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Jews and the Communist Revolution

Jews and Communism

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Jewish founder of Communism, Karl Marx
A near majority of Jews dominated the top ten to twenty leaders of the Russian Bolshevik Party's first twenty years and the Soviet Union's secret police was "one of the most Jewish" of all of its institutions. In Austria, the leaders of the Austro-Marxism movement were "virtually all" Jewish and Jews played a "central role" in the failed November 1918 coup d'état led by Egon Kisch and his Red Guards. During the German Revolution of 1918–1919 in the Weimar Republic, the Communist uprisings included Spartacus League members Rosa Luxemburg, Leo Jogiches, and Paul Levi, and Jews held indisputable prominence in its undertaking. The Bavarian Soviet Republic was headed by Eugen Leviné and had in it a minimum of seven other Jewish commissars. In the 1930s Jews controlled a "high proportion of the most sensitive positions" in Hungary, Romania, and Poland, including the Party apparatus, state administration, and especially the Agitprop, foreign service, and secret police. During the Cold War, Jews, mostly from Eastern Europe, accounted for 40–50% of the American Communist Party's membership, and counter to the denial of American Jewish publicists, Jews played a "disproportionately important role" in Soviet and world Communism until the early 1950s.


1918 Revolution

Leon Trotsky

British historian Lionel Kochan notes: "By far the most significant Jewish Marxist party was the Bund. [...] It far exceeded other Russian social democratic parties in size and influence."[1] In June 1917, the number of Jewish Bolsheviks present at the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets was a minimum of 31 percent, in addition 37 percent of Unified Social Democrats were Jews.[2] In the 23 October 1917 Bolshevik Central Committee meeting that discussed and voted on a "armed insurrection", 5 of the 12 participants were Jews. Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, and Grigory Sokolnikov consisted the three of the seven Politbureau members responsible for directing the October Revolution.[2] According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia: "Whatever the racial antecedents of their top man, the first Soviet commissariats were largely staffed with Jews. The Jewish position in the Communist movement was well understood in Russia. The White Armies which opposed the Bolshevik government linked Jews and Bolsheviks as common enemies."[3] Historian Arkady Vaksberg observes that five Jews shot and killed the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II: "There is no getting around the fact that the first violins in the orchestra of death of the Tsar and his family were four Jews — Yankel Yurovsky, Shaia Goloshchekin, Lev Sosnovsky, and Pinkus Vainer (Petr Voikov). The concert master and conductor was Yakov Sverdlov."[4]

Bolshevik party

The All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VtsIK) formed during the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets contained 101 members of which 62 were Bolsheviks and included 23 Jews, 20 Russians, 5 Ukrainians, 5 Poles, 4 Balts, 3 Georgians, and 2 Armenians. According to Nahum Rafalkes-Nir, former head of Poale Zion, during the discussion of Bolshevik takeover of the congress all 15 speakers who participated as official representatives were Jews while historian Yuri Slezkine says that it was likely 14. Kamenev and Sverdlov were the first two VtsIK chairmen which lead the Soviet state. Sverdlov also served at the Party's chief administrator. The first Bolsheviks in charge of Moscow and Petrograd were Kamenev and Zinoviev. Zinoviev also served as the chairman of the Communist International.[2] Historian Albert Lindemann notes “it seems beyond serious debate that in the first twenty years of the Bolshevik Party the top ten to twenty leaders included close to a majority of Jews. Of the seven ‘major figures’ listed in The Makers of the Russian Revolution, four are of Jewish origin.”[5]

Serving between 1916 and 1917 as United States Ambassador to Russia, David R. Francis, noted that: "The Bolshevik leaders here, most of whom are Jews and 90 percent of whom are returned exiles, care little for Russia or any other country but are internationalists and they are trying to start a worldwide social revolution."[6] Between March and June 1919, Captain Montgomery Schuyler, a US military intelligence officer, reported: "It is probably unwise to say this loudly in the United States, but the Bolshevik movement is and has been since its beginning guided and controlled by Russian Jews [...] More than 300 Jews are (Bolshevik) commissars. Of this number 264 had come from the United States since the downfall of the Imperial government" A United States Senate subcommittee commented in the Congressional Record that by December 1919, 371 members of the 388 member Bolshevik central government led by Zinoniev were Jews.[7]

Yakov Sverdlov

Between 1917 and 1919, Jewish Bolshevik party leaders included Grigory Zinoviev, Moisei Uritsky, Lev Kamenev, Yakov Sverdlov, Grigory Sokolnikov, and Leon Trotsky. Lev Kamenev was of mixed ethnic Russian and Jewish parentage.[8][9] Vladimir Lenin's maternal grandfather was Jewish.[10] Lenin's Plan for Monumental Propaganda, established in April 1918,[11] was headed by Nathan Altman, a Jew, who was responsible for designing the first Soviet flag, state emblem, official seals, and postage stamps.[12] Among the 23 council members between 1923 and 1930, five were Jewish.[8] In April 1917, Petrograd Soviet's governing bureau had 24 members of which 10 (41.7 percent) were Jews.[2]

