Ford Foundation leading the pack. The Puerto Rican community generated numbers of militant leaders, but these were so extreme that they had little or no impact on elections. Leaders who were moderate enough to be able to run for office posed other crippling problems: these moderate leaders were more concerned with good government goals than with poverty issues. These leaders, variously referred to as “bureaucrat-politicians,” “poverty-crats,” “poverticians,” and “poverty pimps,” were intensely focused on the acquisition of power. But instead of using it to improve the economic condition of Puerto Ricans, they invested it in shoring up their organizations. At times they did this under the guise that the quality of life for Puerto Ricans depended on the resources they controlled, while in effect securing “nothing more than patronage troughs for political opportunists.”’ (José E. Cruz, “Unfulfilled Promise: Puerto Rican Politics and Poverty,” Centro Journal XV:1 2003) Back during the Cold War, retired spies wrote books with titles like I Led Three Lives. An honest autobiography by a foundation operative like Obama might thus have a title along these lines: “I WAS A POVERTY PIMP FOR THE FOUNDATIONS” The role of poverty pimp within the framework of foundation-funded strategies for mass political and social manipulation, with a view to keeping the American people in a state of apathy, fragmentation, passivity, and oppression, is a very exact characterization of what Obama did during his years as a “community organizer.” To talk about poverty pimps is of course politically incorrect in the extreme, but it is the only way to convey the social reality of what we are dealing with in the case of Obama. For further background, we read in Wikipedia: Poverty pimp or “professional poverty pimp” is a sarcastic label used to convey the opinion that an individual or group is benefiting unduly by acting as an intermediary on behalf of the poor, the disadvantaged or other some other “victimized” groups. Those who use this appellation suggest that those so labeled profit unduly from the misfortune of others, and therefore do not really wish the societal problems that they appear to work on so assiduously be eliminated permanently, as it is not in their own interest for this to happen. The most frequent targets of this accusation are those receiving government funding or that solicit private charity to work on issues on behalf of various disadvantaged individuals or groups, but who never seem to be able to show any amelioration of the problems experienced by their target population. This self-serving cynicism, in feeding off the plight of a group of desperate dupes who are turned into a salable political commodity, is the essence of Obama’s career. II: Columbia University and Recruitment by Zbigniew Brzezinski 89 SOCIAL ENGINEERING THROUGH ENDLESS LITIGATION There is one further aspect of foundation activity which should be mentioned, since it bears on the activities of Barack Hussein Obama, Michelle Obama, and their close friend Bernardine Dohrn in their professional careers as lawyers. Bernardine Dohrn in particular received a large grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation to undertake the institutional reform of the juvenile justice and Family Court systems in Chicago. The veteran terrorist bombthrower Dohrn was supposed to do this through a special institute she controlled at Northwestern University. This MacArthur grant to the aging terrorist pasionaria is coherent with another dimension of foundation strategy, which is to pervert the courts into tools of social engineering and political manipulation. Heather MacDonald writes: Public interest litigation and advocacy embodies the foundations’ longstanding goal of producing “social change” by controlling government policy. Foundations bankroll public interest law groups that seek to establish in court rights that democratically elected legislatures have rejected. Foundations thus help sustain judicial activism by supporting one side of the symbiotic relationship between activist judges and social-change-seeking lawyers. Foundations have used litigation to create and expand the iron trap of bilingual education; they have funded the perversion of the Voting Rights Act into a costly instrument of apartheid; and they lie behind the transformation of due-process rights into an impediment to, rather than a guarantor of, justice. Foundation support for such socially disruptive litigation makes a mockery of the statutory prohibition on lobbying, since foundations can effect policy changes in the courts, under the officially approved banner of “public interest litigation,” that are every bit as dramatic as those that could be achieved in the legislature. ANN DUNHAM’S LONG MARCH THROUGH THE INSTITUTIONS In the world of the foundations, the only ones who really know what they are doing are the finance oligarchs and elitists at the top. The McGeorge Bundy types are the only ones who are getting their money’s worth. The local people, the black parents, are dupes who are being used by the financiers as a battering ram to maintain Wall Street’s control of society. Many of the community control operatives and many of the middle and lower level foundation personnel are dupes. They are often dupes who think they are fooling the foundation bosses. Obama’s mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, the disillusioned late Marxist who went to work for the Ford Foundation, was in all probability a person who thought that she was tricking the McGeorge Bundy types by carrying out programs and projects which she imagined were very radical and very anti-capitalist, according to her somewhat diluted Marxist criteria. She might have thought that she was burrowing from within the institutions to help advance the revolution. By about 1970, there were many radicals who embarked on this same type of long march through the institutions, as the popular phrase of the time described it. What these radicals