Soviet Central Committee

Grigory Zinoviev

Between 1919 and 1921, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was a consistent one-fourth Jewish. In 1918, Jews comprised 54 percent of "leading" Party officials in Petrograd, 45 percent of city and provincial Party officials, and 36 percent of Northern District commissars. In 1919, Jews represented three of the five members in Petrograd's trade union council presidium, and in 1920 were 13 out of the 36 members of Petrograd Soviet's Executive Committee. In 1923, Jews in Moscow held 29 percent of the Party's "leading cadres" and 45 percent of the provincial social security administration. Moscow's Party organization was 13.5 percent Jewish, three times the general Jewish population percent.[2] According to the 1922 party census, there were 19,564 Jewish Bolsheviks, comprising 5.21% of the total.[8] In 1922, an estimated 40 percent of the top leadership of the Soviet Army was Jewish.[2] In the mid-1920s, of the 417 members of the Central Executive Committee, the party Central Committee, the Presidium of the Executive of the Soviets of the USSR and the Russian Republic, the People's Commissars, 6% were ethnic Jews.[8] In 1929, among members of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets there were 402 ethnic Russians, 95 Ukrainians, 55 Jews, 26 Latvians, 13 Poles, and 12 Germans – Jewish representation had declined from 60 members in 1927.[13]

Secret police

In 1918, Jews in the Cheka Soviet secret police constituted 65.5 percent of "responsible officials", 3.7 percent in officials in Moscow, 4.3 percent of commissars, and 8.6 percent of senior officials. Jews constituted 19.1 percent of central apparatus investigators and made up 50 percent (6 out of 12) of the investigators in the department responsible for quelling counter-revolution efforts. In 1923, the "leading" officials of the OGPU, the Cheka's successor, was 15.5 percent Jewish and 50 percent of the Collegium's Secretariat members were Jews. In 1920, 9.1 percent of all members of provincial Cheka offices was Jewish. Russians made up the majority of members, with Latvians being the most overrepresented group.[14] In Ukraine, the leadership of the Cheka was "overwhelmingly Jewish" and in early 1919 the "Cheka organizations in Kiev were 75 percent Jewish".[15] Jewish scholar Zvi Gitelman observed: "The high visibility of Jews in the Bolshevik regime was dramatized by the large numbers of Jews in the Cheka [...] From the Jewish point of view it was no doubt the lure of immediate physical power which attracted many Jewish youths [...] Whatever the reasons, Jews were heavily represented in the secret police [...] Since the Cheka was the most hated and feared organ of the Bolshevik government, anti-Jewish feelings increased in direct proportion to Cheka terror."[16]

Genrikh Yagoda

The NKVD, OGPU's successor, was "one of the most Jewish of all Soviet institutions."[17] By 1934, Jews were the most numerous in the “leading cadres” with 37 Jews compared to 30 Russians, 7 Latvians, 5 Ukrainians, 4 Poles, 3 Georgians, 3 Belorussians, 2 Germans, and 5 assorted others. Jews were in charge of twelve key NKVD departments and directorates which included the police, Gulag labor camps, counterintelligence, surveillance, and economic wrecking. Genrikh Yagoda, also a Jew, served as the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs.[18] In January 1937, the top 111 NKVD officials was composed of 42 Jews, 35 Russians, 8 Latvians, and 26 others. At the time Jews still led twelve of twenty NKVD directorates and held seven of the ten departments that made up the Main Directorate for State Security, including the departments of Protection of Government Officials, Counterintelligence, Secret-Political, Special Army Surveillance, Foreign Intelligence, Records, and Prisons. Spying in Western Europe and in the United States and foreign service was "an almost exclusively Jewish specialty." Jews lead the Gulag since its founding in 1930 until near the end of the Great Purge in late November 1938.[19]

Great Purge

Between 1936 and 1940, after the rapprochement with National Socialist Germany and during the Great Purge, Stalin had largely eliminated Jews from senior party, government, diplomatic, security and military positions.[20] The majority of Jews were "not directly affected by the Great Terror, and of those who were, most suffered as members of the political elite."[21] Between 1937 and 1938, an estimated 1 percent of all Jews in the Soviet Union were arrested for political crimes in contrast to 16 percent of all Poles and 30 percent of all Latvians.[22] In 1939, Stalin directed incoming Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov to "purge the ministry of Jews".[23] Although some scholars believe that this decision was taken for primarily domestic reasons,[23] others argue it may have been a signal to National Socialist Germany that the USSR was ready for non-aggression talks.[24][25] By early 1939, the Jewish proportion of people in the Gulag was "about 15.7 percent lower than their share of the total population."[22] According to historian Yakov Etinger, many Soviet state purges of the 1930s were antisemitic in nature, and a more intense policy developed toward the end of World War II.[26] Slezkine disputes this stating that "Jews were the only large Soviet nationality [...] that was not targeted for a purge during the Great Terror."[27] Stalin in 1952 allegedly said privately that "every Jew is a potential spy for the United States".[28]

Hungary, Romania, and Poland

In Hungary, Romania, and Poland, Jews were in charge of a "high proportion of the most sensitive positions in the Party apparatus, state administration, and especially the Agitprop, foreign service, and secret police." The regimes in the countries "resembled the Soviet Union of the 1920s insofar as they combined the ruling core of the old Communist underground, which was heavily Jewish, with a large pool of upwardly mobile Jewish professionals".[29]

In Hungary, Jews were "over-represented in both socialist intellectuals and in communist militants."[30] Jewish scholar Howard Sachar notes that the Hungarian Soviet Republic existed "for 135 days [in 1919]" and that "Hungary was ruled by a Communist dictatorship. Its party boss, Béla Kun, was a Jew. So were 31 of the 49 commissars in Kun’s regime."[31] According to Hungarian historian István Deák, Jews "held a near monopoly on political power in Hungary during the 133 days of the Soviet Republic in 1919 and again from, roughly, 1947 to 1953, and then again from 1955 to the fall of 1956" and that "political personalities of Jewish origin played a decisive role in 20th-century Hungary".[32] Jewish scholar Louis Rapoport credits Kun as being a "cruel tyrant" and that he later served as "Stalin’s chief of terror in the Crimea."[33] Jews constituted "95 percent of the leading figures" of Kun’s regime.[34] Tibor Szamuely lead all paramilitary efforts and Otto Korvin-Klein operated as the chief political prosecutor. A disproportionate number of Jews were judges, prosecutors, propagandists, and leaders of the youth and women wings.[35] The rule of Kun's regime in 1919 became one of the major reasons many Hungarians backed the Final Solution in 1944, despite most Jews being unassociated with them.[32] Among those of Jewish origin that ruled Hungary between late 1940s and early 1950s were Mátyás Rákosi, Erno Gero, Mihály Farkas, and József Révai.[36]

In Poland, 7 out of 10 of the original Communist leadership was composed of Jews. During the 1930s, they composed between 22 to 26 percent of the overall Communist Party of Poland (KPP) membership, 51 percent of the youth wing (1930), about 65 percent of all Communists in Warsaw (1937), 75 percent of the propaganda wing, 90 percent of the International Red Aid (MOPR), and the majority of Central Committee members.[30] The proportion of Jews in the KPP was never lower than 22 percent countrywide, peaking at 35 percent in 1930. The Communist Party of West Belarus and the Communist Party of Western Ukraine had similar percentages. Jews accounted for 54 percent of the field leadership of the KPP in 1935 and 75 percent of the party's propagandists. Jews held the majority of the seats on the Central Committees of the Communist Workers Party of Poland (KPRP) and the KPP.[37] Of all Polish political parties the Communist movement most vehemently rejected antisemitism and frequently suggested similar solutions to issues facing Jews as the Bund, the Zionists, and Jewish religious parties did.[38] Jewish Communists claimed that "of the highest number of votes the Communists ever polled in Poland, i.e., of the 266,528 votes collected on several lists of front organizations at the Sejm elections of 1928, two-fifths were cast by Jews". Despite significant Jewish presence in the Polish Communist movement they had little support in the wider Polish Jewish community and about 5 percent of all Jewish voters supported the Communist movement.[37] Nonetheless Jewish participation in the Polish Communist movement led to the allegation of Zydokomuna which had claimed the existence of a Judeo-Communist conspiracy and had become prevalent in interwar Poland, especially after the death of Józef Pilsudski.[39]

Weimar Republic

Rosa Luxemburg

During the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Communist uprisings included Spartacus League members Rosa Luxemburg, Leo Jogiches, and Paul Levi. The Bavarian Soviet Republic was headed by Eugen Leviné and had in it a minimum of seven other Jewish commissars which included Ernst Toller and Gustav Landauer.[40] Sarah Gordan notes: "The prominence of Jews in the revolution and early Weimar Republic is indisputable, and this was a very serious contributing cause for increased anti-Semitism in post-war years. It is clear then that the stereotype of Jews as socialists and communists led many Germans to distrust the Jewish minority as a whole and to brand Jews as enemies of the German nation."[41] According to Encyclopaedia Judaica: "In some countries Jews became the leading element in the legal and illegal Communist parties and in some cases were even instructed by the Communist International to change their Jewish-sounding names and pose as non-Jews, in order not to confirm right-wing propaganda that presented Communism as an alien, Jewish conspiracy."[42]