could not see was that their smattering of Marxism had in reality done little more than make them into useful idiots for the aristocratic financier types, just as Marx himself had ultimately served the British Empire. McGeorge Bundy doubtless understood all this when he gave all that money to the raving firebrand Floyd McKissick so as to create an artificial opposition to Dr. King. Bundy doubtless knew that Rhody McCoy probably saw himself as a black revolutionary. It was precisely this dimension of self-delusion that made people like this into such useful idiots. Henry Ford II obviously lacked this level of sophistication, and was genuinely shocked at what the Ford Foundation staff had become: a nest of failed radicals and subversives marching through the 90 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography institutions. Henry Ford II did not understand that these were exactly the people needed for effective counter-insurgency and divide-and-conquer operations: credible left cover operatives. As Heather MacDonald relates, Many foundations had turned against the system that had made them possible, as Henry Ford II recognized when he quit the Ford Foundation board in disgust in 1977. “In effect,” he wrote in his resignation letter, “the foundation is a creature of capitalism, a statement that, I’m sure, would be shocking to many professional staff people in the field of philanthropy. It is hard to discern recognition of this fact in anything the foundation does. It is even more difficult to find an understanding of this in many of the institutions, particularly the universities, that are the beneficiaries of the foundation’s grant programs.” Did Ford exaggerate? Not according to Robert Schrank, a Ford program officer during the 1970s and early 1980s. Schrank, a former Communist, recalls the “secret anti-capitalist orientation” of his fellow program officers. “People were influenced by the horror stories we Marxists had put out about the capitalist system,” he says; “it became their guidance.” This is the world of Obama’s mother, a weak, disillusioned late Marxist working for the Ford Foundation. In the case of her son, the magnetic power of Marxism had declined precipitously, and his outlook was based on race in Fanon’s sense, not class. This combination suffices to make Obama the most radical subversive ever to seriously contend for the US presidency. CHAPTER III: FOUNDATION-FUNDED RACISM IN CHICAGO: JEREMIAH WRIGHT AND MICHELLE White folks’ greed runs a world in need. – Jeremiah Wright, “The Audacity of Hope” sermon “What we need is the destruction of whiteness, which is the source of human misery in the world.” – James Cone. Well, my pastor is certainly someone who I have an enormous amount of respect for. I have a number of friends who are ministers. Reverend Meeks is a close friend and colleague of mine in the state Senate. Father Michael Pfleger is a dear friend, and somebody I interact with closely. – Obama to Cathleen Falsani, 2004.18 The Obama campaign is very fond of pointing to the great personal sacrifice made by their candidate after leaving Harvard Law School. They stress that with his prestigious law degree, Obama could have written his own ticket to any number of lucrative positions in Wall Street, the corporate world, or the top law firms. But this type of propaganda ignores the fact that Obama’s career was now being guided, fostered, assisted, and directed by the networks of the Trilateral Commission and its banking allies. Obama was now a young man who was destined for great things thanks to these super-rich and powerful backers. Again and again we will see the marvelous process by which obstacles are removed from Obama’s path, and adversaries are eliminated, even as wonderful and unprecedented opportunities open up for him as if by magic. It was clear to Obama’s Trilateral case officers that a career solely played out in the elitist world of board rooms and country clubs would not be sufficient to provide him with a left cover required should candidacy for political office be part of his future, as they fully intended that it would. Therefore, Obama had to be sheep-dipped in the world of community organizing during the 1980s to develop his ability to manipulate and con the people he met in the streets. Now, he needed an entrée into the left-leaning Chicago Democratic political machine, where radical black nationalists and veterans of the Weatherman terrorist group were well represented. Obama needed to burnish his resume with activities that would reinforce his image and credentials as a true progressive, while banishing any suggestion that he was in fact an agent of finance capital. ‘Interestingly, after his first year in law school Obama returned in the summer of 1989 to work as a summer associate at the prestigious Chicago law firm of Sidley & Austin. This in and of itself is a bit unusual. Very few top tier law students work for big law firms during their first summer. The big law firms discourage it because if you work for them in the first summer you are likely to work for a second firm the following year and then the firms have to compete to get you. So, why or how did Obama - at that point not yet the prominent first black president of the Harvard Law Review (that would happen the following year) - end up at Sidley? Sidley had been longtime outside counsel to Commonwealth Edison. The senior Sidley partner who was Comm Ed’s key outside counsel, Howard Trienens, was a member of the board of trustees of Northwestern alongside Tom Ayers (and Sidley partner Newton Minow, too). It turns out that Bernardine Dohrn worked at Sidley also. She was hired there in the late 80s, because of the intervention of her fatherin- law Tom Ayers, even though she was (and is) not a member of any state bar. Dohrn was not admitted in either NY or Illinois because of her past jail time for refusing to testify about the murderous 1981 Brinks robbery in which her former Weather Underground (now recast as the “Revolutionary