The leaders of the Austro-Marxism movement were "virtually all" Jewish and included Rudolf Hilferding, Otto Bauer, Max Adler, Gustav Eckstein, and Friedrich Adler.[41] On 12 November 1918, Jews played a "central role" in the failed coup d'état led by Egon Kisch and his Red Guards.[43]

United States

During the 1930s, in the United States, Jews, largely immigrants from Eastern Europe, accounted for about 40 to 50 percent of Communist Party membership and at least a comparable proportion of the Party's leaders, journalists, theorists, and organizers.[30] Six out of the "Hollywood Ten" filmmakers who refused to testify before Congress about whether they were associated with Communism, and ten out of the nineteen brought before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) were Jews.  Historian Norman Cantor notes that: "During the heyday of the Cold War, American Jewish publicists spent a lot of time denying that — as 1930s anti-Semites claimed — Jews played a disproportionately important role in Soviet and world Communism. The truth is until the early 1950s Jews did play such a role."[44]

Further reading


  1. Kochan 1992, p. 122.
  2. Slezkine 2011, p. 175.
  3. Landman 2007, p. 336.
  4. Vaksberg 1994, p. 37.
  5. Lindemann 1997, pp. 429–430.
  6. Francis 1921, p. 214.
  7.  Gutiérrez 4 November 2003.
  8.  Herf 2008, p. 96.
  9.  Hoffman & Mendelsohn 2008, p. 178.
  10.  Slezkine 2011, p. 163.
  11.  Lodder 1993, p. 16.
  12.  Slezkine 2011, p. 178.
  13.  Pinkus 1990, p. 81.
  14.  Slezkine 2011, p. 177.
  15.  Lindemann 1997, p. 442.
  16.  Gitelman 1972, p. 117.
  17.  Slezkine 2011, p. 254.
  18.  Slezkine 2011, p. 221.
  19.  Slezkine 2011, pp. 254–255.
  20.  Levin 1988, pp. 318–325.
  21.  Slezkine 2011, p. 275.
  22. Slezkine 2011, p. 273.
  23. Resis 2000, p. 35.
  24. Herf 2008, p. 56.
  25. Moss 2005, p. 283.
  26. Ro'i 1995, pp. 103–106.
  27. Slezkine 2011, p. 274.
  28. Figes 2008, p. 251.
  29. Slezkine 2011, p. 314.
  30. Slezkine 2011, p. 90.
  31. Sachar 1985, p. 339.
  32. Deák 2004, p. 38.
  33. Rapoport 1990, p. 56.
  34. Pipes 2011.
  35. Sachar 2007, p. 109.
  36. Deák 2004, p. 39.
  37. Schatz 2004, pp. 20–21.
  38. Schatz 2004, pp. 20–21, 23.
  39. Schatz 2004, pp. 19–20.
  40. Slezkine 2011, p. 85.
  41. Gordon 1984, p. 23.
  42. Eliav 2007, p. 91.
  43. Sachar 2007, p. 178.
  44. Cantor 1996, p. 364.


  • Cantor, Norman F. (1996). The Jewish Experience: An Illustrated History of Jewish Culture & Society. Castle Press. 
  • Eliav, Binyamin (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd, New York: Macmillian Reference USA. ISBN 978-0-02-865933-6. 
  • Figes, Orlando (2008). The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia. London: Picador. ISBN 978-0-312-42803-7. 
  • Förster, Jürgen (2005). Russia War, Peace And Diplomacy: Essays in Honour of John Erickson. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-84913-1. 
  • Francis, David R. (1921). Russia from the American Embassy, 1916–1918. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 
  • Gitelman, Zvi (1972). Jewish Nationalism and Soviet Politics: The Jewish Sections of the CPU, 1917–1930. Princeton University Press: Princeton. 
  • Gordon, Sarah (1984). Hitler, Germans and the "Jewish Question". Princeton University Press: Princeton. 
  • Gutiérrez, Alberto (4 November 2003). Russia: Jews and Communism.
  • Herf, Jeffrey (2008). The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02738-1. 
  • (2008) The Revolution of 1905 and Russia's Jews. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4064-1. 
  • Kochan, Lionel (1992). The Jewish Enigma: An Enduring People. London: George Braziller. ISBN 978-0-807-61287-3. 
  • (2007) The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia. 
  • Levin, Nora (1988). The Jews in the Soviet Union Since 1917. New York University Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-8147-5034-6. 
  • Lindemann, Albert S. (1997). Esau’s Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews. Cambridge University Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-521-59369-4. 
  • Lodder, Christine (1993). Art of the Soviets: Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in a One-Party State, 1917–1992. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-2855-5. 
  • Moss, Walter (2005). A History of Russia: Since 1855. Anthem Press. ISBN 978-1-84331-034-1. 
  • Pinkus, Benjamin (1990). The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38926-6. 
  • Pipes, Richard (2011). Russia under the Bolshevik Regime. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-78861-0. 
  • Rapoport, Louis (1990). Stalin’s War against the Jews: The Doctors’ Plot and the Soviet Solution. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-925821-7. 
  • Resis, Albert (2000). "The Fall of Litvinov: Harbinger of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact". Europe-Asia Studies 52 (1).
  • Ro'i, Yaacov (1995). Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-4619-0. 
  • Sachar, Howard M. (1985). Diaspora: An Inquiry into the Contemporary Jewish World. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 978-0-06-015403-5. 
  • Sachar, Howard M. (2007). Dreamland: Europeans and Jews in the Aftermath of the Great War. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-42567-6. 
  • Slezkine, Yuri (2011). The Jewish Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-2855-5. 
  • Vaksberg, Arkady (1994). Stalin Against the Jews. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-42207-5.

Jewish Involvement in the Bolshevik Revolution
by John Wear
Published: 2022-12-26
This document is part of the Inconvenient History periodical.
Use this menu to find more documents that are part of this periodical.

Vol. 14 (2022)

No. 4

The Bolshevik Revolution in the Soviet Union was not primarily a Russian Revolution. Instead, it was primarily led by a non-Russian, Jewish ethnic minority that hated Russians and the Czar for their alleged anti-Semitism.[1] This article documents some of the evidence indicating that Jews were the driving force behind Communism and the Bolshevik Revolution.

Jewish Sources
Many Jews and Jewish publications have confirmed the predominately Jewish nature of Communism and the Bolshevik Revolution. For example, according to the Encyclopedia Judaica:[2]

The Communist movement and ideology played an important part in Jewish life, particularly in the 1920s, 1930s, and during and after World War II…Individual Jews played an important role in the early stages of Bolshevism and the Soviet regime…The great attraction of Communism among Russian, and later also Western, Jewry emerged only with the establishment of the Soviet regime in Russia…Communist trends became widespread in virtually all Jewish communities.

Leon Trotsky’s book Stalin, written in exile, attempted to show that Stalin had played only an insignificant role in the early days of the Communist takeover. To illustrate his point, Trotsky reproduced a postcard depicting the six leaders of the revolution. These leaders were: 1) Vladimir Lenin (who was at least one-quarter Jewish, spoke Yiddish in his home, and was married to a Jewess); 2) Trotsky (real Jewish name: Lev Bronstein); Zinoviev (real Jewish name: Hirsch Apfelbaum); Lunacharsky (a Gentile); Kamenov (real Jewish name: Rosenfeld); and Sverdlov (Jewish). Thus, according to Trotsky, five of the six leaders of the Communist takeover of the Soviet Union were Jewish.[3]

Israeli historian Louis Rapoport, in his book Stalin’s War Against the Jews, wrote:[4]

Immediately after the Revolution, many Jews were euphoric over their high representation in the new government. Lenin’s first Politburo was dominated by men of Jewish origins…Under Lenin, Jews became involved in all aspects of the Revolution, including its dirtiest work. Despite the Communists’ vows to eradicate anti-Semitism, it spread rapidly after the Revolution—partly because of the prominence of so many Jews in the Soviet administration, as well as in the traumatic, inhuman Sovietization drives that followed. Historian Salo Baron has noted that an immensely disproportionate number of Jews joined the new Bolshevik police, the Cheka, “perhaps in subconscious retaliation for the many years of suffering at the hands of the Russian police.” And many of those who fell afoul of the Cheka would be shot by Jewish investigators.

Jewish historian Dr. Angelo Solomon Rappoport wrote: “The Jews in Russia, in their total mass, were responsible for the Revolution.”[5] A number of Jewish publications, such as The Jewish Chronicle, have also disclosed Vladimir Lenin’s Jewish heritage.[6]

The Jewish magazine The American Hebrew in 1920 stated that the Bolshevik revolution in Russia was the work of Jewish brains and planning. It wrote:[7]

“The Bolshevik movement is neither polite nor tolerant; in its initial phase it was purely destructive…What Jewish idealism and Jewish discontent have so powerfully contributed to accomplish in Russia, the same historic qualities of the Jewish mind and heart are tending to promote in other countries.”