Armed Task Force”) “comrades,” including Kathy Boudin (biological mother of Chesa Boudin, who was raised by Ayers and Dohrn) participated. She was finally paroled after serving 22 years of a plea-bargained single 20-to-life sentence for her role in the robbery where a 92 Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography guard was shot and killed and two police officers were killed. … Trienens recently explained his unusual decision to hire Dohrn, who had never practiced law and had graduated from law school (before going on her bombing spree 17 years before in 1967) to The Chicago Tribune saying, “[W]e sometimes hire friends.” I can only speculate, but it is possible that Tom Ayers introduced Obama to Sidley. That might have happened if Obama had met up with Bill and Tom and John Ayers prior to attending law school when Obama’s DCP group was supporting the reform act passed in 1988. Or it might have been Dohrn who introduced Obama to the law firm. Dohrn’s CV indicates that she left Sidley sometime in 1988 for public interest work prior to starting a position at Northwestern (again, hired there by some accounts because of the influence of Tom Ayers and his Sidley counsel Howard Trienens). Obama and Dohrn would likely not have been at the firm at the same time, although if Obama and Dohrn met before Obama left to attend Harvard Law School, she might have discussed the firm with him and introduced him to lawyers there. My best guess, though, is that it would have been Tom Ayers who introduced Obama to Sidley and that would have helped him get the attention of someone like Newton Minow. And that would have come in very handy later in Obama’s career as Kaufman suggests. (Recently I heard from Nell Minow, daughter of Newton Minow, who tells me her sister Martha, a Harvard law professor, had Obama as a student at HLS and that she called her father to tell him about Obama. While Nell contends on the basis of this anecdote that her family met and supported Obama before he met Bill Ayers, she was unable to provide me any evidence of when in fact Obama met Ayers, either Bill or Tom.) In any case the summer of 1989 was eventful for Obama as he did meet his future wife, Michelle, there, already a lawyer and working as a Sidley associate. Michelle was Obama’s first supervisor or mentor there. Obama went back to Harvard in the fall of 1989 where, of course, he became president of the law review in the spring of 1990. After graduation in 1991 he went back to Chicago to run a voter registration campaign (which would turn out to be an important step in his career).’ (Steve Diamond, ‘Who “sent” Obama?’, April 22, 2008) AFTER LAW SCHOOL: BUILDING A RESUME FOR A POLITICAL CAREER After law school, Obama returned to Chicago to work as a civil rights lawyer, joining the firm of Miner, Barnhill & Galland, an unsavory enterprise to which we will return later… He became a modest adjunct lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School, while helping to organize a voter registration drive during Bill Clinton’s 1992 presidential campaign. Abner Mikva, a five-term congressman from Illinois who was at that time Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. circuit, tried to recruit Obama as his law clerk, a position that might have been a stepping stone to clerking on the Supreme Court, but Obama declined the offer. David B. Wilkins, the Kirkland and Ellis professor of law, said he advised Obama in 1991 to become a Supreme Court Clerk. “Obama knew there was honor in pursuing that post,” Wilkins said, but Obama quickly added that it was not for him. “He said that he wanted to write a book about his life and his father, go back to Chicago, get back into the community, and run for office there. He knew exactly what he wanted and went about getting it done,” Wilkins said. More accurately, Obama’s Trilateral case officers knew what the next steps for their young protégé and asset needed to be. “He could have gone to the most opulent of law firms,” said David Axelrod, the Chicago machine hack who is now Obama’s campaign boss gushed. “After Harvard, Obama could have done anything he wanted.” Axelrod’s specialty has long been to help black candidates get white votes with a utopian litany of messianic platitudes; he also got Deval Patrick elected as Governor of Massachusetts. Obama served as an associate attorney with Miner, Barnhill & Galland from 1993 to 1996. During this time, he says he represented community organizers, discrimination claims, and III: Foundation-Funded Racism: Jeremiah Wright and Michelle 93 voting rights cases. His part-time adjunct work in constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School lasted from 1993 until his election to the U.S. Senate in 2004. THE MACHINE PICKS OBAMA TO LEAD PROJECT VOTE, 1992 Obama was now on his way to becoming a Chicago machine pol, but his drooling acolytes seek to portray his choices as reflecting a self-denial worthy of a holy ascetic. One writes: “When Obama returned to Chicago, he turned down big-money firms to take a job with a small civil rights practice, filing housing discrimination suits on behalf of low-income residents and teaching constitutional law on the side. He had thought he might enter politics since before he left for law school, and eventually he did, winning a seat in the state Senate at the age of thirty-seven.”(Wallace Wood, Rolling Stone) Obama, clearly not acting alone, but rather helped along by his Trilateral mother ship and by the corrupt Chicago Democratic machine, now became a leader of Illinois Project Vote, which claimed to have registered 150,000 new voters for the 1992 election. Estimates of those registered vary; another acolyte relates: “In 1992, he served as executive director of Illinois Project Vote! a voterregistration drive that added an estimated 125,000 black voters to the rolls and was credited with helping elect Carol Moseley Braun to the U.S. Senate.” (Purdum, Vanity Fair, March 2008) The real goal of all this may have been the