The predominately Jewish nature of the Bolshevik Revolution was confirmed by the Jew, M. Cohen, on April 12, 1919 in The Communist Charkov. Cohen stated:[8]

“Without exaggeration, it may be said that the great Russian Revolution was indeed accomplished by the hands of the Jews.”

American Military Intelligence
Many officers in the Military Intelligence Division (MID) of the U.S. Army reported that most Bolsheviki leaders were Jews. MID’s New York office reported “that there is now definite evidence that Bolshevism is an international movement controlled by Jews.” In Bern, an American agent reported that 90% of those attending secret Bolshevik meetings were Jews. The British Government also obtained evidence that the Bolshevik movement throughout the world is an international conspiracy of Jews. The official MID viewpoint was that “Jewish intellectuals have had the leading and commanding part everywhere,” and because of “the growing power of the Jews,” they practically controlled the Soviet government.[9]

International Jewish intrigues began to surface within MID during the summer of 1918. An agent linked the Joint Distribution Committee of Jewish War Relief, the Federal Reserve Board, New York Jewish bankers, and the American Jewish Committee with Jewish financiers and centers of propaganda and spying in Germany. The agent also said that the Jewish Bolsheviks who had seized control of Russia now conspired to overthrow other governments. Almost all of the top leaders in the Soviet government were identified as being Jews.[10]

U.S. Gen. Amos A. Fries told MID’s chief in 1926 that Polish officers believed that Jewish leaders, most disguised behind Russian names, really controlled the Soviet Union. Fries wrote:[11]

“[O]f the Russian Congress some 70% were Jews and the remaining 30% were largely figure-heads… real power… was entirely in the hands of the Jews who were in it…for what they could get out of it, and very few members… really believe in the doctrines which they preach.”

Gen. Fries and Eli A. Helmick, inspector general of the army (1919-1927), viewed Bolshevism as the continuation of an international conspiracy that originated with the Illuminati in the 18th century. They told audiences that the Illuminati incited the great French Revolution of 1789 and “were the influence which led to the bloodshed during the reign of terror.” The Communist International of Lenin and Trotsky was the modern form of this conspiracy, from which more bloody destruction could be expected.[12]

MID argued that both Jewish Bolsheviks and Jews in general in the Soviet Union profited at the expense of real Russians. Jews monopolized the privileged government offices and easy “graft jobs,” while confiscating the old regime’s most valuable riches and smuggling them out of the country. Jews encouraged bribery and were behind “all speculation in foodstuffs.” Despite the revolutionary zeal with which Jews dispatched the Red Army against enemies, one MID informant complained that he never saw a Jew anywhere close to the front.[13]  

Col. William Godson, one of the American Army’s most valued intelligence officers, wrote from Poland: “The connection between the Jews and the Bolsheviki at Vilna seems to be proven without a shadow of a doubt. When the Bolsheviki entered the city, they were taken to the houses of the wealthy by the Jews and apparently had this matter arranged beforehand.” Godson wrote two years later:[14]

“I am so thoroughly convinced of the reality of a Jewish movement to dominate the world that I hate to leave a stone unturned.”

Other American Sources
David R. Francis, the American Ambassador to Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution, sent a cable to the U.S. government in January 1918:[15]

“The Bolshevik leaders here, most of whom are Jews and 90% of whom are returned exiles, care little for Russia or any other country but are internationalists and they are trying to start a worldwide social revolution.”

Capt. Montgomery Schuyler, an American army intelligence officer in Russia during the Russian Revolution, wrote in an official report:[16]

“It is probably unwise to say this loudly in the United States, but the Bolshevik movement is and has been since its beginning, guided and controlled by Russian Jews of the greasiest types…”

Schuyler returned to the United States in early 1920. In a speech at the Church of St. John the Evangelist in New York, Schuyler stated:[17]

The government of Russia is almost entirely Jewish, and our United States Army in Siberia was full of Bolshevist Jews straight from Moscow. They had entered the United States and enlisted in the U.S. Army going to Siberia. Gen. Graves, the commander, had a staff that was almost entirely Jewish…Owing to the Bolshevist Jews in our army, all information that should have reached Kolchak went straight to Moscow.      

U.S. Congressman Louis McFadden documented the Jewish control of Soviet communism. In a speech to Congress on June 15, 1934, McFadden said that the Soviet government in 1917 was composed of 565 persons as follows: 32 Russians, two Poles, one Czech, 34 Letts, three Finns, 10 Armenians, three Georgians, one Hungarian, 10 Germans and 469 Jews. McFadden said that the Jews in the Russian government did not represent the thoughts and ideals of the 150 million Russian citizens. Instead, he described Jews in the Soviet government as aliens and usurpers who were not concerned with the welfare of the Russian people.[18]

John Beaty, in his book The Iron Curtain Over America, wrote that the first Soviet commissariats were largely staffed with Jews. Under Lenin’s and Trotsky’s leadership, a small number of highly-trained Jews from abroad, along with Russian Jews and non-Jewish followers of Marxist ideology, were able to make themselves masters of Russia. The Jewish control of the Communist movement was well understood in Russia.[19]

Henry Ford, the revolutionary automaker, knew that Jews were behind the Bolshevik Revolution. Ford wrote:[20]

Russian Bolshevism came out of the East Side of New York where it was fostered by the encouragement—the religious, moral and financial encouragement—of Jewish leaders.

Leon Trotsky (Bronstein) was an East Sider. The forces which fostered what he stood for centered in the Kehillah and the American Jewish Committee. Both were interested in the work he set out to do—the overthrow of an established government, one of the allies of the United States in World War One. Russian Bolshevism was helped to its objective by Jewish gold from the United States—and by the ignorance and indolence of the Gentile citizens of the United States whose crimes of omission are almost as grave as those of Bolshevik commission.

American historian Dr. Matthew Raphael Johnson writes that the USSR was largely Jewish, based far more on Jewish ethnic identity than Marxism. Josef Stalin continued this trend and backed Jewish ethnic interests indirectly throughout his entire life. Jews remained in control of the Stalinist system even through the purges. Dr. Johnson also writes that Stalin had three wives, all of them Jews, and that Vyacheslav Molotov was married to a Jew.[21]

Ernest Elmhurst confirmed the predominately Jewish nature of the Bolshevik Revolution. He wrote:[22]

During 1920, the Council of Commissaries consisted of 20 members, of which 17 were Jews and only three Russians. The Commissariat of War then consisted of 43 members, of which 34 were Jews. In the Commissariat for Foreign Affairs, out of 17 members 14 were Jews, while in the Commissariat of the Provinces, 21 out of 23 were of the same race, as were 45 out of the 55 members of the Commissariat of the Interior. In the Department of the “Fourth Estate,” the Press, out of 42 members 41 were Jewish, the only exception being the “shabes goy”—Gentile front—Maxim Gorky.                  

Other Sources 
British Intelligence reports stated that Jews controlled the Communist revolution in the Soviet Union. The first sentence in a lengthy British Intelligence report dated July 16, 1919, stated:[23]

“There is now definite evidence that Bolshevism is an international movement controlled by Jews.”

Winston Churchill, in an article appearing in the Illustrated Sunday Herald on February 8, 1920, wrote:

“There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution by these international and for the most part atheistical Jews....”

Churchill described Communism as a “sinister confederacy” of “International Jews” who “have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.”

Churchill said of Communism:[24]

It is not only a creed; it is a plan of campaign. A Communist is not only the holder of certain opinions, he is the pledge adept of a well-thought-out means of enforcing them. The anatomy of discontent and revolution has been studied in every phase and aspect, and a veritable drill book prepared in a scientific spirit of sabotaging all existing institutions. No faith need be kept with non-Communists. Every act of goodwill, or tolerance or conciliation or mercy or magnanimity on the part of governments or statesmen is to be utilized for their ruin. Then, when the time is ripe and the moment opportune, every form of lethal violence, from revolt to private assassination, must be used without stint or compunction. The citadel will be stormed under the banners of liberty and democracy, and once the apparatus of power is in the hands of the Brotherhood, all opposition, all contrary opinions must be extinguished by death. Democracy is but a tool to be used and afterwards broken.

Jews dominated the Communist secret police, which underwent many name changes, including Cheka, OGPU, GPU, NKVD, NKGB, MGB, and KGB. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his book Gulag Archipelago, lists the leading administrators of the Communist secret police: Aron Solts, Yakov Rappoport, Lazar Kogan, Matvei Berman, Genrikh Yagoda, and Naftaly Frenkel. All six are Jews.[25] In fact, every head of the secret police under Josef Stalin was a Jew.[26] Moisei Solomonovich Uritzky, a Jew, was also the Cheka’s first chief.[27]

According to a statement made by researcher Michael Mills, an official of the government of Australia at Canberra: “It is legitimate to adopt a critical attitude toward the relatively large number of Jews who, particularly in the first decade after the Bolshevik revolution, collaborated with the Soviet Government in the persecution of other peoples.”[28]

British author Nesta Webster said that Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky were instrumental in the success of the Bolshevik Revolution. She wrote about Lenin’s sealed train, which traveled from Switzerland to the Russian border:[29]

“Out of a list of 165 names published, 23 are Russian, three Georgian, four Armenian, one German, and 128 Jewish.”

Webster also wrote:[30]

“At about the same time, Trotsky arrived from the United States, followed by over 300 Jews from the East End of New York and joined up with the Bolshevik Party.”

Dr. Joseph Goebbels stated in a speech at Nuremberg on September 10, 1936:

What is called Bolshevism has nothing whatsoever to do with what we understand by “ideas” and an “outlook on life” (Weltanschauung) in general. It is nothing but a pathological and criminal kind of madness, devised by Jews, as can well be proved, and led by Jews who aim at destroying the civilized nations of Europe and at founding a Jewish-international world regime that would subject all nations to their power... Lenin, the Father of the Bolshevist Revolution, stated frankly that falsehoods are not only justified but have proved to be the most effective tools in Bolshevist struggle.[31]

Communism and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia have clearly been led by a Jewish ethnic minority. When chess genius Bobby Fischer was asked at a press conference in 1992 about his views on Communism, Fisher said, “Soviet Communism is basically a mask for Bolshevism which is a mask for Judaism.”[32] Fischer correctly understood the overwhelming Jewish involvement in Communism and the Bolshevik Revolution.

A version of this article was originally published in the July/August 2022 issue of The Barnes Review.
[1] Duke, David, The Secret Behind Communism, Mandeville, LA: Free Speech Press, 2017, p. 12.

[2] Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem, Israel: Keter Publishing House Ltd., 1971, Vol. 5, pp. 792-793.

[3] Trotsky, Leon, Stalin: An Appraisal of the Man and His Influence, translated by Charles Malamuth, London: MacGibbon & Kee, 1968.

[4] Rapoport, Louis, Stalin’s War Against the Jews: The Doctors’ Plot and the Soviet Solution, New York: The Free Press, 1990, pp. 30-31.

[5] Rappoport, Angelo S., The Pioneers of the Russian Revolution, London: Stanley, Paul and Co., 1918, p. 250.

[6] Ben-Shlomo, B. Z., “Reporting on Lenin’s Jewish Roots,” Jewish Chronicle, July 26, 1991, p. 2.

[7] The American Hebrew, Sept. 10, 1920, pp. 434, 507.

[8] Elmhurst, Ernest F., The World Hoax, 1938, p. 41.

[9] Bendersky, Joseph W., The “Jewish Threat”: Anti-Semitic Politics of the U.S. Army, New York: Basic Books, 2000, pp. 60, 69, 116, 118.

[10] Ibid., pp. 55-58.

[11] Ibid., p. 199.

[12] Ibid., p. 14.

[13] Ibid., p. 118.

[14] Ibid., pp. xii-xiii.

[15] Francis, David R., Russia from the American Embassy, New York: C. Scribner’s & Sons, 1921, p. 214.

[16] U.S. National Archives, Record Group 120: Records of the American Expeditionary Forces, June 9, 1919.

[17] Elmhurst, Ernest F., The World Hoax, 1938, p. 36.

[18] Fighting the Federal Reserve: The Controversial Life and Works of Congressman Louis Thomas McFadden: New Brunswick, NJ: Global Communications, 2011, pp. 511-512.

[19] Beaty, John, The Iron Curtain Over America, Dallas, TX: Wilkinson Publishing Company, 1955, p. 28.

[20] Ford, Henry, The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem, Boring, OR: CPA Book Publisher, 128.

[21] Johnson, Matthew Raphael, The Soviet Experiment: Challenging the Apologists for Communist Tyranny, Upper Marlboro, MD: The Barnes Review, 2019, pp. 72-73.

[22] Elmhurst, Ernest F., The World Hoax, 1938, p. 40.      

[23] National Archives, Dept. of State Decimal File, 1910-1929, file 861.00/5067.

[24] Fish, Hamilton, FDR The Other Side of the Coin: How We Were Tricked into World War II, New York: Vantage Press, 1976, p. 51.

[25] Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1975, p. 79.

[26] Greife, Hermann, Jewish-Run Concentration Camps in the Soviet Union, p. 1.

[27] Duke, David, The Secret Behind Communism, Mandeville, LA: Free Speech Press, 2017, p. 91.

[28] The Forward, March 10, 2000.

[29] Webster, Nesta H., The Surrender of an Empire, London: Boswell Printing and Publishing, 1931, p. 77.

[30] Ibid., p. 73.

[31] Goebbels, Joseph, Communism with the Mask Off and Bolshevism in Theory and Practice, Ostara Publications, 2013, pp. 31, 33.

[32] Brady, Frank, Endgame: Bobby Fischer’s Remarkable Rise and Fall—from America’s Brightest Prodigy to the Edge of Madness, New York: Crown Publishers, 2011, p. 249.

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